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Les  mots  sont  le  lien  des  societes,  le  v^hicule  ties  lumieres,  la 
base  des  sciences,  les  d^positaires  des  d^couvertesd'une  Nation,  de 
son  savoir,  de  sa  politesse,  de  ses  idees :  la  connoissance  des  mots 
est  done  un  moyen  indispensable  pour  acque'rir  celle  des  choses ; 
de-1^  ces  OuATages  appelle's  Dictionnaires,  Vocabulaires  ou  Glos- 
saires,  qui  ofFrent  I'etendue  des  connoissances  de  chaque  Peuple. 









Albion  Place,  '6lst.  December,  1821. 



The  eluciuation  of  language,  and  the  improvement  of  lexico- 
graphy, are  investigations  that  have  occupied  t!ie  attention, 
and  engaged  the  pens  of  many  men  distinguislietl  for  talents 
and  learning. 

First  impressions,  and  early  associations,  are  difRcidt  to  re- 
move. In  our  youth  we  are  instructed  to  regard  the  Greeks 
and  the  Romans  as  the  greatest,  the  wisest,  and  the  most 
polished  of  Nations  ;  and  to  associate  with  the  name  of  Goths 
every  thing  that  is  ignorant,  barbarous,  and  savage.  To  Gothic 
ancestors,  however,  it  should  be  remembered,  we  are  indebted 
for  our  existence,  our  language,  and  a  i)art — perhaps  the  most 
valuable — of  our  laws.  We  should  also  recollect  that,  when 
these  inunense  hordes  forsook  their  native  forests,  and  settled 
in  the  countries  they  subdued,  the  freedom  of  the  individual 
was  resjiected  and  supported.  The  authority  he  acknow- 
ledged, and  the  subordination  he  yielded,  were  not  the  will 
of  a  tyrant,  or  the  aggrandizement  of  a  chief;  bill  the  voice  of 


the  nation  at  large,  of  which  every  member  was  a  part : — a 
system,  though  deficient  in  the  elegancies  of  art,  the  researches 
of  science,  or  the  ingenious  labours  of  industry,  was  still 
founded  in  friendship  and  benevolence,  in  protection  and  gra- 
titude. That  there  is  an  extensive,  and  much  more  intimate 
connexion  than  could  have  been  imagined,  between  the  lan- 
guage of  the  Goths,  and  that  which  was  first  spoken  by  the 
Greeks,  and  afterwards  by  the  inhabitants  of  Italy,  has  been 
satisfactorily  proved  in  the  Hermes  Scythicus  of  the  author's 
friend  Dr.  Jamieson,  a  writer  possessed  of  an  accurate  know- 
ledge of  the  different  Gothic  dialects. 

Amidst  the  contradiction,  error,  and  conflision  that  prevail, 
not  only  in  regard  to  the  peopling  of  Great  Britain  but  of 
Europe — involving  early  literary  history  in  great  obscurity — 
it  is  difficult  to  draw  any  authentic  conclusions,  from  which  to 
be  enabled  satisfactorily  to  trace  the  establishment  of  our  pre- 
sent mixed  language,  and  the  means  and  gradations  through 
or  by  which  it  was  accomplished.  The  pure  Saxon  style 
which  at  one  period  predominated,  became  greatly  adulterated ; 
partly  by  the  barbarity  and  ignorance  of  the  inhabitants,  and 
partly  by  the  sanguinary  conflicts  with  the  Danes  ;  a  people, 
who,  though  of  kindred  origin,  and  using  a  dialect  derived 
from  the  same  Northern  source,  were  much  inferior  in  civi- 
lization to  the  Saxons.  Harassed  by  these  Danish  incursions, 
and  often  driven  from  their  habitations,  the  people  neglected 
leui'ning,  and  a  part  of  the  language  of  their  enemies  gradually 

PREFACE.  vii 

became  incorporated  with  their  own.  The  courtiers  of  Ed- 
ward the  Confessor,  priding  themselves  on  the  introduction 
of  a  foreign  idiom,  prevented  an}'  attempt  to  restore  the  energy 
of  the  original  tongue ;  and  the  system  adopted  after  the 
Norman  conquest  gave  rise  to  those  changes,  which  the  acci- 
dents of  time,  and  the  improvements  of  society,  subsequently 
effected  in  the  literature  of  England. 

To  those  acquainted  with  our  literary  history,  it  is  evident 
that  we  have  to  look  for  our  old  English,  where  it  only  exists 
in  its  pure  uncorrupted  state,  in  the  distant  provinces  of  the 
North  ;  however  much  the  phraseology,  in  many  respects,  may 
be  disfigured  by  modern  corruptions,  cant  terms,  or  puerilities. 
The  land  of  "  Cockaigne,"  as  some  wits  have  lately  called  the 
dwellers  in  the  metropolis,  has  long  lost  its  raciness  of  idiom  ; 
but  among  the  lower  classes  tradition  has  been  faithful  to  its 
task ;  and  several  of  our  vulgarisms  are  in  fact  the  remains  of 
genuine  English.  Consequently,  many  aixhaisnjs  occurring 
in  our  numerous  old  Chronicles,  and  in  Gower,  Chaucer, 
Skelton,  Shakspeare,  Beaumont  and  Fletcher,  Ben  Jonson, 
and  other  early  writers — now  totally  disused  in  other  parts  of 
the  kingdom — are  still  preserved  in  the  remotest  places  of  the 
North.  This  may  be  easily  accounted  for.  In  these  districts, 
until  of  late  years,  the  inhabitants  had  little  or  no  intercourse 
with  the  more  Southern  counties.  They,  therefore,  retained 
their  ancient  manners,  customs,  and  language  ;  unchanged  by 
a  mixture  with  those  of  their  neighbours ;  and  freed  from  the 

viii  PREFACE. 

arbitrary  caprice  of  fashion — as  much  an  enemy  to,  and  work- 
ing as  great  an  inroad  on  a  living  language  as  barbarism  itself. 
The  distinctions  of  local  dialects  are  now,  however,  becoming 
less  conspicuous.  The  artizan  and  petty  trader,  no  longer 
able  to  stem  an  overwhelming  competition,  are  often  compelled 
to  emigrate  from  their  native  villages  to  larger  towns  ;  neces- 
sarily leaving  this  decreasing  population  to  be  supplied  from 
distant  places.  An  interchange  of  inhabitants  so  frequent, 
must  ultimately,  however  imperceptibly,  destroy  all  provincial 
peculiarities  of  speech. 

Under  these  feelings,  and  with  a  vieyv  of  preserung  many 
ancient  and  emphatic  tenns,  that  were  in  danger  of  being 
totally  lost,  the  author  was  induced  to  commence  a  collection 
of  Provincialisms.  In  his  earlier  years  he  had  frequent  com- 
munications with  different  parts  of  the  North,  and  accustomed 
himself  to  note  down  from  time  to  time,  all  such  words  as  ap- 
peared worth}'  of  preservation,  or  were  likely  to  afford  an  expla- 
nation of  former  manners  or  customs.  His  first  effort  was  a 
mere  outline,  sketched  solely  for  his  own  amusement,  and  with- 
out any  intention  of  ever  bestowing  upon  it  the  labour  in  which 
it  has  since  involved  him.  In  that  state  the  manuscript  passed 
into  the  library  of  Mr.  Lambton,  a  gentleman  who  feels  a  deep 
interest  in  the  preservation  of  whatever  is  connected  with  the 
Northern  counties.  By  those  to  whose  opinion  and  judgment 
the  author  is  bound  to  defer,  such  an  accumulation  of  ancient 
dialectical  words  (when  properly  described)  was  considered 


too  interesting  an  addition  to  the  hir.tory  of  our  literature  and 
of  our  language,  and  too  valuable  a  portion  of  our  local  anti- 
quities to  be  withheld  from  the  public. 

Mr.  Lambton  accordingly,  with  his  accustomed  liberality, 
again  confided  the  manuscript  to  the  care  and  revision  of  the 
original  writer.  One  step  brought  on  another,  until  the  first 
compilation  became  so  overwhelmed  with  new  matter,  and  so 
altered  by  new  iirrangement,  that  few  traces  of  the  original 
ai'e  now  discernible.  The  preparing  of  it  for  the  press,  in  this 
enlarged  form,  has  been  the  occupation  of  such  short  inter- 
vals of  leisiu'e  as  were  not  incompatible  with,  and  could  be 
spared  from  the  almost  unceasing  duties  of  a  laborious  pro- 
fession,— and  which  the  author  found  it  a  greater  relaxation 
to  employ  in  this  than  in  any  other  manner. 

To  diversify  the  work  the  author  has  not  confined  it  to  an 
explanation  of  mere  words.  Under  the  heads  which  necessa- 
rily refer  to  them,  he  has  occasionally  inserted  elucidations  of 
the  vulgar  rites  and  popular  opinions,  which  tradition  has 
faithfull)'  transmitted  through  many  generations.  In  some 
instances,  however,  it  has  been  found  that  these  superstitions 
are  of  such  remote  antiquity,  as  to  have  actually  outlived  the 
knowledge  of  the  very  causes  that  gave  them  origin.  "  The 
"generality  of  men,"  as  remarked  by  Brand,  " look  back  with 
"  superstitious  veneration  on  the  ages  of  their  fore-fathcis ; 
"  and  authorities  that  are  grey  with  time  seldom  fail  of  com- 
"manding  those  filial  honours  claimed  even  by  the  appearance 
"  of  hoary  old  age." 


The  reader  will  readily  suppose  that  in  compiling  this  Glos- 
sary, the  author  was  not  unmindful  of  the  labours  of  his  pre- 
decessors. Prior  Dictionai'ies  and  Vocabularies  have  been 
consulted  to  a  great  extent ;  and  references  made  to  such  of 
them  as  aided  his  enquiries  or  illustrated  his  views.  Ray  ap- 
pears to  have  been  a  man  of  learning,  and  a  Saxon  scholar — 
Grose,  a  writer  of  a  diiFerent  description.  Many  of  the  words 
contained  in  the  work  of  the  former  are  now  out  of  use ; 
while  it  is  difficult  to  recognize  several  of  those  appropriated 
to  the  North  in  that  of  the  latter,  from  the  distorted  spelling 
in  which  they  are  clothed — the  compiler  not  having  a  sufficient 
personal  knowledge  of  the  dialect  he  attempted  to  describe. 
As  to  Pegge's  Supplement,  a  number  of  his  Provincialisms 
are  classical  English,  and  very  properly  inserted  in  Mr. 
Todd's  elaborate  edition  of  Dr.  Johnson's  work.  The  Doctor 
himself  was  scarcely  at  all  aware  of  the  authenticity  of  ancient 
dialectical  words  ;  and  having  an  unaccountable  prejudice  on 
the  subject,  seldom  gave  them  a  place  in  his  Dictionary.  The 
List  of  Ancient  Words  used  in  the  mountainous  parts  of  the 
West  Riding  of  Yorkshire,  published  in  the  Archseologia  by 
Dr.  Willan,  a  native  of  that  district,  is  a  valuable  contribution 
to  our  philology.  Most  of  these  words  being  old  acquaint- 
ances, the  work  has  been  of  great  use  to  the  author.  There 
does  not  appear  to  this  intelligent  writer,  sufficient  ground  for 
the  idea  entertained  by  Dr.  Jamieson,  and  some  others,  who 
maintain  that  the  lowland  Scotch  and  the  English  are  difi'erent 


languages.  Any  variations  of  accent,  or  in  the  mode  of  spel- 
ling, he  remarks,  do  not  contribute  to  establish  the  point, 
when  we  find  on  examination,  that  both  the  radicals  and  the 
grammar  are  precisely  the  same.  Hence,  as  he  observes,  a 
person  born  in  any  of  the  Northern  counties  of  England  un- 
derstands ancient  and  modern  Scotch  poetry,  and  enjoys  it  as 
much  as  the  Scots  themselves.  This  is  unquestionably  true 
to  a  great  extent ;  and  it  is  equally  certain  that  similarit}  of 
language  is  one  of  the  most  convincing  documents  of  national 
affinity.  The  reader,  however,  must  decide  for  himself,  after 
he  has  perused  and  considered  Dr.  Jamieson's  perspicuous 
Dissertation  on  the  Origin  of  the  Scottish  language.  The 
West  Riding  words  are  also  preserved  in  a  little  work  recently 
published,  under  the  title  of  Hores  Momenta  Cravence,  or  The 
Craven  Dialect  Exemplified,  in  Two  Dialogues,  with  a  copious 
Glossary ;  a  book  that  has  not  been  overlooked.  The  only 
other  provincial  Glossaries,  from  which  the  writer  has  derived 
any  material  assistance,  are  those  of,  Cheshire  Words  by  Roger 
Wilbraham,  Esq., 'and  Suffolk  Words  by  Major  Moor;  kindly 
sent  to  him  by  the  respective  authors.  Many  of  the  terms  in 
both  these  publications,  are  radically  the  same  as  those  col- 
lected orally  by  the  writer,  though  they  appear  to  be  different 
from  the  dialectical  variations  which  they  have  undergone. 

The  National  work  of  Dr.  Jamieson  has  been  of  use  to  the 
author  in  almost  every  page.  He  is  also  materially  indebted 
to  tliat  learned  writer  for  many  etymologies  that  might  other- 

xii  PREFACE. 

wise  have  escaped  him.  An  enemy  to  all  fanciful  etymology,  he 
has  endeavoured  to  guard  against  such  fascination.  Knowing 
the  extreme  fallaciousness  of  the  science  when  founded  on  a 
mere  simikunty  of  sound,  however  striking,  he  has  abstained 
from  all  attempts  at  derivation  where  the  sources  did  not  seem 
clear  and  undeniable ;  and  he  has,  in  particular,  avoided  any 
display  of  dexterity,  by  refraining  from  a  reference  to  languages 
of  which  the  people  were  entirely  ignorant,  or  which  bear  no 
affinity  to  their  own.  His  chief  researches  have  been  among 
the  ancient  Northern  dialects ;  where,  if  we  are  not  always 
able  to  trace  the  primary  ancestor,  we  may  discover  a  resem- 
blance sufficient  to  satisfy  us,  that  we  are  recurring  to  a  very 
remote  primogenitor.  It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  trans- 
lators from,  and  interpreters  of  Saxon,  should  ever  have  pub- 
lished their  works  in  Latin ;  there  being  no  natural  analoiry 
between  the  two  languages.  An  English  version  woidd  not 
only  have  preserved  the  original  form,  but  have  shewn  the 
propriety  of  the  present  speech.  A  contrary  method  has  oc- 
casioned many  of  our  words  to  be  consider'c  d  as  barbarous  and 
obsolete,  which,  looking  to  the  original  tongue,  are  not  only 
genuine  but  significant.  By  those  who  are  conversant  with 
the  Saxon  and  Northern  languages,  the  justice  of  this  remark 
will  be  readily  appreciated — they  who  are  ignorant  of  tiiese 
philological  treasures  have  slender  pretensions  to  the  name  of 
a  grammarian  or  a  critic,  an  antiquary  or  a  historian. 

In  a  few  of  his  etymological  speculations,  and  in  some  of 

PREFACE.  xlii 

his  definitions,  the  author  has  been  under  the  necessity  of 
differing  in  opinion  from  friends,  whose  learning  he  admires, 
and  for  whom  he  entertains  a  personal  esteem  ;  but  tlieir  com- 
mon pm'suit  being  the  same,  he  consoles  himself  with  the 
pleasing  anticipation  that  his  observations,  offered  with  due 
respect,  will  be  taken  in  the  light  they  are  meant — an  anxious 
desii-e  to  be  strictly  accurate  ;  however  seemingly  unimportant 
the  subject. 

Several  of  the  words  acbuittcd  into  this  collection  are,  un- 
doubtedly, mere  vicious  pronunciation.s  ;  but  they  are,  in  most 
cases,  so  truly  charactevistical  of  a  local  peculiarity  beyond 
the  mere  corruption,  that  the  author  could  not  reconcile  him- 
self entirely  to  omit  tliem.  The  plirases  within  inverted  com- 
mas, at  the  end  of  several  of  the  explanatioi»s,  are  all  genuine 
expressions;  which  have  been  either  heard  by  himself,  or 
communicated  to  him  b\'  friends  on  whose  accuracy  and 
fidelity  he  can  implicitly  rely : — and  in  order  to  relieve,  in 
some  degree,  the  dryness  of  a  mere  explanation  of  a  vocabu- 
lary of  words,  he  has  occasionally  inserted  illustrations  from 
ancient,  as  well  as  from  modern  local  writers. 

Although  the  author  is  a  native  of,  and  has  spent  the 
greater  part  of  his  life  in  this  part  of  the  kingdom,  he  feels  it 
right  to  acknowledge,  that  he  has  often  met  with  words,  even 
in  common  use,  the  true  meaning  of  which  he  has  had  the 
greatest  difficulty  to  ascertain.  Some  were  interpreted  to 
him  one  way  and  some  another,  according  to  the  peculiar  ideas 

xiv  PREFACE. 

attached  to  them  by  different  individuals ;  and  in  consequence 
of  that  indefinite  character,  which  must  always,  more  or  less, 
mark  expressions  merely  oral.  In  terms  thus  doubtful,  he 
cannot  presume  that  he  has,  in  every  instance,  succeeded  in 
his  explanations ;  but  whatever  errors  he  may  have  com- 
mitted, in  this  or  in  any  other  respect,  he  will,  on  their  being 
pointed  out,  be  glad  to  rectify  in  another  edition ;  which  has 
become  necessary  in  consequence  of  the  demand  for  the  pre- 
sent far  exceeding  the  number  of  copies  printed.  The  author 
takes  this  opportunity  further  to  state,  that  he  will  be  pecu- 
liarly indebted  to  any  of  his  readers,  who  may  be  kind  enough 
to  transmit  to  him  any  authentic  provincial  words,  which  have 
escaped  his  notice,  or  any  particular  local  customs  to  which  he 
has  omitted  to  allude,  with  the  proper  explanations.  Such  is 
the  copiousness  of  our  Northern  vernacular  speech,  that  the 
author  is  far  from  pretending  that  he  has  been  able — even 
aided  as  his  own  researches  have  been  by  the  most  liberal 
communications  both  of  friends  and  of  strangers — to  give  by 
any  means  a  complete  view  of  it. 

It  now  remains  to  the  author,  and  it  is  a  pleasing  part  of 
his  duty,  to  testify  his  sense  of  obligation  for  the  assistance 
that  has  been  afforded  him ;  and  to  return  his  acknowledg- 
ments for  the  condescension  and  politeness  he  has  received  at 
the  hands  of  those — not  less  distinguished  by  their  literary 
acquirements  than  by  their  exalted  rank — who  have  patronized 
and  encouraged  the  pubHcation,  and  favoiu-ed  the  author  with 
their  advice  and  information  on  subjects  connected  therewith. 


To  one  of  the  learned  Judges,  eminently  versed  in  our  lite- 
rary history,  whom  the  author  had  the  honour  of  knowing 
when  at  the  Bm-,  especial  thanks  are  due  for  the  partiality  and 
kindness  that  prompted  him  to  direct  the  author's  attention  to 
sources  of  infoniiation  which  were  found  highly  advantage- 
ous to  consult ;  and  to  a  Right  Reverend  Prelate,  a  liberal 
patron  of  literature,  \\-ith  whom  the  author  had  not  the  honour 
of  a  previous  acquaintance,  he  is  under  a  particulai"  obligation 
for  the  imsolicited  loan  of  a  copy  of  Palsgrave,  a  work  of  ex- 
cessive rarity,  and  a  great  typographical  curiosity. 

To  the  possessors  of  Collections  of  local  words  the  author 
stands  indebted,  with  one  single  exception,  for  the  confiden- 
tial manner  in  which  they  intrusted  to  him  their  manuscripts ; 
allowing  him  the  unrestrained  use  of  them.  This  liberal  con- 
duct, so  gratif\'lng  to  the  author's  feelings,  has  not  only,  in 
many  instances,  materially  assisted  him  in  the  progi-ess  of  his 
labours,  but  has  enabled  hiin  to  add  several  interesting  paiti- 
culars,  which,  without  such  unreserved  communications, 
would,  in  all  probability,  have  escaped  his  observation.  These 
favours  the  author  is  desirous  of  acknowledging  according  to 
the  order  in  which  they  were  conferred. 

To  the  friendship  of  the  Reverend  John  Hodgfion,  Vicar  of 
Kirkwhelpington,  and  author  of  the  History  of  Northumber- 
land, now  in  a  course  of  publication,  the  writer  is  indebtetl 
for  the  use  of  a  volume  of  memoranda  connected  with  the 
historian's  own  enquiries,  but  which  proved  highly  useful  on 

xvi  PREFACE. 

the  present  occasion.  The  author  is  much  obliged  to  his 
learned  friend,  James  Losh,  Esq.  for  the  loan  of  an  extensive 
list  of  words  still  in  use  in  the  Northern  parts  of  England, 
more  particularly  in  the  county  of  Cumberland,  several  of 
which  are  marked  as  occurring  in  Chaucer,  Spenser,  and  other 
old  writers.  To  the  kindness  of  the  Reverend  John  Brewster, 
Rector  of  Egglescliffe,  the  author  owes  the  perusal  of  a  large 
catalogue  of  Northern  words  collected  by  that  respectable 
clergjinan.  From  a  Glossary  obligingly  put  into  the  author's 
hands  by  his  intelligent  friend,  George  Taylor,  Esq.  many  im- 
portant gleanings  have  been  gathered  ;  nor  has  the  collection 
of  Mr.  John  Bell,  a  pains-taking  antiquary,  with  which  the 
author  was  favoured,  been  without  its  use.  To  the  attention 
and  friendship  of  the  Reverend  Anthony  Hedley,  author  of 
the  interesting  Essay  towards  ascertaining  the  Etymology  of 
the  Names  of  Places  in  the  County  of  Northumberland,  pub- 
lished in  the  Archseologia  iEliana,  the  writer  is  indebted  for  a 
curious  collection  of  local  words  made  by  the  late  C.  Machell, 
Esq.  for  Mi".  Richardson,  of  Cheadle ;  and  intended  by  that 
gentleman  for  the  great  work  of  the  late  Reverend  Jonathan 
Boucher ;  which  has  hitherto,  unfortunately,  been  confined  to 
the  first  letter  of  the  alphabet;  but  the  remainder  of  which, 
there  is  every  reason  to  hope,  will  soon  be  given  to  the  public. 
Inmimerable  obligations  lU'c  due  to  the  Rev.  Henry  Cotes, 
"Vicar  of  Bedlington,  for  repeated  acts  of  attention,  and  for 
manv  communications,  which  his  extensive  personal  acquaint- 

PREFACE.  xvu 

ance  with  the  Northumbrian  dialect  rendered  so  acceptable. 
For  various  other  communications  made  to  the  author  in  the 
course  of  the  work,  with  great  liberality  and  without  solicita- 
tion, he  is  largely  indebted  to  a  number  of  other  friends ;  par- 
ticularly to  Sir  Cuthbert  Sharp,  Mr.  Thomas  Doubleday,  Mr. 
John  Stanton,  Mr.  Edward  Hemsley,  and  an  amiable  female, 
whose  retiring  modesty  leads  her  to  derive  most  gratification 
when  in  her  power  to  confer  a  benefit  unnoticed.  Nor  is  the 
author  without  obligation  for  some  ingenious  and  sensible  re- 
marks, as  well  as  for  several  words,  which  have  been  sent  to 
him  without  the  writer's  name. 

To  the  uninterrupted  friendship  of  his  early  preceptor,  the 
Reverend  William  Turner — a  name  with  which  every  thing 
benevolent  is  associated — the  author  owes  the  perusal  of  some 
Danish  books,  which  he  could  not  obtain  except  through  the 
kind  offices  of  that  obliging  individual ;  to  whom  he  is  further 
indebted  for  MS.  notes  on  Verstegan's  Restitution  of  De- 
cayed Intelligence.  The  author's  thanks  are  also  due  to  his 
friend,  Mr.  Murray,  for  the  loan  of  an  interleaved  copy  of 
Grose's  Provincial  Glossary  with  MS.  additions.  And  to  the 
liberality  and  friendship  of  his  early  associate,  John  Bowser, 
Esq.  the  author  owes  the  possession  of  some  ciu"ious  Dic- 
tionaries, and  several  uncommon  books  connected  with  his 

To  Henry  Ellis,  Esq.  of  the  British  Museum,  the  author  ten- 
ders his  thanks  for  pointing  out  to  him.  among  the  Lansdowne 

xviii  PREFACE. 

Manuscripts,  the  very  curious  and  select  Glossary  compiled 
by  Bishop  Kennett,  accompanied  by  the  most  obliging  offers 
of  assistance,  which  writers  at  a  distance  from  the  larger 
fountains  of  research  and  intelligence  know  so  well  how  to 

The  author  regrets  that  he  has  not,  in  this  first  edition, 
been  able  to  benefit  by  the  MS.  Glossary  just  alluded  to;  or 
to  avail  himself  of  an  "  Explanation  of  several  Terms  made 
use  of  in  the  Lead  Mines,  &c.  in  Alston  Moor,"  which  he  owes 
to  the  politeness  of  Anthony  Easterby,  Esq.  of  Coxlodge. 
These  additions,  however,  shall  appear  in  a  future  impression, 
incorporated  with  a  "  Vocabulary  of  provincial  phrases  used 
bv  the  Miners  in  Teesdale,"  with  which  the  author  has  been 
favoured  by  his  friend,  the  Reverend  George  Newby. 

It  still  remains  to  mention  the  acknowledgments  that  are 
due  to  IMi'.  William  Garret,  not  only  for  indefatigable  atten- 
tion to  the  work  through  the  press,  which,  from  the  author's 
other  avocations,  was  confided  to  his  management ;  but  for 
many  local  words  which  his  unwearied  zeal  enabled  him  to 
collect  in  situations  beyond  the  reach  of,  and  from  sources 
inaccessible  to  the  author,  in  addition  to  several  Newcastle 
expressions  of  which  he  was  himself  the  living  depository. 

The  author  has  to  regret  that  death  should  have  deprived 
hun  of  the  pleasm-e  of  expressing  his  gratitude  to  his  much 
respected  friend,  Matthew  Gregson,  Esq.  for  the  interest  he 
took  in  this  publication ;  and  for  various  acts  of  attention 

PREFACE.  xix 

and  civility  experienced  at  his  hands.  Acknowledgments 
would  also  have  been  due  to  the  late  Reverend  J.  J.  Cony- 
beare,  for  offers  of  assistance,  and  for  the  promise  of  informa- 
tion ;  but  that  eminent  scholar  has  also  sunk  into  the  grave. 

Having  already  said  so  much  of  the  mode  and  execution  of 
the  work,  it  is  now  left  to  its  fate.  The  author  has  en- 
deavoured, by  the  means  within  his  power,  to  be  faithful  and 
accurate ;  but  he  has  no  wish,  by  any  apology,  to  screen  him- 
self from  candid  and  liberal  criticism. 





Br Ancient  British  language. 

Celt Celtic  language. 

Cumb Cumberland  dialect. 

Dan Danish  language. 

Dur Durham  dialect. 

Dut Dutch  language. 

Fr French  language. 

Gael Gaelic  language. 

Germ GeriTian  language. 

Ir Irish  language. 

Isl Islandic  (or  Icelandic)  language. 

Ital Italian  language. 

Lane Lancashire  dialect. 

Lat Latin  language. 

Moe.-Got.— Moes.-Got.  Moeso-Gothic  language. 

Newc Newcastle  dialect. 

North Northumberland  dialect. 

Sax Anglo-Saxon  language. 

Sc Scottish  language. 

Span Spanish  language. 

Su.-Got Suio-Gothic,  or  ancient  language  of  Sweden. 

Sw Modern  Swedish  language. 

Teut Teutonic  language. 

West Westmorland  dialect. 

York Yorkshire  dialect. 



Boucii. — Boucher.  Glossary  of"  Obsolete  and  Provincial  Words, 
4to.  Lond.  1S07. 

Crav.  Gloss HorjB  Momenta  Cravenae,  or  the  Craven  Dia- 
lect exemplified,  ISmo.  Lond.  1824. 

Du  Gauge Glossarium  ad  Scriptores  Media?  et  Inflmss  La- 

tinitatis,  6  tom.  fol.  Paris,  1733. 

Grose Provincial  Glossary,  with  a  Collection  of"  Local 

Proverbs,  Svo.  Lond.  1787. 

Grose Classical  Dictionary  of  the  vulgar  Tongue, 

Svo.   Lond.   1783. 
Ihre Glossarium  Suio-Gothicum,  2  tom.  fol.  Upsal. 

Jam Etymological  Dictionary  of  the  Scottish  Lan- 
guage, 2  vols.  4to.  Edinb.  1808. 
Jan. — Junius Etymologicum   Anglicanum,    Edid.    Lye,  fol. 

Oxon.  1743. 
Kilian Etymologicon  Teutonics  Lingurc,  2  tom.  4to. 

Traj.  Bat.  1777. 
Le  Roux Dictionnaire  comique,  critique,  burlesque,  libre, 

et  proverbial,  2  tom.  Svo.     Lion.  1752. 
Lye Dictionarium    Saxonico   et    Gothico-Latinum. 

Edid.  iNIanning,  2  tom.  fol.  Lond.  1772. 
Moor Suftblk  Words  and  Phrases,  by  Edward  Moor, 

F.Pi.S.F.A.S,&c.  12mo.   Woodbridge,  1823. 
Kares.-Nares'Glo^s.  A  Glossary;  or  Collection  of  Words,  Phrases, 

Names,  and  Allusions  to  Customs,  Proverbs, 

&c.  4to.  Lond.  1822. 


Palso-rave L'Esclaircissement    de   la    Langue    Francoise, 

fol.  Black  Letter.  The  two  first  books 
printed  by  Pynson,  and  the  3d  (the  most  co- 
pious part)  by  lohan  Hawkins — the  only 
work  he  ever  executed. 

Ray Collection  of  English  Words,   l2mo.  2d  edit. 

Lond.  1691. 
Roquefort Glossaire  de  la  Langue  Romane,  2  torn.  8vo. 

Paris,  1808. 
Skin. Skinner Etymologicon  Linguae  Anglicana?,  fol.  Lond. 

Spelman Glossariuni    Archaiologicum,    folio,    London, 

Suff.  Words Suffolk  Words  and  Phrases,  by  Edward  Moor, 

F.  R.  S.  F.  A.  S.  12mo.    Woodbridge,  1823. 

Tooke Diversions  of  Purley,  2  vols.  4to.  Lond.  1798, 

and  1805. 
Wachter Glossarium    Germanicum,    2   torn.    fol.    Lips. 

Wilb An  attempt  at  a  Glossary  of  some  words  used 

in   Cheshire.     From  the  Ai'chaologiae,  Vol. 

XIX.      With    considerable    additions,  8vo. 

Lond.  1820.     Privately  printed. 

Willan A  List  of  Ancient  Words  at  present  used  in  the 

Mountainous  Districts  of  the  West  Riding  of 
Yorkshire.     Archaologia,  Vol.  XVII. 

The  reader  can  hare  no  difficulty  in  ascertaining  the  other  books 
referred  to,  by  the  manner  in  which  they  are  quoted. 


(exclusive  of  thirty-two  on  large  paper.) 

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Chancellor  of  Great  Britain,  F.  R.  &  A.  S. 

His  Grace  the  Archbishop  of  York. 

His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Northumbeuland,  K.  G.  F.  S.  A. 

Her  Grace  the  Duchess  of  Northumberland. 

The  Most  Honourable  the  Marquess  Cornwallis,  late  Lord 

Bishop  of  Lichfield  &  Coventry,  and  Dean  of  Durham. 

The  Most  Honourable  the  Marquess  of  Bute,  2  copies. 

The  Right  Honourable  Lady  Charlotte  Osborne. 

The  Right  Honourable  the  Eari,  of  Tankerville. 

Thf.  Right  Honourable  Earl  Spencer,  K.  G.  F.  R.  &  A.  S. 

The  Right  Honourable  Earl  Grosvenor. 

The  Right  Honourable  Earl  Grey. 

The  Right  Honourable  Lord  Henry  Howard. 

The  Right  Honourable  Lord  John   Russell,  M.  P. 

The  Right  Honourable  Lady  Louisa  Lambton. 

The  Right  Honourable  and  Right  Reverend  the  Lord  Bishop 

OF  IvONTiON,  F.  R.  &  A.  S.  Private  and  Episcopal  Libraries. 

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F.  R.  &  A.  S. 


The  Right  Honourable  Lord  Grantham,  F.  S.  A. 

The  Right  Honourable  Lord  Stowell,  President  and  Judge  of 

the  Right  Court  of  Admiralty,  F.  R.  &  A.  S.  3  copies. 

The  Right  Honourable  Lord  Ravexsworth. 

The  Honourable  Henrv  Thomas  Liddell. 

The  Honourable  W.  F.  Grant,  of  Grant,  M.  P. 

The  Right  Honourable  Thomas  Wallace,  jM.  P.  Master  of 

the  Mint. 

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Master  of  the  Rolls. 

The  Honourable  Sir  John  Hullock,  Knight,  one  of  the  Barons 

of  the  Court  of  Exchequer. 

The  Honourable  Sir  Joseph  Littledale,  Knight,  one  of  the 

Justices  of  the  Court  of  King's  Bench. 

The  Honourable  James  Abercrojibie,  M.  P. 

Lady  Sjiyth. 

Sir  Hedvvorth  Williamson,  Bart.,  Whithurn  Hall. 

Sir  Charles  M.  L.  Monck,  Bart.  Bdsai/  Castle,  2  copies. 

Sir  Charles  Loraine,  Bart.  Kirklun-le,  2  copies. 

Sir  Henry  Lawson,  Bart.  Brough  Hall,  2  copies. 

Siii  John  Edward  Swinburne,  Bart.  F.  R.  &  A.  S.  Capheaton, 

2  copies. 

Sir  IMatthew  White  Ridley,  Bart.  jM.  P.  Blugdon. 
Sir  Richard  Colt  Hoare,  Bart.  F.  R.  &  A.  S.  Stourliead 
Sir  James  Grahaji,  Bart.  M.  P.,  F.  S.  A.  Edmund  Castle, 

3  copies. 

Sir  Walter  Scott,  Bart.  Abhotsford,  3  co])ies. 

Sir  David  William  Smith,  Bart.  Alnwick, 

Sir  Robert  Crawfurd  Pollok,  Bart.  Upper  Pollok. 

Sir  Ja3ies  Mackintosh,  Knight,  M.  P.,  LL.  D.,  Lord   Rector 

of  the  University  of  Glasgow. 

Sir  Thomas  E.  Tojilins,  Knight,  one  of  the  Benchers  of  the 

Inner  Temple. 

Sir  Cuthbert  Sharp,  Knight,  F.  S.  A.  Sunderland 

Sir  Thomas  Burdon,  Knight,  IFcst  Jesmond. 

The  Royal  Library,  Copenhagen. 


The  Corporation  of  Newcastle. 

The  Library  of  the  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society, 


The  Library  of  the  Antiquarian  Society,  Newcastle. 

The  Library  of  the  London  Institution. 

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The  Metropolitan  Literary  Institution,  London. 

The  York  Subscription  Library. 

The  Hull  Subscription  Library. 

Sirs.  Adams,  Ridley  Place. 

John  Adamson,  Esq.  F.  8.  A.  &  F.  L.  S.  Newcastle. 

Mr.  Thomas  Ainswortli,  Manchester. 

]Mr.  John  Akenhead,  Newcastle,  4.  copies. 

E.  H.   Alderson,  Esq.  Barrister  at  Law. 

John  Aldei'son,  Jun.  Esq.  Hidl. 

Rev.  Thomas  Allason,  Vicar  of  Heddon-on-the-  WulL 

Mr.  Frederick  IVIartin  Allerton,  Liverpool. 

]\Ir.  William  Anderson,  Westgate. 

Mr.  George  Andrews,  Durliam,  6  copies. 

Mr.  John  Lindsay  Angas,  Newcastle. 

Mr.  George  Angus,  Newcastle. 

]\Ir.  Henry  Armstrong,  Newcastle. 

Mr.  William  Amistrong,  Toions  Chamber,  Newcastle. 

Nat.  Ateheson,  Esq.  F.  S.  A.  Duke  Street,  Westminster. 

Robert  Shank  Ateheson,  Esq.  Dtike  Street,  Westminster. 

Matthew  Atkinson,  Esq.  Carrs  Hill. 

General  Aylmer,  Wahvorth  Castle. 


Edward  Backhouse,  Esq.  Sunderland. 

.lohn  W.  Bacon,  Est].  Styford. 

George  Bainbridge,  Esq.  Liverpool. 

Joseph  Bainbridge,  Es(j.  Newcastle. 

John  Baird,  E^q.  Newcastle. 

Addison  Jolm  CVesswell  Baker,  E^q.  Cresstvell. 


Rev.  Thomas  Baker,  Whitburn  Rectory. 

John  Barras,  Esq.  Kihhkswurth. 

James  Bateman,  Esq.  London, 

WiUiam  Batty,  Esq.  London. 

Matthew  Bell,  Esq.   Woohington. 

Mr.  Thomas  Bell,  Union  Street,  ICewcastle,  2  copies. 

Mr.  John  Bell,  Windmill  Hills. 

Mr.  Edward  Bell,  Newcastle. 

Rev.  F.  Benson,  Chollerton,  2  copies. 

William  Bentham,  Esq.  F.  S.  A.  London. 

Calverley  Bewicke  Bewicke,  Esq.  Castle  Eden, 

Henry  Bickersteth,  Esq.  Barrister  at  Law,  Lincoln's  Inn. 

Charles  William  Bigge,  Esq.  Linden  House. 

Thomas  Hanway  Bigge,  Esq.  Little  Benton. 

Mrs.  Bird,  Chester-le-Street. 

Rev.  James  Birkett,  Ovingham. 

John  Blackburne,  Esq.  M.  P.  Hah  Hall. 

Mr.  Bohn,  Bookseller,  London,  6  copies. 

William  Bolland,  Esq.  Barrister  at  Law,  Adelphi  Terrace. 

Major  Bower,  Welham. 

Richard  Bowser,  Esq.  Bishop  Auckland. 

Vv'illiam  Boyd,  Esq.  Newcastle. 

James  Brancker,  Esq.  Bell  Vice,  Kirkdale  House. 

Charles  John  Brandling,  Esq.  M.  P.  Gosforth  House, 

Rev.  Ralph  H.  Brandling,  Shofton  Hall. 

Rev.  John  Brewster,  Rector  of  Eggkscliffe. 

John  Britton,  Esq.  F.  S.  A.  London,  4  copies. 

John  Broadley,  Esq.  F.  S.  A.,  F.  L.  S.  Kirk  Ella,  Hull. 

Henry  Broadley,  Esq.  F.  S.  A.  Ferriby,  Hull. 

Mr.  John  Brockett,  Gateshead. 

Mrs.  John  Trotter  Brockett,  Albion  Place. 

Mr.  William  Henry  Brockett,  Newcastle. 

B.  C.  Brodie,  Esq.  London. 

Rev.  J.  H.  Bromley,  M.  A.  Vicar  of  Hull. 

Henry  Brougham  Esq.  M.  P.  Brougham  Hall. 

Dixon  Brown,  Esq.  Netvcastle. 

John  Brown,  Esq.  Newcastle. 


Mr.  John  Bruce,  Newcastle, 
Henry  Brumell,  Esq.  Morpeth. 
John  Brumell,  Esq.  London. 
John  Buddie,  Esq.  Ifall's  End. 
John  Bulman,  Esq.  ]\^eu'castle, 
J.  J.  Burn,  Esq.  Gray's  Inn. 
Mr.  George  Burnett,  Newcastle. 
William  Burrell,  Esq.  Broome  Par/t. 
Robert  Burrell,  Esq.  Durham. 
John  Burrell,  Esq.  Durham. 

J.  C.  Cankrien,  Esq.  Hull 

Mrs.  Carr,  Dunston  Hill. 

John  Carr,  Jun.  Esq.  North  Shields. 

Rev.  Charles  Charlton,  Vicar  of  Tynemnnth. 

Charles  Charlton,  M.  D.  North  Skidds. 

Mr.  Edward  Charlton,  Newcastle. 

INIr.  James  Charlton,  Gateshead. 

JVIr.  Thomas  Charlton,  Newcastle. 

Mr.  Emerson  Charnley,  Newcastle,  25  copies. 

Rev.  Robert  Clarke,  Walwick  Hull,  3  copies. 

Mr.  William  Clarke,  Neiccastle. 

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George  Clementson,  Esq.  Newcastle. 

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Isaac  Cookson,  Sen.  Esq.  Newcastle. 

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Miss  Davidson,  Westgate  Street,  Newcastle. 

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Thomas  Davison,  Esq.  Whitefriars,  London. 

John  Dent,  Esq.  M.  P. 

Mr.  Francis  Devereaux,  London. 

Rev.  Thomas  Frognall  Dibdin,  F.  R.  &  A.  S. 

William  Dickson,  Esq.  Alnwick. 

J.  D' Israeli,  Esq.  London. 

John  Dixon,  Esq.  Stockton. 

Mr.  Ralph  Dodds,  Newcastle. 

Armorer  Donkin,  Esq.  Newcastle, 

Henry  Donkin,  Esq.  Durham. 

Mr.  Thoinas  Doiibleday,  Newcastle. 

Francis  Douce,  Esq.  F.  S.  A.  London. 

Mr.  Thomas  Dove,  Newcastle. 

Alexander  Dudgeon,  Esq.  Leith  Jifount. 

Michael  Dunn,  Esq.  Sallwell  Hall. 



Anthony  Easterby,  Esq.  Coxhd<n: 

Rev.  James  Edmondson,  Vicar  of"  N'ewhurn. 

Rev.  Frederick  Ekins,  Rector  of  Morpeth. 

Henry  Ellis,  Esq.  F.  R.  S.,  Sec.  A.  S.,  London, 

James  Ellis,  Esq.  Otterboume. 

Cuthbert  Ellison,  Esq.  M.  P.  Hehbum  Hall, 

Nathaniel  Ellison,  Esq.  LonJim. 

Rev.  Noel  Ellison,  A.  INI.  JIuntspUl. 

Richard  Ellison,  Esq.  Beverley. 

Gregory  Elsley,  Esq.  Celonel  North  York  IMilitia. 

Rev.  George  S.  Faber,  Rector  of  Long  Newton. 
Thomas  Henry  Faber,  Esq.  Bishop  Auckland. 
James  Fairbank,  Esq.  Staple  Inn. 
William  Falla,  Esq.  Gateshead. 
Mr.  Jacob  Ralph  Featherston,  Kewcastle. 
John  Fenwick,  Esq.  Newcastle, 
Mr.  James  Finlay,  Newcastle. 
Mr.  William  Fisher,  Newcastle. 
William  B.  Flexney,  Esq.  J, undent 
Matthew  Forster,  Esq.  Newcastle. 
Mrs.  Forster,  Greenfield  Pluce. 
George  Townshend  Fox,  Esq.  Westoe, 
Charles  Frost,  Esq.  F.  S.  A.  Hvll. 


iNIr.  Joseph  Garnett,  Newcastle. 
Mr.  William  Garret,  Newcastle. 
Mr.  John  Gibson,  Newcastle. 
Mr.  George  Gibsone,  Newcastle. 
Mr.  Robert  Gillespie,  Femjhill. 
James  Gooden,  Esq.  London. 
John  Grace,  Esq.  CarviUe. 
Nathaniel  Grace,  Esq.  London. 
Rev.  Robert  Gray,  Sunderland. 


E.  M.  Greenhow,  M.  D.  North  Shieldx. 

Robinson  Robert  Greenwell,  Esq.  Nexccastle. 

Anthony  Gregson,  Esq.  LoivUn. 

Tliomas  Gregson,  Esq.  Essex  Street,  Strand,  London. 

Matthew  Gregson,  Esq.  F.  R.  S.  Ovestmi  Manor,  Cheshire. 

John  Grey,  Esq.  Mil/Jield  Hill. 

Rev.  Henry  Deer  Griffith,  M.  A.  Neiccastle. 


The  Very  Rev.  Cliarles  Henry  Hall,  D.  D.  Dean  of  Durham. 

William  Hamper,  Esq.  Deritend  House. 

Thomas  Harrison,  Esq.  Stubb  House. 

IVIr.  Cornelius  Harrison,  Stubb  House. 

Mr.  Whytell  Harrison,  Stubb  House. 

]Mr.  John  Harvey,  Straivberrtj  Place. 

Thomas  Emerson  Headlani,  M.  D.  Newcastle. 

Mr.  William  Heaton,  Newcastle. 

Richard  Heber,  Esq.  M.  P.  Hodnct  Hall. 

Rev.  Anthony  Hedley,  Rector  of  IVhilJield. 

IMr.  Edward  Hemsley,  Newcastle. 

]Mr.  Thomas  Hepple,  Benwell. 

IMr.  Ions  Hcvvison,  Newcastle. 

Henry  Hevvitson,  Esq.  Seaton  Hum. 

Middleton  Hewitson,  Esq.  Newcctstle. 

Rev.  John  Hodgs<jn,  Vicar  of  Kirkwheliiinyton. 

George  Hodgson,  Esq.  Newcastle. 

B'lr.  Thomas  Hodgson,  Newcastle. 

Mr,  John  Hodgson,  Fetersburglu 

Mr.  James  Hodgson,  Newcastle, 

John  Hudson,  Esq.  Manchester, 

Charles  Hunter,  Esq.  London. 


Sanderson  Ilderton,  Esq.  Ilderton. 
Mr.  Henry  Ingledew,  Neivcastle. 


Edward  John  Jackson,  Esq.  Sheriff  of  NcwcasUc 


William  James,  Esq.  ]\I.  P.  Burrock  Lodge. 

Rev.  John  Jamieson,  U.  D.  F.  R.  S.  E.  &  F.  S.  A.  S.,  EdUhirf/h. 

J.  C.  Jobling,  Esq.  N^ctctoii  Hull. 

Mr.  John  Jobling,  Newcastle, 

Francis  Johnson,  Esq.  Neu'castle, 

iNIr.  William  Jolnison,  Ti/ue  Brewery. 

T.  Waterhouse  Kaye,  Esq.  Barrister  at  Law,  London. 
Richard  Keenlyside,  M.  D.  Newcastle. 
John  Keenlyside,  Esq.  Newcastle. 
Thomas  W.  Keenlyside,  Esq.  Newcastle. 
Mr.  William  Kell,  Gateshead. 


]Mr,  Mark  Ijambert,  Newcastle. 

John  George  Lambton,  Esq.  M.  P.  Lamhton  Hall,  5  copies. 

William  Lawes,  Esq.  Pntd/ioe  Custle. 

William  Lawson,  Esq.  Longhirst. 

Robert  Lcadbitter,  Esq.  Newcastle. 

Rev.  George  Lee,  Hull. 

Rev.  Henry  George  Liddell,  Rector  of  Boldon. 

Rev.  John  Lingai'd,  D.  D.  Hornby. 

William  Linskill,  Esq.  Tynemouth  Lodge. 

Mr.  John  Little,  Gateshead. 

Edward  Hawke  Locker,  Esq.  F.  R.  &  A.  S.  Greenwich  Hospit(d. 

Messrs.  Longman,  Hurst,  &  Co.  London,  12  copies. 

William  Loraine,  Esq.  Lumley  Park. 

John  Lambton  Loraine,  Esq.  Newcastle,  2  copies. 

James  Losh,  Esq.  Barrister  at  Law,  Jesmond. 

Robert  Machell,  Esq.  Beverley. 
Mr.  Eneas  Mackenzie,  Newcastle. 
Mr.  John  Major,  London. 
John  Martindale,  Esq.  Chester-le- Street. 
Mr.  John  Marshall  Mather,  Newcastle. 
Francis  Maude,  Esq.  Barrister  at  Law,  Waktjield. 


Thomas  Meggison,  Esq.   Whalton. 

Holker  Meggison,  Esq.  Barrister  at  La«',  London. 

John  ]Middleton  Meggison,  Esq.  London,  2  copies. 

Rev.  S.  Meggison,  Vicar  of  Bolam. 

Francis  Mewburn,  Esq.  Darlington. 

Mr.  George  Milner,  Newccuntle. 

Major  Edward  Moor,  F.  R.  &  A.  S.   Woodbridge. 

Robert  Moore,  Esq.  Doncaster. 

Richard  Moorsoni,  Jun.  Esq.   Whitby. 

Mrs.  Miinby,  Croft. 

Mr.  John  Murray,  Newcastle. 

N.     . 
The  Venerable  Archdeacon  Nares,  A.  M.  F.  R.  S.  F.  A.  S. 
Rev.  George  Newby,  IVitton-le-  Wear. 
John  Nichols,  Esq.  F.  S.  A.  Lortd.  Edin.  &  Perth. 
John  Bowyer  Nichols,  Esq.  F.  S.  A.  &  F.  L.  S.  2  copies. 
Robert  Nichols,  Esq.  Newcastle. 


Robert  Ogle,  Esq.  Eglingham. 
Mr.  Robert  Oliver,  Neivcastle. 
John  Ord,  Esq.  Newcastle. 
Mr.  Thomas  Ord,  Coatham  House. 
William  Orde,  Esq.  Nunnykirh. 
A.  C.  Orme,  Esq.  Temple,  London. 
Robert  Ormston,  Jun.  Esq.  Newcastle, 
Rev.  Edward  Otter,  Rector  of  Bothul. 

James  Parke  Esq.  Barrister  at  Law,  London 
Samuel  Walker  Parker,  Esq.  Scots  House. 
William  Peters,  Esq.  Newcastle. 
Mr.  Ralph  Park  Philipson,  Newcastle. 
Mr  William  Pickering,  London,  4  copies. 
Matthew  Plummer,  Esq.  Newcastle. 
George  Woolley  Poole,  Esq.  London, 
Edward  Potts,  Esq.  Morpeth. 


James  Potts,  Esq.  Newcastle, 

Mr.  Brough  Pow,  Newcastle. 

Mr.  William  Preston,  Newcastle. 

Mr,  Richard  Priestley,  London,  12  copies. 

Rev.  James  Pringle,  Newcastle. 

Mr.  William  Proctor,  Dean  Street,  Newcastle. 

John  A.  Pybus,  Esq.  Neivcastle. 


Fletcher  Raincock,  Esq.  F.  S.  A.  Liverpool. 

Rev.  James  Raine,  Vicar  of  Mddon,  2  copies. 

James  Ramsay,  Esq.  London. 

Rev.  William  Rawes,  Houghton-k- Spring. 

Mr.  Robert  Reay,  Tyne  Brewery. 

Mr.  Alexander  Reed,  Newcastle. 

Rev.  William  Reed,  Warkworth. 

Owen  Rees,  Esq.  London.  i 

Mr.  W.  K.  Reid,  Carey  Street,  London. 

Rev.  Dr.  Richardson,  Jfitton  Gilbert, 

Mr.  John  Richardson,  Neivcastle. 

Mr.  William  Richardson,  North  Shields. 

James  Richardson,  Esq.  North  Shields, 

Mr.  Moses  Richardson,  Newcastle. 

Henry  Richmond,  Esq.  Humshaugh. 

Mr.  Edward  Riddle,  Royal  Naval  Asylum,  Greenwich. 

Rev.  Charles  John  Ridley.  M.A.  Professor  of  Anglo-Saxon,  O:r/or<i 

Messrs.  Rivingtons  &  Cochran,  London,  12  copies. 

John  Robson,  Esq.  Felling  Hall. 

Mr.  H.  Rodd,  London,  2  copies. 

Mr.  I.  Rodd,  London,  2  copies. 

William  Roscoe,  Esq.  Liverpool. 

John  Russell  Rowntree,  Esq.  Barrister  at  Law,  Stockton. 

John  Ruddock,  Esq.  Hexham, 

Mr.  William  Rymer,  Darlington, 

William  Thomas  Salvin,  Esq.  Croxdale,  2  copies. 
Mr.  J.   Sams,  Darlington. 


Mr.  Jonathan  Ward  Sanders,  Aytoii. 

Thomas  Saunders,  Esq.  London. 

John  Scafe,  Esq.  AhuL'ick. 

James  Scarlett,  Esq.  M.  P.  King's  Coimsel. 

The  Venerable  T.  H.  Scott,  Archdeacon  of  New  South  Walex. 

Walter  Scott,  M.  D.  Stumfordham. 

Mr.  Frederick  Scroope,  Darlington. 

Prideaux  John  Selby,  Esq.  Twizell  House, 

Alexander  Seton,  Esq.  Newcastle. 

Joseph  Sewell,  Esq.  5"^.  Anthony^s. 

George  Dalston  Shaftoe,  Esq.  Buvintjton. 

John  Sheepshanks,  Esq.  Leeds,  3  copies. 

Mr.  Joseph  Shield,  Newcastle. 

George  Skipsey,  Esq.  Birtleij  Htdl. 

Mr.  Thomas  Small,  Newcastle. 

John  Smart,  Esq.  Treudtt  House. 

Edward  Smiles,  Esq.  Neivcastle. 

Matthew  Smillie,  Esq.  Lcith,  5  copies. 

Rev.  John  Smith,  M.  A.  Vicar  of  Newcastle,  2  copies. 

Rev.  John  Smith,  Hull. 

Thomas  Smith,  Esq.  and  Alderman,  Newcastle. 

William  Smith,  Jun.  Esq.  Haughton  Castle. 

Rev.  J.  Hall  Smyth,  B.  D.  Liverpool. 

Mr.  Thomas  Snaith,  Newcastle. 

Charles  Snart,  Esq.  Newark. 

Benjamin  Sorsbie,  Esq.  and  Alderman,  Newcastle. 

Mr.  S.  Sotheby,  Loiidon,  2  copies. 

Robert  Southey,  Esq.  LL.  D.  Poet  Laureate. 

Mr.  C.  F.  Springmann,  Newcastle. 

George  Waugh  Stable,  Esq.  Newcastle. 

John  Stanton,  Esq.  Benwell. 

Mr.  Philip  Holmes  Stanton,  Newcastle. 

John  Steavenson,  Esq.  Newcastle. 

Mr.  John  Straker,  North  Shields. 

Edward  B.  Sugden,  Esq.  King's  Counsel,  London. 

W^illiam  Surtees,  Esq.  Montagu-Square,  London. 

Aubone  Surtees,  Esq.  and  Alderman,  Newcastle. 

Anthony  Surtees,  Esq.  Hamsterley  Hall. 


Robert  Surtees,  Esq.  Muinsforth,  2  copies. 

T.  C.  Swanstou,  Esq.  Barrister  at  Law,  London. 

Daniel  Sykes,  Esq.  M.  P.  Itaj/icell. 

Mr.  Jolin  Sykes,  Newcastle,  3  copies. 


George  Watson  Taylor,  Esq.  M.  P.  Eaiistoke  Park. 

Hugh  Taylor,  Esq.  Earsdon. 

George  Taylor,  Esq.   Wittou-le-lVear. 

William  Taylor,  Esq.  Hendoii  Grange. 

Edward  Tewart,  Esq.  Southgate. 

Benjamin  Thompson,  Esq.  Atjton  Cottage. 

Mr.  Benjamin  Thompson,  Newcastle,  2  copies. 

Mr.  Robert  Thompson,  Newcastle. 

Samuel  Thompson,  Esq.  North  Shields. 

Rev.  Charles  Thorp,  B.  D.  Rector  of  Ri/fon. 

Robert  Thorp,  Esq.  Clerk  of  the  Peace,  Northiwiherland,  2  copies. 

Mr,  Thomas  Thorpe,  London,  12  copies. 

Rev.  E.  S.  Thurlow,  Rector  of  Houghton-le- Spring. 

Mr.  John  Tliwaites,  Durham. 

Mr.  Thomas  H.  Tilt,  London. 

N.  C.  Tindal,  Esq.  M.  P.  King's  Counsel. 

John  Tinley,  Esq.  North  Shields. 

Rev.  Henry  J.  Todd,  M.  A.  F.  S.  A.  Settrington. 

Messrs.  John  and  George  Todd,  York,  3  copies. 

Ralegh  Trevelyan,  Esq.  Nether  Jt'itioii. 

W^alter  Calverley  Trevelyan,  Esq.  Wullington. 

Mr.  Robert  Triphook,  London,  12  copies. 

John  Trotter,  Esq.  Hallgarth. 

Rev.  William  Turner,  Newcastle. 

Mr.  Daniel  Turner,  Blagdon. 

Dawson  Turner,  Esq.  F.  R.  A.  h  L.  S.   Yarmmith. 

Sharon  Turner,  Esq.  F.  S.  A.  London. 

Mr.  Thomas  Turner,  London. 


William  Upcott,  Es(i.  London. 



The  Very  Rev.  R.  D.  Waddilove,  D.  D.  F.  S.  A.,  Dean  of  Itipon. 

Thomas  Wailes,  Esq.  Newcastle,  2  copies. 

John  Waldie,  Esq.  Newcastle. 

John  Walker,  Esq.  Benwell. 

John  Ward,  Esq.  Durham. 

John  Watson,  Esq.   Willi-nyton,  2  copies. 

Mr.  William  Watson,  Liverpool. 

Mr.  George  Watson,  Gateshead,  2  copies. 

Charles  N.  Wawn,  Esq.  A^ewcastle. 

Geoi'ge  Weatherby,  Esq.  Tynemouth. 

Mr.  Charles  Weatherley,  Low  Willington, 

Roger  Wilbraham,  Esq.  F.  R.  &  A.  S.  I^ondon. 

John  Allan  Wilkie,  Esq.  Lemington,  4  copies. 

Thomas  Wilkinson,  Esq.  Town  Clerk,  Durham. 

J.  J.  Wilkinson,  Esq.  Temple,  London. 

John  Williams,  Esq.  M.  P.  Barrister  at  Law. 

Robert  Hopper  Williamson,  Esq.  Recorder  of  Newcastle,  2  copies. 

Rev.  William  Wilson,  Rector  of  Wolsingham. 

Richard  Wilson,  Esq.   V.   P.   Soc.  Arts  &  F.  S.  A.  London. 

]VIr.  William  Wilson,  Newcastle. 

Nathaniel  John  Winch,  Esq.  F.  L.  S.  Newcastle, 

Rev.  Thomas  Cave  Winscom,  Warkworth  Rector;/. 

John  Wood,  Esq.  Beadnell. 

Mr.  Nicholas  Wood,  KUlingworth. 

Mr.  Benjamin  Woodman,  Morpeth. 

The  Venerable  Archdeacon  Wrangham,  M.  A.  F.  R.  S. 

The  Right  Worshipful  William  Wright,  Esq.  Mayor  of  Newcastle, 

James  A.  Wright,  Esq.  Grunge. 

Stephen  Wright,  Esq.  North  Shields. 

W.  Wright,  Esq.  Stone  Buildings,  Lincoln  s  Inn. 

Air.  Mattliew  Young,  London. 





A.  It  is  a  striking  provincial  peculiarity  tenaciously  to  retain 
this  letter  in  most  of  the  words  in  which  modern  English 
substitutes  o,  as  ain,  own,  bane,  bone,  &c. ;  and  in  those 
ending  m  1 1,  the  two  last  letters  are  generally  omitted  as 
a'  for  all,  cd!  for  call,  &c. 

Aac,  Aik,  Yak,  Yeck,  the  oak.  Sax.  ac,  aec.  Su.-Got.  e/c 
Germ,  eicfie.     Dut.  and  Isl.  eik. 

Aback,  behind.     Isl.  a-ba/c,  backward. 

Ablins,  perhaps,  possibly.     V.  Tooke  and  Bouch. 

Aboon,  Abuin,  above.      V.  Jun.  and  Bouch. 

Abraid,  or  Brade,  to  rise  on  the  stomach  with  a  degree  of 
nausea ;  applied  to  articles  of  diet,  which  prove  disagreeable 
to  the  taste,  or  difficult  of  digestion. 

Abrede,  in  breadth.     Sax.  abred-an,  to  lengthen. 

Abstract,  to  take  away  by  stealth. — Borders. 

Agkern,  an  acorn.     Isl.  a/cam. 


2  ACRE 

AcKERSPRiT,  the  premature  sprouting  of  a  potatoe,  the  germi- 
nation of  grain.     V.  Skin,  Jam.  and  Wilb. 

Acre-dale  Lands,  common  fields  in  which  different  proprie- 
tors hold  portions  of  greater  or  less  quantities ;  from  acre, 
a  word  common  to  almost  every  language,  and  Sax.  dcBlan, 
to  divide.  In  ancient  times  an  acre  did  not  signify  any  de- 
terminate quantity ;  and  when  at  length  it  came  to  mean  a 
specific  part,  the  measure  still  varied,  until  it  was  fixed  by 

Adder-stones,  perforated  stones,  imagined  by  the  viilgar  to  be 
made  by  the  sting  of  an  adder.  They  ai'e  suspended  in 
stables  as  a  charm. 

Addiwissen,  had  I  known  it.  An  expression  nearly  obsolete, 
though  still  retained  by  some  old  persons.  It  appears  to 
have  been  formed  on  that  jjoor  excuse,  to  which  silly  people 
are  apt  to  have  recourse,  when,  for  want  of  thought,  they 
have  fallen  into  a  difficulty :  /lad  I  tvist,  or  f/ad  I  wissen 
(and  in  the  pronunciation  it  is  as  one  word,  addiwissen),  I 
would  not  have  done  so  and  so.  The  phrase  is  of  consi- 
derable antiquity,  occurring  in  Gascoigne's  Hermits  Tale,  in 
Gower,  and  in  Holinshed. 

Addle,  Eddle,  v.  to  earn  by  labom\ — Addlings,  s.  labom*- 
ers's  wages.  Sax.  edlean,  recompense,  or  requital.  Dif- 
ferent both  in  import  and  source  from — Addled,  a.  de- 
cayed, impaired,  rotten ;  as,  "  addle  headed,"  "  addled 
eggs,"   Sax.  adlean,  to  be  sick  or  languid. 

Adge,  adz,  an  addice. 

Ae,  Ea,  Yea,  one,  one  of  several,  each.     Aewaas,  always. 
Ac  lad  frae  out  below  the  ha' 
Ees  jMeggie  wi'  a  glai«;e. — Rooi  Fair. 

AFEAR'i>,  afraid.     This  word  is  repeatedly  used  by  Shaka[)eare, 

AIRT  3 

in  several  of  his  plays,  and  I  don't  renienil^er  that  afraid 

occurs  more  than  once.     Pure  Sax. 
Aft,  behind.     The  dictionaries  call  this  a  sea  term,  but  it  is  in 

common  use  on  the  banks  of  the  Tyne,  and  occasionally  in 

other  places,  in  the  sense  here  given,  without  any  relation 

to  nautical  subjects.     Pure  Sax. 
Ag,  to  cut  with  a  stroke,  adopted  from  Sc.  hag,  to  hew,  syno- 

nimous  with  hack. 
Agate.     Dr.  Johnson  says,  "  on  the  way,  agoing,"  but  it  also 

means,  as  well  a  person  recovered  from  a  sick  bed,  as  one 

who  is  employed  in  doing  any  thing. 
Age,  v.  to  grow  old,  as  he  ages,  he  begins  to  age.     Old. 
Agean,  against.     Old  English,  agen, 
Agee,  Ajee,  Agye,  awry,  uneven.     "  Let  ne'er  a  new  whim 

ding  thy   fancy  ajee." — A.    Ramsay.      Across,   "it  went 

all  agee." — Ajar,  applied  to  a  door  a  little  open.     Burns 

uses  agley,  for  vvrong. 

The  best  laid  schemes  o'mice  and  men 
Gang  aft  a-gky. 
Agin,  as  if. 
Agog,  eager,  desirous.     "  He's  quite  agog  for  it."     Etymology 

Ahint,  behind.     "  To  ride  a  hint."     Sax.  a-liindan. 
Aigre,  sour.     Fr.  aigre,  hence  Ale-aigre,  Alegar,  som-  ale 

used  as  vinegar.     West,  allekar, 
AiRD.     This  word  as  applied  to  the  name  of  a  place  means 

high,  as  Airdley  in  Hexhamshire.     Br.  aird,  height.     Gael. 

and  Ir.  ard,  nn'ghty,  great  and  noble.     It  is  also  used  to 

describe  the  quality  of  a  place  or  field,  in  which  sense  it 

means  dry,  parched,  from  Lat.  aridus,  hence  arid. 
Airth,  Arf,  fearful.     "  He  was  airth  to  do  it" — "  he's  arfish," 

i.  e.  afraid.     "  An  airthful  night" — a  fearful  night.     Sax. 

yrhth,  fear. 


AiTH,  an  oath.     Moes.-Got.  and  Sc. 

Aits,  Yaits,  Yetts,  oats.     Sax.  ata,  ate. 

AiXES,  Axes,  a  fit  or  paroxysm  of  an  ague.     Used  by  several 

old  writers.     Fr.  accez,  accez  defievre. 
Alantem,  at  a  distance.     Ital.  da  lontano.     Fr.  lointain. 
Ale,  a  merry  meeting,  a  rural  feast.     Bride-ale,  and  church- 

ale  are  of  frequent  occurrence  in  old  documents. 

And  their  authorities  at  wakes  and  Ales, 

With  country  precedents,  and  old  wives'  tales — Ben.  Jan. 

Algates,  an  old  word  synonimous  with  always,  or  all  manner 
of  ways,  and  compounded  of  all  and  gates,  which  in  the 
North  denote  ways.  Not  obsolete  as  stated  in  Todd's 

All-a-Bits,  all  in  pieces,  in  rags. 

All-along-of,  All-along-on,  sometunes  pronounced  Aw- 
LUNG,  entirely  owing  to.  Used  by  Skelton,  Ben.  Jonson, 
and  others  ;  and  may  be  referred  to  Sax.  ge-langan. 

Allar.     See  Eller. 

Alley,  the  conclusion  of  a  game  at  foot-ball,  when  the  ball  has 
passed  the  boundary.— Z)«r.  Fr.  aller.  Also  a  superior  sort 
of  marble,  made  from  alabaster.  In  later  times  the  potteries 
in  the  neighboiu-hood  of  Newcastle  have  made  an  imitation 
from  white  clay,  termed  Pol-alleys,  but  which  are  not  es- 
teemed any  way  equal. 

All-hallows,  All  Saint's  day  (1st  Nov.).  It  is  remarkable, 
that,  whilst  the  old  Popish  names,  for  the  other  fasts  and 
festivals,  such  as  Christmas,  Candlemas,  &c.  ai'C  generally 
retained  throughout  England,  the  northern  counties  alone 
continue  the  use  of  the  ancient  name  for  the  festival  of  All- 
Saints.     See  Halle  E'en. 

Always,  however,  nevertheless.  Its  use  in  this  sense  is  com- 
mon in  the  North,  and  also  in  Scotland. 


ALt-MPtHE-WELL,  a  juvenile  game  in  Newcastle  and  the  neigh- 
bourhood. A  circle  is  made  about  eight  inches  in  diameter, 
termed  the  well,  in  the  centre  of  which  is  placed  a  wooden 
peg,  four  inches  long,  with  a  button  balanced  on  the  top. 
Those  desirous  of  playing  give  buttons,  marbles,  or  any 
thing  else  according  to  agreement,  for  the  privilege  of 
throwing  a  short  stick,  with  which  they  are  furnished,  at  the 
peg.  Should  the  button  fly  out  of  the  ring,  the  player  is 
entitled  to  double  the  stipulated  value  of  what  he  gives  for 
the  stick.  The  game  is  also  practised  at  the  Newcastle 
races  and  other  places  of  amusement  in  the  North,  with 
three  pegs,  which  are  put  into  three  circular  holes,  made 
in  the  ground,  about  two  feet  apai't,  and  forming  a  triangle. 
In  this  case  each  hole  contains  a  peg,  about  nine  inches 
long,  upon  which  are  deposited,  either  a  small  knife  or 
some  copper.  The  person  playing  gives  so  much  for  each 
stick,  and  gets  all  the  articles  that  are  thrown  oflT  so  as  to 
fall  on  the  outside  of  the  holes. 

A-MANY,  a  great  number. 

Ambry,  or  Aumry,  a  cupboard,  pantry,  or  place  where  victuals 
are  kept.     Old  Fr.  ainmdre. 

Ameix,  between  or  among.     Sw.  cmellan.     Dan.  hnellem. 

Anan,  Nan,  Non,  sir  !  what  ?  what  do  you  say  ?  Commonly 
used  as  an  answer  to  questions  not  understood,  or  distinct- 
ly heard.  Perhaps  from  a  repetition  of  Fr,  aim,  noticed  by 
Le  Roux  as,  "  Sorte  d'interjection  interrogative,  commune 
aux  petites  gens,  et  fort  incivile  parmi  des  personnes 

Anchor,  the  chape  of  a  buckle,  i.  e.  the  part  by  which  it  is 
fastened.     Fr.  ancre,     Lat.  anchora. 

Anclet,  Ancleth,  Ancliff,  the  ankle.     Sax.  ancleow. 

Anenst,  against,  towards,  opposite.  Used  by  Chaucer  and 
Ben.  Jonson. 


6  ATsGN 

Ang-nails,  corns  in  the  {eel.—Cuinb, 

Angs,  ft  urns,  the  beard  of  barley  or  wheat.     Su.-Got.  agn.'tj^M^ 

Anters,  Aunters,  needless  scruples,  mischances  or  misadveii^-l^  ^ 

tnres.     Anters,  inanterx,  ennanters,  are  also  used  for,  in"' 

case,  lest,  it  may  be.     Dut.  anders. 
Antre,  a  cave  or  den.     Lat.  antrum. 

Of  antars  vast,  and  desarts  idle.— 5//(rA-.  Othello. 

Antrims,  Tantrums,  affected  airs  or  whims,  freaks,  odd  fan- 
cies, maggots, 

Arder,  fallow  quarter,  similar  to  aither,  a  course  of  ploughing 
in  rotation. 

Ark,  a  large  chest.  The  original  and  etymological  sense. 
Same  in  Su.-Got.  Dan.  Gael,  and  Dut. 

Arles,  Earles,  Arns,  Alls,  or  Yearles,  money  given 
in  confirmation  of  a  bargain,  or  by  way  of  earnest  for 
service  to  be  performed.  jVIr.  Boucher  seems  to  consider 
Aries  to  be  the  last  and  almost  expiring  remains,  in  our 
language,  ot  a  word  of  very  remote  antiquity,  that  was  once 
in  general  use,  which  the  Romans  abbreviated  into  arra, 
and  which  the  Latins  in  the  middle  ages  changed  into 
arrha.  It  denoted  an  earnest  or  pledge  in  general,  and 
was  often  used  to  signify  an  espousal  present  or  gift  from 
the  man  to  the  woman  on  their  entering  into  an  engage- 
ment to  marry.  This,  as  we  learn  from  Pliny,  was  a  ring 
of  iron,  the  ancient  Romans  being  long  prohibited  from 
wearing  rings  of  any  other  metal.  The  giving  of  arles  for 
confirming  a  bai'gain  is  still  very  common  in  all  the  north- 
ern counties.  It  is  an  old  custom,  still  kept  up,  for  the 
buyer  and  seller  to  drink  together  on  these  occasions, 
without  which  the  engagement  would  hardly  be  considered 
valid.     Gael,  iarlics.     Welsh,  ernes. 

j/m  ASS  7 

Arnut,  Awnut,  Jurnut,  Yernut,  a  pig-nut,  or  earth-chesnut. 
Sax.  eard-nuf.     Dut.  aarde-noot. 

Arr,  a  mark  or  scar ;  hence  Pock-arrs,  a  common  phrase  for 
those  marks  on  the  face  left  by  the  small-pox.  Su.-Got. 
aerr.     Isl.  aer.     Dan.  ar. 

Arsie-varsie,  Arsey-warsev,  topsy-turvy.  Etymology  ob- 

All  things  run  arsie-varsie. — Bmt.  Jon. 

Art,  quarter  of  the  Heavens,  a  part  of  the  country.  Genu. 
ort,  a  place — die  vier  orte,  the  four  quarters.  Gael,  curd,  a 
cardinal  point. 

Arvel-supper,  a  funeral  feast  given  to  the  friends  of  the  de- 
ceased, at  which  a  particidar  kind  of  loaf,  called  arvel-bread, 
is  sometimes  distributed  among  the  poor.  The  practice  of 
serving  up  collations  at  funerals  appears  to  have  been  bor- 
rowed from  the  ccena  fcralis  of  the  Romans,  alluded  to  in 
Juvenal  (Sat.  V.),  and  in  the  laws  of  the  twelve  tables.  It 
consisted  of  an  offering  of  milk,  honey,  wine,  &c.  to  the 
ghost  of  the  depai'ted.  In  the  case  of  heroes  and  other 
illustrious  men  the  same  custom  seems  to  have  prevailed 
among  the  Greeks.  With  us,  it  was  anciently  a  solenm 
festival  made  at  the  time  of  publicly  exposing  the  corpse, 
to  exculpate  the  heir,  and  those  entitled  to  the  effects, 
from  fines  and  mulcts,  and  from  all  accusations  of  having 
used  violence.  Welsh,  arwyl,  funeral  obsequies. 
Ass,  Esse,  ashes.  Sax.  asce.  Germ,  aschc.  Isl.  aska.  Dan. 
aske. — Ass-HOLE,  a  place  for  receiving  ashes. — Ass-manner, 
manure  of  ashes. — Ass-midden,  a  heap  of  ashes. — Ass- 
RiDDLiN,  the  riddling  or  sifting  of  the  ashes  on  the  hearth, 
on  the  eve  of  St.  Mark.  The  superstitious  notion  is,  that, 
should  any  of  the  family  die  within  the  year,  tiie  shoe  will 
he  impressed  on  the  ashes. 

8  ASSI 

AssiL-TREE,  axle-tree.    So  invariably  pronounced. 
Gael,  aisil.     Ital.  assile. 

AssiL,  or  Axle  Tooth,  a  grinder — situated  near  the  axis 
the  jaw.     ls\.  Jaxlar,  dentes  molares,  maxillares. 

Ask,  Asker,  Esk,  a  water  newt,  a  kind  of  lizard,  believed, 
without  foundation,  to  be  venomous.     Gael.  asc. 

AsTiTE,  AsTY,  rather,  as  soon  as,  sooner,  literally  as  tide. 
Sax.  and  Isl.  tid. 

Attercop,  North,  and  Dur. ;  Attercob,  Cumb.  a  spider's 
web.  Sax.  after,  poison  and  coppe,  a  cup ;  receiving  its 
denomination,  according  to  Dr.  Jamieson,  partly  from  its 
form  and  partly  from  its  character — a  cup  of  venom.  The 
word  is  occasionally  used  to  denote  the  spider  itself;  and 
a  female  of  a  virulent  or  malignant  disposition  is  sometimes 
degraded  with  the  appellation  of  an  attercap. 

Audfarant,  Audfashint,  grave,  sagacious,  ingenious.  Chil- 
dren are  said  to  be  audfarant  when  they  are  wiser  or  more 
witty  than  those  of  their  age  usually  are.  Dut.  ervaren. 
Dan.  erfaren,  experienced. 

Auk,  a  stupid  or  clumsy  person.  From  old  Got.  auk,  a  beast, 
or  it  may  be  from  the  northern  sea  birds  called  auh,  of 
proverbial  stupidity. 

AuLD,  AuD,  old.     Sax.  eald. 

Then  take  auld  cloak  about  thee. — Shak.  Othello. 

AuLD-LANG-svNE,  a  favourite  phrase  in  the  North,  by  which  old 
persons  express  then*  recollection  of  former  kindnesses, 
and  juvenile  enjoyments  in  times  long  since  past ;  rendered 
immortal  by  the  beautiful  Scotch  song. 

Should  auld  acquaintance  be  forgot. 

AuM,  the  elm.  Old  Fr.  oulme.  Allum  is  also,  in  some  places, 
pronounced  aum.     Br.  a///?. 

^^  AWN  9 

Aun'd,  ordained,  fated.     "  I'm  aun'd  to  this  luck." 

Aunts.  "  One  of  my  aunts"  is,  in  Newcastle,  a  designation 
for  a  lady  of  more  complaisance  than  virtue.  Shakspeare 
and  other  play  writers  use  the  tern). 

Aup,  a  wayward  child.     Ape, 

AuTER,  altar.  Many  of  our  old  authors  write  auter,  or  awter. 
The  high  altar — a  term  still  retained  in  Curnb.  where  it  is 
pronounced  as  one  word  heeautre — was  so  called  to  distin- 
guish it  from  the  Saint's  altars,  of  which  there  were  several 
in  most  churches.     Old  Fr.  auter. 

AuwARDS.  A  beast  is  said  to  be  auwards  when  it  lies  back- 
ward or  downhill,  so  as  to  be  unable  to  rise.  Sheep,  heavy 
in  the  wool,  are  often  found  so,  in  which  case  they  soon 
swell  and  die,  if  not  extricated.  Sax.  cewerd,  perversus, 

Aver,  an  old  worn  out  cart  horse.  V.  Spelman,  (tffri,  nffra, 
and  Du  Cange,  averia.     Nearly  obsolete. 

AvERiSH,  average,  the  stubble  and  grass  left  in  corn  fields  after 
harvest,  winter  eatage.  Fr.  hiver,  and  Eng.  eatage.  But 
see  Ray. 

Aw,  the  pronunciation  of  I.     Maw,  my.    Aws,  I  am. 

Axv  was  up  and  down,  seekin  for  tnaw  hinny. 
Aw  was  thro'  the  town,  seekin  for  maw  bairn. 

Song,  Maw  Canny  Ilhinij. 

Fareweel,  fareweel,  www  comely  pet ! 

Aw^s  fourc'd  three  weeks  to  leave  thee  ; 
Aw^s  doon  for  parm'ent  dut}"  set, 

O  dinna  let  it  grieve  thee  ! — Song,  Bob  Cranky  s  Atllen. 

Aw-MACKS,  all  makes,  all  sorts.     V.  Bouch. 
Awn,  own,  to  visit.     "  You  never  awn  us  now,"  i.  e.  yon  never 
«   visit,  or  call  on  us. 


10  AX 

Ax,  to  ask.  This,  now  vulgar,  word  is  the  original  Saxon 
form,  and  is  used  by  Chaucer,  Bale,  Heywood,  and  Ben. 

Aye,  always,  continually.  An  old  word  said  in  Todd's  John, 
to  be  now  rarely  used,  and  only  in  poetry.  For  colloquial 
purposes,  however,  it  is  frequently  made  use  of  in  many 
parts  of  the  North. 

Ayont,  beyond.     "  Ayont  the  hill."     Sax.  a-geont. 

A  vou  A  HiNNY,  a  northern  nurse's  lullaby.  V,  Brand's  Pop. 
Ant.  8vo.  1810,  p.  204,  and  Bell's  Northern  Rhymes,  p. 


There's  Sandgate  for  aud  rags, 

A  you,  hlnny  htrtl ; 
N  And  Gallowgate  for  trolly  bags, 

A  you  a. 

Song,  A  you  a,  hinny  burd. 


Babblement,  silly  discourse.  From  Heb.  Babel,  confusion  of 

Bachelor's  button,  a  well  known  flower,  resembling  a  but- 
ton, and  possessing  a  magical  eflect  on  the  fortunes  of 
rustic  lovers.     See  Grey's  Shak.  v.  l,  p.  107. 

Back-by,  behind,  a  little  way  distant. 

Back-end,  the  autumnal  part,  or  latter  end,  of  the  year.  Origin 

Backstone,  a  heated  stone  or  iron  for  baking  cakes. 

Backy,  tobacco.     Backy-fob,  a  tobacco  pouch. 

Come,  dinna,  dinna  whinge  and  whipe, 

Like  yammering  Isbel  Jlackey ; 
Cheer  vip,  maw  hinny  !  leet  thee  pipe. 

And  tyek  a  blast  o'  lacky  ! 

Song,  Bob  Crunky''d  Adku. 

BANG  1 1 

Badger,  a  cadger  or  pedlar ;  but  originally  a  person  who  pur- 
chased grain  at  one  market  and  took  it  on  horseback  to 
sell  at  another.  Before  the  roads  in  the  North  were  pass- 
able for  waggons  and  carts,  this  trade  of  badgering  was 
very  extensive. 

Bad,  badly,  sick,  ill.  Sadly  badly,  very  much  indisposed. — 
Badling,  a  worthless  person ;  a  bad  one.  Sax.  bcedling, 
homo  delicatus. 

Bag,  udder.     Isl.  baggi,  onus,  sarcina. 

Bail,  bale,  a  beacon  or  signal,  a  bon-fire. — Bail  or  Bale- 
hills,  hillocks  on  the  moors  where  fires  have  been.  Isl. 
bal,  pyra.     See  Crav.  Gloss.  Baal-hills. 

Bain,  near,  ready,  easy.  A  bainer  way,  a  neai'er  way.  Isl. 
behin,  rectus. 

Bairns,  chilch-en.  Sax.  beam.  Moe.-Got.  barn,  a  child. 
Written  by  old  English  writers  beam,  beanie.  "  They  say 
beams  are  blessings." — S/iak.  AlP.i  Well;  and  in  the  Win- 
ter's Tale,  when  the  shepherd  finds  Perdita,  he  exclaims, 
"  mercy  on's  a  beanie .'  a  very  pretty  beanie.^'' — Bairnish, 
childish. — Bairn-teaji,  lota  of  balms.  Sax.  beam-team, 
liberorum  sobolis  procreatio. — Bairns' -play,  the  sport  of 
children,  any  sort  of  trifling. 

Baist,  or  baste,  to  beat  severely.     Isl.  bei/sti,  a  hard  stroke. 

Ballerag,  bullerag,  to  banter,  to  rally  in  a  contemptuous 
way.     The  Crav.  Gloss,  has  btdlokin,  imperious. 

Ba  !  LOU  !  a  nurse's  lullaby.  Fr.  bas.  Id  Ic  loup,  be  still,  the 
wolf  is  coming. 

Ban-fire,  bon-fire,  a  fire  kindled  on  the  heights  at  appointed 
places  in  times  of  rejoicing.  Notwithstanding  what  Mr. 
Todd  has  alleged  as  to  the  primitive  meaning  of  the  word, 
I  am  of  opinion  that  iowe-fire  is  a  corruption.     See  Bail. 

Bang,  v.  to  thump,  to  handle  roughly.    "  He  bangs  his  wife." 

12  BANG 

Isl,  hanga.     It  also  means  to  excel.     "  Wallington  bangs 
them  a'." 

Our  parson  says,  "  we  bang'd  them  still, 

"  And  hang  them  still,  we  mun  man, 
"  For  he  desarves  a  coward's  deeth, 

"  That  frae  them  e'er  wad  run  man." 

Ciimh.  Balhi(J. 
AVor  pockets  lin'd  wiv  notes  an'  cash, 
Amang  the  cheps  we'll  cut  a  dash  : 

For  XYZ,  that  bonny  steed, 

lie  Imiigs  them  a'  for  pith  and  speed. 

He's  sure  to  win  the  cup,  man — Song,  X.  V.  Z 

Bang,  .v.  a  leap,  a  severe  blow.     Bi  a  bang,  suddenly. 

Banging,  large  and  jolly,  as  a  banging  wench ;  or  sijnply  of 
great  size  when  compared  with  things  of  the  same  kind,  as 
a  banging  trout.  Any  thing  large  in  proportion  to  the  rest 
of  its  species  is  also  called  a  banger. 

Bannock,  a  thick  cake  of  oaten  or  barley  meal  kneaded  \\  ith 
water ;  originally  baked  in  the  embers  and  toasted  over 
again  on  a  girdle  when  used.  Gael,  bonnack,  a  cake ;  or 
it  may  be  from  Isl.  baun,  a  bean,  such  cakes  having  for- 
merly been  made  of  bean  meal.     V.  Ray. 

Bargh,  berg,  a  hill,  or  steep  way.  Su.-Got.  berg,  mons.  V. 

Bar-guest,  a  local  spirit  or  demon,  haunting  populous  places, 
and  accustomed  to  howl  dreadfully  at  midnight,  before  any 
dire  calamity.  Perhaps  from  Dut.  berg,  a  hill,  and  geesf, 
a  ghost.  Grose,  however,  describes  it  as  "  a  ghost  all  in 
white,  with  large  saucer  eyes,  commonly  appearing  near 
gates  or  stiles,  there  called  bars.  Yurksh.  Derived  from 
bar  and  gheist." 

Bark,  a  box  for  holding  candle  ends. 

BAUK  1:5 

Barked,  barkened,  covered  with  dii-t  like  l)aik.     Dirt,  S:c. 

hardened  on  the  skin  or  hair. 
Barkhaam,  a  horse's  collai',  formerly   made   of  bark.     See 

Barley,  to  bespeak  or  claun.     "  Bai'ley  me  that" — I  bespeak 

that — let  me  have  that.     Similar  to  Cheshire  hallow.     V. 

Barrel-fever,  an  illness  occasioned  l)y  intemperate  drinking. 
Bass,  bast,  matting.      Isl.  bast,  philyra.      Bass,  is  also  the 

name  of  a  hassock  to  kneel  upon  at  church. 
Bat,  a  blow  or  stroke ;  in  some  places  a  stick.     Fr.  battrc, 

to  beat.     Last-batt,  a  play  among  children. 

I'll  try  whether  your  costard  or  my  hat  be  the  harder. 

Shell;.  Liar. 

Bat,  also  means  state  or  condition ;  "  at  the  same  bat,"  sig- 
nifying in  the  same  manner ;  "  at  the  old  bat,"  as  formerly. 
Batten,  to  feed,  to  bring  up,  to  thrive. 

Could  you  on  this  fair  mountain  leave  to  feed,  and 
lattcH  on  this  moor Shak.  Hamlet. 

"  The  wife  a  good  church  going  and  a  battening  to  the 
bairn"  is  a  toast  at  christenings. 

Battin,  the  straw  of  two  sheaves  folded  together. 

Battom,  a  board  generally  of  narrow  dunensions,  but  the  full 
breadth  of  the  tree  it  is  sawn  from. 

Batts,  flat  grounds  adjoining  islands  in  rivers,  sometimes  used 
for  the  islands  themselves. 

Bauk,  balk,  a  beam  or  dormant.  Dut.  balk.  Welsh,  bale. 
Balked,  disappointed  or  prevented,  as  if  a  beam  were  in  the 
way.  "  To  be  throivn  our€  balk"  is,  in  the  west  riding  of 
Yorkshire,  to  be  published  in  the  chiu-ch.  "  To  hing  ourt' 
balk,"  is  marriage  deferred  after  publication.     Before  the 

14  BAUK 

reformation  the  laity  sat  exclusively  in  the  nave  of  the 
church.  The  balk  here  appears  to  be  the  rood  beam,  which 
sepai'ated  the  nave  from  the  chancel.  The  expression 
would  therefore  seem  to  mean,  to  be  helped  into  the  choir, 
where  the  marriage  ceremony  was  performed.  V.  Crav. 

Bauks,  the  grass  ridges  dividing  ploughed  lands,  properly 
those  in  common  fields.  Also  a  place  above  a  cow-house, 
where  the  beams  are  covered  with  wattles  and  turf,  and 
not  boarded. — A  hen-roost  or  hay-loft ;  supposed  by  Mi-. 
WUbraham  from  its  being  divided  into  different  compart- 
ments by  balks  or  beams  ;  bal/c  in  the  northern  languages 
signifying  a  separation  or  division. 

Bay,  to  bend.     Sax.  hygun. 

Beaker,  a  tumbler.     Germ,  becher,  a  cup.     It   also  means  any 
thing  large. 

Beakment  or  Beatmext,  a  measure  of  about  a  quarter  of  a 
peck.     Kewc. 

Eeal,  to  roar  or  cry.     Teut.  bellen,  to  bellow. 

Beastlings,  the  milk  of  the  cow  shortly  after  calving,  and  of  a 
peculiar  nature  fitted  for  the  first  food  of  the  calf.  Proba- 
bly, therefore,  the  calf's,  that  is,  the  little  beast's  or  beast- 
ling's. — Dut.  biest. 

Beastling-pudding,  a  pudding  made  of  this  milk,  and  a  favou- 
rite dish  with  many  people. 

Beck,  v.  to  nod  the  head  ;  properly  to  curtzy  by  a  female,  as 
contradistinguished  from  bowing  in  the  other  sex.  Isl. 
beiga.  Germ,  beigen,  to  bow.  A  horse  it  said  to  bec^i, 
when  its  legs  are  weak. 

Beck,  s.  a  mountain  stream  or  small  rivulet.  Common  to  all 
northern  dialects.     Sec  Burn. 

Beeas,  Beess,  cows,  cattle.     Beasts. 

BIGG  15 

Bee-bike,  a  bee's  nest  or  hive  in  a  wild  state.  Tent,  hie-hnck, 
bie-buyek,  apiarium. 

Beeld,  shelter;  hence  Beelding,  a  place  of  shelter  for  cattle,  or 
any  covered  habitation.     Isl.  boele^  domicilium. 

Beet,  to  help  or  assist,  to  supply  the  gi'adual  waste  of  any  thing. 
Isl.  betra.  Dut.  boeten,  to  mend.  To  beet  the  fire,  is 
to  feed  it  with  fuel.  The  word  in  this  latter  sense  is  most 
applicable  to  straw,  heath,  fern,  fui-ze,  and  especially  to  the 
husk  of  oats,  when  used  for  heating  girdles  on  which  oaten 
cakes  are  baked.     Teut.  boeten  het  vier,  struere  igneni. 

Beet-need,  assistance  in  distress.     Sax.  betan,  to  restore. 

Beezen,  blind.     Sec  Todd's  John,  b'lsson. 

Belive,  anon,  by  and  by,  quickly.  An  old  word  used  by 
Chaucer,  Spenser,  and  other  early  poets.     Sax.  belif-an. 

Belk,  to  belch.     The  old  mode  of  writing  it. 

BELLY-GO-LAKE-THEE,take  your  fill, satisfy  your  appetite. —  York. 

Belly-wark,  the  gripes  or  colick.  Ache  is  pronounced  wark, 
as  \ie?i&-ivark,  tooXh-wark. 

Bensel,  to  beat  or  bang.     Teut.  benghe/en. 

Bext,  a  long  kind  of  grass  which  grows  in  Northumberland, 
near  the  sea,  and  is  used  for  thatch.  Dr.  Willan  has  Bents, 
high  pastures  or  shelving  commons,  hence  he  says,  bent- 
grass,  which  from  the  soil  is  necessarily  harsh  and  coarse. 

Berry,  to  thrash  corn.     Berrier,  a  thrasher. 

Be-twattled,  confounded,  stupiiied,  infatuated. 

Bevel,  a  violent  push  or  stroke. 

Bicker,  v.  to  clatter,  to  quaiTcl.   A  very  old  word  for  skirmish. 

Bicker,  .1.  a  small  wooden  dish,  made  of  staves  and  hoops  like 
a  tub. 

Big,  to  build.     Isl.  bi/ggi. 

Bigg,  a  particular  kind  of  barley,  properly  that  variety  which 
has  four  rows  of  grain  on  each  ear,  sometimes  called  bcai-. 
Isl.  bt/gg,  barley.     Su.-Got.  biug.     Dan.  byg. 

16  BIGG 

BiGGEX,  to  recover  after  an  accouchement.  The  gossips  regu- 
larly wish  the  lady  a  good  fnggening. 

Biggin,  a  building,  properly  a  house  larger  than  a  cottage,  but 
now  generally  used  for  a  hut  covered  with  mud  or  turf. 

BiLDER,  a  wooden  mallet  with  a  long  handle,  used  in  husban- 
dry for  breaking  clods.  Hence,  observes  the  author  of  the 
Craven  Glossary,  balderdash,  may  with  propriety  be  called 
dirt  spread  by  the  bilder,  alias  bUderdasJier.  This  etjTuon 
is  certainly  as  happy  as  that  of  Mr.  Malone — the  froth  or 
foam  made  by  the  barbers  in  dashing  theii-  halls  backwards 
and  forwards  in  hot  v/ater.     See,  however.  Blather. 

BiNK,  a  seat  in  the  front  of  a  house  made  of  stones  or  sods. 
Sax.  bene.     Dan.  bcenk. 

BiRK,  the  birch  tree.     Tent,  berck. 

Bishop's  foot.  When  any  thing  has  been  burnt  to  the  pan 
in  boiling,  or  is  spoiled  in  cooking,  it  is  common  to  say,  "  the 
Bishop  has  set  his  foot  in  it."  The  author  of  the  Crav. 
Gloss,  under  bishnpped,  says,  "  pottage  burnt  at  the  bottom 
of  the  pan.  '  Bishop's  i'  th'  pot,'  may  it  not  be  derived 
from  Bishop  Burnet  ?"  That  is  impossible,  the  sajing 
having  been  in  use  long  before  the  Bishop  was  born  !  It 
occurs  in  Tusser's  "  Points  of  Husbandry,"  a  well  known 
book  ;  and  also  in  Tyndale's  "  Obedyence  of  a  Chrysten 
Man,"  printed  in  1.5:28.  The  last  writer,  p.  10.9,  says, 
"  when  a  thynge  speadeth  not  well  we  borowe  speach  and 
say  the  byshope  hath  blessed  it,  because  that  nothynge 
speadeth  well  that  they  medyll  withall.  If  the  podech  be 
burned  to,  or  the  meate  over  rosted,  we  say  the  byshope  has 
put  hisfote  in  the  potte,  or  the  byshope  hath  played  the  coke, 
because  the  byshopes  burn  who  they  lust  and  whosoever 
displeaseth  them."  I  am  well  aware  of  what  Dr.  Jamieson, 
Grose,  and  other  writers  have  stated  on  the  subject,  but  I 
think  this  allusion  to  the  episco])al  disposition  to  burn  here- 

BLAK  17 

tics,  in  a  certain  reign,  presents  the  most  satisfactory  expla- 
nation that  can  be  offered  as  to  tiie  origin  of  the  phrase. 
BiTTLE,  a  mallet  to  beat  grain  out  of  gleanings.     From  beetle. 
BizoN,  shame  or  scandal ;  a  shew  or  spectacle  of  disgrace.     In 
unguai'ded  moments  when  the  good  women  in  certain  districts 
of  Newcastle,  give  way  to  acts  of  termagancy  more  congenial 
to  Wapping  or  Billingsgate,  it  is  common  to  fuhninate  the 
object  of  their  resentment  with  a  "  Holy  Bizon,"  obviously 
in  allusion  to  the  penitential  act  of  standing  in  a  white 
sheet,  which  scandalous  delinquents  are  sometimes  enjoined 
to  perform  in  the  church  before  the  whole  congregation. 
Wiv  a'  the  stravaigin  aw  wanted  a  munch, 

An'  maw  thropple  was  ready  to  gizen  ; 
So  aw  went  tiv  a  yell-house,  and  there  teuk  a  lunch. 
But  the  reck'ning,  me  saul !  was  a  hizvn. 

Song,  Canny  Nfuransd. 

Black-a-viz'd,  dark  in  complexion.     A  bhic/c-a-viz' d  man  or 

Black-puddings.     Puddings  made  of  blood,  suet,  &c.  stuffed 
into  the  intestines  of  pigs  or  sheep,  and  a  favourite  dish 
among  the  common  people.    "  A  nice  het  pudden,  hinnie  !" 
"  A  nice  fat  pudden,  ma  hinnie  !" — Neiucastle  cries. 
Through  they  were  lin'd  with  many  a  piece 
Of  ammunition  bread  and  cheese, 
And  fat  Uack-pnddingis,  proper  food 
For  warriors  that  delight  in  blood — But.  Hud'tb. 

Blake,  yellowish,  or  of  a  golden  colour,  spoken  of  butter, 
cheese,  &c.  The  yellow  buntiiig  (emberiza  citrinella)  is 
also,  in  some  places,  called  a  blakeling.  Isl.  blar.  Dut. 
bleek,  pale. 

Blake  autumn — Chaltcrton. 

18  BLAR 

Blaring,  crjing  vehemently,  roaring  louJ,  applied  to  peevish 
children  and  vulgar  drunken  noise.     Dut.  blaren. 

Slash,  to  throw  dirt ;  also  to  scatter,  as  the  "  water  blashed  all 
over"     Germ,  platzen. 

Blashment,  weak  and  diluting  liquor. 

Blashy,  tliin,  poor,  as  blashy  beer,  &c.  It  also  means  wet  and 
dirty.     Dr.  Jam.  has  blush,  a  heavy  fall  of  rain. 

But  aw  fand  maw  sel  blonk'd  when  to  Lunnun  aw  gat, 

The  folks  they  a'  luck'd  wishy  washy  ; 
For  gowld  ye  may  howk  'till  ye're  blind  as  a  bat, 

For  their  streets  are  like  wors— brave  and  hlashy  ! 

Song,  Canny  Newcassel. 

Blast,  v.  to  blow  up  with  gun-powder.     Blast,  s.  an  explo- 
sion of  foul  air  in  a  coal  mine. 
And  oft  a  chilling  damp  or  unctuous  mist, 
Loos'd  from  the  crumbling  caverns,  issues  forth, 
Stopping  the  springs  of  life — Jago^s  Edgchlll. 

Blate,  v.  to  bleat  or  bellow.     Dryden  uses  blata)ii. 

Blate,  a.  shy,  bashful,  timid.  Su.-Got.  Mode.  "  A  toom 
(empty)  purse  makes  a  blate  merchant." — Scot.  Prov. 

Blather,  to  talk  a  great  deal  of  nonsense.  "  He  blathers  and 
talks,"  is  a  connnon  phrase  where  much  is  said  to  little 
pm'pose.  A  person  of  this  kind  is,  by  way  of  pre-eminence, 
styled  a  blathering  hash.  One  of  my  correspondents  de- 
rives the  word  from  blatant,  used  by  Spenser  and  others ; 
another  ingeniously  suggests  that  it  may  be  "  from  the 
noise  of  an  empty  bladder ;"  but  it  appears  to  me  to  be 
either  from  Teut.  blceteren,  to  talk  foolishly,  or  Su.-Got. 
bladdra,  garru'e.  Hence  Blatheruash,  Balderdash,  the 
discourse  itself.     See  Bilder. 

Blaze,  to  tiUie  salmon  by  striking  them  with  a  tlu-ee  pronged 

BLOW  19 

and  bai-bed  dart,  called  a  leister.  I  have  often  seen  it  prac- 
tised in  an  evening,  in  the  River  Tees.  In  Craven,  a  torch 
was  made  of  the  di-y  bark  of  holly,  besmeai-ed  with  pitch. 
The  water  was  so  transparent  that  the  smallest  pebbles 
were  visible  at  the  bottom.  One  man  carried  the  torch 
(when  dark)  either  on  foot  or  on  horseback,  while  another, 
advancing  with  him,  struck  the  salmon  on  the  red,  the 
place  where  the  roe  is  deposited,  with  the  leister.  V. 
Crav.  Gloss,  bloaz'mg. 

Blea,  a  pale  bluish  colour,  often  applied  to  the  discolouration 
of  the  skin  by  a  blow  or  contusion.  It  is  also  sometimes 
used  to  denote  a  bad  colour  in  linen,  indicating  the  neces- 
sity of  bleaching. 

Blea-berry,  Blay-berry,  the  bilberry,  or  whortle  berry.  Isl. 
blaber,  vaccinium  vulgare  myrtillus. 

Bleb,  Blob,  a  drop  of  water  or  bubble  ;  a  blister  or  rising  of 
the  skin. 

Blee,  colour,  complexion.  An  old  word,  not  obsolete,  as 
stated  in  Todd's  Johnson. 

Bleed,  to  yield,  applied  to  corn,  which  is  said  to  "  bleed  well" 
when  on  thrashing  it  happens  to  be  very  productive. 

Blendings,  peas  and  beans  mixed  together. 

Blink,  to  smile,  to  look  kindly,  but  with  a  modest  eye,  the 
word  being  generally  applied  to  females.     Dan.  blinke. 

Blinkard,  Blenkard,  a  person  near  sighted  or  almost  blind. 
A  fighting  cock  with  only  one  eye  is  termed  a  blenker. 

Blirt,  Blurt,  to  cry,  to  make  a  sudden  indistinct  or  un- 
pleasant noise. 

Bloacher,  any  large  animal. 

Blousy,  or  Blowsy,  wild,  disordered,  confused.  Johnson  has 
blowzy,  sun  burnt,  high  coloured. 

Blow,  the  blossom  of  fruit  trees.  Sax.  blowan,  to  bloonL 
The  Crav.  Gloss,  has  blume,  blossom,  from  Germ,  blunt. 

20  BLOW 

Blown-milk,  skimmed  milk.     I  suppose  from  the  custom  of 

blowing  the  cream  off  by  the  breath. 
Blubber,  "  the  part  of  a  whale  that  contains  the  oil,"  Todd's 

John.     But  it  is  the  fat  of  whales. 
Blue.     To  look  blue,  is  to  be  disconcerted. 
Bluffness,  "  surliness,"  Todd's  John.     Rather  arrogance,  or 

a  self-confident  manner. 
Blush,  resemblance.     He  has  a  blush  of  his  brother,  i.  e.  he 

bears  a  resemblance. 
Blusteration,  the  noise  of  a  braggart.     Blustering. 
Bob,  to  disappoint.     Dry  bob  is  an  old  word  for  a  merry  joke 

or  trick. 
Boa,  a  bunch.     Isl.  bobbi,  nodus.     Fr.  bube. 
BoBBEROus,  Bobbersome,  elated,  in  high  spirits. 
BoBBV,  smart,  neat,  tidy. 

There  was  Sam,  O  zoons  ! 
AViv's  pantaloons, 
An'  gravat  up  owre  his  gobby-o  ; 
An'  Willy,  thou, 
AVi'  the  jacket  blue. 
Thou  was  the  varry  hobhy-o. 

Song,  Swalu-ell  Hopping. 

BoDVvoRD,  an  Ul-naturetl  errand.  An  old  word  for  an  ominous 
message.     Su.-Got.  and  Isl.  bodword,  edictum,  mandatiun. 

Boggle,  Boggle-bo,  a  spectre  or  ghost.     Welsh,  bugal,  fear. 

Boggle  aiout  the  stacks,  a  favourite  play  among  young  people 
in  the  villages,  in  which  one  hunts  several  others.  For- 
merly barley  break. 

She  went  abroad,  thereby 
A  barley  break  her  sweet,  swift  feet  to  try — Sidney,  Arcadia. 

Boiling.  The  whole  boiling  means  the  entire  quantity  or 
whole  party. 

BONN  2] 

BoKE,  Bt)UK,  to  nauseate  so  as  to  be  ready  to  vomit,  to  belcli. 

Perhaps  from  Sax.  bealc-an.     Jam.     V.  Ray. 
Boll,  Bole,  the  body  or  trunk  of  a  tree.     Su.-Got.  bol. 
Bo-RiAN,  a  hobgoblin  or  kidnapper, 

I'll  rather  put  on  my  flashing  red  nose,  and  my  flam- 
ing face,  and  come  wrajiped  in  a  calf's-skin,  and 
cry  ho,  bo  ! — Robin  Goodfcllow. 

BoNDAGERs,  cottagers  obliged  to  work  for  farmers,  when  called 
upon,  at  certain  stipulated  wages. 

Bonny,  beautiful,  handsome,  cheerful.  Dr.  Johnson  derives 
this  word  from  Fr.  ban,  bonne,  good  ;  but  as  it  is  so  uni- 
versally in  use  in  the  North,  I  have  little  doubt  it  came 
originally  from  the  Scotch. — Shakspeare  appears  to  have 
understood  it  in  its  different  meanings. 

We  sav  that  Shore's  wife  hath  a  pj-etty  foot, 

A  cherry  lip,  a  honny  eye,  a  passing  pleasing  tongue. 

Match  to  match  I  have  encountered  him, 
And  made  a  prey  for  carrion  kites  and  crows, 
Kv'n  of  the  loiniy  beast  he'  lov'd  so  well. 

'I'hen  sigh  not  so  but  let  them  go, 

And  be  you  blithe  and  honiiy Sfiak.yiefirc. 

()  where  is  the  boatman  ?  my  bonny  honey  ! 

O  where  is  the  boatman  ?  bring  him  to  me — 
To  ferry  me  over  the  Tyne  to  my  honey. 
And  I  will  remember  the  boatman  and  thee. 

The  Water  of  Tync. 
Whe's  like  me  Johnny 
Sae  leish,  sae  blythe,  sae  honny .' 
He's  foremost  'mang  the  mony 
Keel  lads  o'  coaly  Tyne. 

Song,  The  Krd  How. 

22  BOOD 

BooDiES  or  Babbv-boodies,  broken  pieces  of  earthen  vv  are  or 
glass,  used  by  female  children  for  decorating  a  play-house, 
called  a  boody-house,  made  in  imitation  of  an  ornamented 

Then  on  we  went,  as  nice  as  owse, 
Till  nenst  auM  Lizzy  Moody's  ; 
A  whirlwind  cam  an'  myed  a'  souse, 
Like  heaps  o'  babhy-boodies. 

Song,  Jemmy  Jomson's  Whurry. 

Boon,  a  service  or  bonus,  done  by  a  tenant  to  his  landlord,  or 
a  sum  of  money  as  an  equivalent.  Boon-days  are  those 
which  the  tenants  are  obliged  to  employ  for  the  benefit  of 
their  lord  gratis.  Vast  quantities  of  land  in  the  Northern 
counties  are  held  under  lords  of  manors  by  customary 
tenm-e,  subject  to  the  payment  of  fines  and  heriots,  and  the 
performance  of  various  duties  and  services  on  the  boon 

Boor,  Bour,  the  parlour,  or  inner  room  through  the  kitchen, 
in  which  the  head  person  of  the  family  generally  sleeps. 
Isl.  bouan,  to  dwell.  Spenser  uses  bower,  a  lady's  apart- 
ment. Fair  Rosamond's  boiuer,  at  Woodstock,  is  familiar 
to  every  reader. 

BooRLY,  boorish,  rough,  unpolished.     Teut.  boer,  a  boor. 

Boose,  Buess,  Busk,  an  ox  or  cow  stall ;  properly  the  place 
beside  the  stakes  where  the  fodder  lies.  Sax.  bosig.  Isl. 

Boot,  something  given  to  equalise  an  exchange.  Old  Fr. 

Booted,  or  Bolted  Bread,  a  loaf  of  sifted  wheat  meal,  mixed 
with  rye ;  better  than  the  common  household  bread.  V. 
Skin.  bolt. 

Boother,  Boulder,  a  hard  flinty  stone,  rounded  like  a  bowl. 

BOUK  23 

BoRRowED-DAVS,  the  three  last  days  of  March. 
March  hnmnvit  fra  Averill 
Three  days  and  they  were  ill. 

Gloss.  Compl.  Scotl. 
These  days  being  generally  stormy,  our  forefathers,  as 
Dr.  Jamieson  remarks,  have  endeavoured  to  account  for 
this  circumstance  by  pretending  that  March  borrowed  them 
from  April,  that  he  might  extend  his  power  so  much  longer. 
The  superstitious  will  neither  borrow  nor  lend  on  any  of 
these  days,  lest  the  articles  should  be  employed  for  evil 
Botheration,  plague,  trouble,   difficulty.      From  bother,  to 

perplex  or  puzzle. 
BoTTOM-ROOM,  a  single  seat  in  a  pew. 
Bought,  a  fold  where  ewes  are  put  at  milking  time.     Tent. 

Bouk,  to  wash  linen,  or  rather  to  steep  it  or  soak  it  in  lye, 
with  a  view  of  whitening  and  sweetening  it. 

Then  the  thread  is  sod  and  bleaked,  and  htitkcd  and  oft 
layed  to  drieng,  &c — Baithol.  302  h,  I.  1 7,  c.  97- 

Buck  is  used  by  Shakspeare,  as  well  for  the  liquor  in 
which  clothes  are  washed  as  for  the  clothes  themselves. 
Every  body  remembers  Falstaflf's  ludicrous  adventure  in 
the  great  buck-basket.  The  process  of  bonking  Unen, 
adopted  by  the  older  Northumbrian  house-wives,  woidd, 
I  fear,  be  considered  too  homely  for  their  more  Southern 
neighbours  to  imitate,  and  therefore  I  refrain  from  particu- 
larizing it. 
BouK,  Bowk,  bulk,  quantity,  or  size  ;  the  body  of  a  tree.  Su.- 
Got.  bolk.  Chaucer  uses  buuke,  for  the  trunk  of  the  hu- 
man body,  which  Mr.  Tyrwhitt  sa}'s,  is  probably  from  Sax. 
biice,  venter. 

24  BOUN 

BouN,  to  make  ready,  to  prepare,  to  dress.     Old  Eng.  boon, 

boun,  bowne. 
BouRD,  to  jest.     V.  Todd's  John. 

Bout,  a  contest  or  struggle ;  often  applied  to  a  jovial  meeting 
of  the  legitimate  sons  of  Bacchus,  where 
The  dry  divan 
Close  in  firm  circle  ;  and  set,  ardent,  in 
For  serious  drinking Thomson. 

BowDiKiTE,  a  contemptuous  name  for  a  mischievous  child,  an 
insignificant  or  corpulent  person. 

Bowery,  plump,  buxom,  and  young ;  applied  to  a  female  in 
great  health. 

Box,  a  club  or  society  instituted  for  benevolent  or  charitable 
purposes.  It  is  customary  for  the  members  to  have  an 
annual  dinner  called  the  head-meeting  day.  The  oldest 
institution  of  this  kind,  I  have  been  able  to  trace,  is  that  of 
the  keelmen  of  Newcastle  and  the  neighbourhood,  who,  on 
this  occasion,  after  assembling  at  their  hospital,  walk  in 
procession  through  the  principal  streets  of  the  town,  at- 
tended by  a  band  of  nnisic,  fiddles,  &c.  Much  greater 
interest  was  formerly  taken  in  this  business  by  the  parties 
concerned,  who  made  it  a  point  of  honourable  emulation  to 
rival  each  other  in  the  grandeur  of  their  apparel,  especially 
in  the  pea-jacket,  the  sky-blue  stockings,  the  long-quartered 
shoes,  and  large  silver  buckles.  Cold  was  the  heart  of 
that  female,  old  or  young,  connected  with  the  "  Keel  lads 
o'  coaly  Tyne,"  who  could  look  unmoved  on  such  a  spec- 
tacle ;  and  if  the  fair  ones  did  sometimes  indulge  in  scenes 
which  I  neither  wish  to  describe  nor  see  repeated,  their 
rencounters,  generally  commencing  without  any  pre\'ious 
malice,  were  rarely  again  remembered. 

Box  AND  Dice.     A  game  of  hazard,  formerly  much  practised 

BRAN  91 

among  the  pitmen  and  keelmen  at  races,  fairs,  ami  hop- 
pings,  but  now  very  properly  prohibited.  The  tri(c  pro- 
nunciation is  box  and  dies. 

Close  by  the  stocks,  his  dice  and  ho.i, 

He  rattled  away  so  rarely-o, 
Both  youth  and  age,  did  he  engage. 
Together  they  played  so  chearly-o. 

Song,  Wnthdon  Hopphiv:. 

Braad-ba\d,  corn  laid  out  in  the  field  in  band. 
Brabblement,  a  quarrel    or   wrangling.     Dut.  brahhelen,  to 
mingle  confusedly. 

This  petty  hrahhlc  will  undo  us  all. — Shuk.  Tit.  Aiuh: 

Brackens,  or  Breckens,  fern.  In  Smoland,  in  Sweden,  the 
female  fern  is  called  braehen.  Sw.  Stotbraukin.  In  is  a 
termination  in  Gothic,  denotmg  the  female  gender. 

Brade,  to  resemble.  To  brade  of,  from  Su.-Got.  braa,  de- 
notes a  similarity  characteristic  of  the  same  family.  V. 

Brae,  Buoo,  a  bank  or  declivity,  any  broken  sloping  ground. 
Gael,  and  Welsh,  brc,  a  hill. 

Braffam,  Braugham,  a  collar  for  an  husbandry  horse,  some- 
times made  of  old  stockings  stuffed  with  straw. 

Braid,  Brade,  to  nauseate,  to  desire  to  vomit ;  hence  the 
word  iqjbraid.    Braid  is  an  old  obsolete  word  for  reproach. 

Brake,  a  harrow  for  breaking  large  clods  of  earth.  V.  Nares' 
Gloss,  for  other  significations,  &c. 

Bran  or  Brand-new,  quite  new ;  any  thing  fresh  from  the 
makers  hand.  Often  applied  to  clothes  to  denote  the 
shining  glossy  appearance  given  by  passing  a  hot  ii'on  over 
them.  Dut.  brand  niexiw.  Shak.  uses  "fire  new  arms," 
and  "fire  new  fortune." 

26  .  BRAN 

Branded,  a  mixtiue  of  red  and  black.    Dut.  branden. 

Braxder,  an  iron  over  the  fire.     Dut.  brander. 

Brandling,  a  species  of  trout  caught  in  the  rivers  in  North- 
umberland, where  salmon  is  found,  particularly  in  the  Tyne. 
Early  in  the  year  they  are  seen  about  thi'ee  inches  long,  but 
in  the  course  of  a  few  months  increase  to  about  six  inches  ; 
after  which,  they  are  rarely  found  any  larger.  Like  the 
salmon-smelt  and  whitling,  they  have  no  spawn  in  them, 

Brandreth,  an  iron  tripod  fixed  over  the  fire,  on  which  the 
kettle,  or  any  cooking  utensils  are  placed.  Sax.  brandred, 
a  brand  iron. 

Brank,  to  hold  up  the  head  affectedly,  to  put  a  bridle  or  re- 
straint on  any  thing.  "  A  bridled  ewe."  This  word  gives 
me  an  opportunity  of  mentioning  another  of  kinch'ed  im- 
port, the  Branks,  an  instrument  kept  in  the  Mayor's  cham- 
ber, of  Newcastle,  for  the  punishment  of  "  chiding  and 
scolding  women."  It  is  made  of  ii'on,  fastens  round  the 
head  like  a  muzzle,  and  has  a  spike  to  insert  in  the  mouth 
so  as  effectually  to  silence  the  offensive  organ.  Ungallant, 
and  unmercifully  severe  as  this  species  of  torture  seems  to 
be.  Dr.  Plot  much  prefers  it  to  the  cucking  stool,  which, 
he  says,  "  not  only  endangers  the  health  of  the  party,  but 
also  gives  the  tongue  liberty  'twixt  every  dipp."  See  an  en- 
engraving  of  Robert  Shai'p,  an  officer  of  the  Corporation, 
leading  Ann  Bidlestone  through  the  town,  with  a  paii'  of 
branks  on  her  head,  in  Gardiner's  Englands  Grievance  dis- 
covered, orig.  edit.  p.  110. 

Brant,  steep,  difficult  of  ascent,  as  a  brant  brow,  a  steep  hill. 
It  also  means  consequential,  pompous  in  one's  walk,  as 
"  you  seem  very  brant  this  morning,"  i.  e.  you  put  on  all 
your  consequence.  A  game  cock  is  said  to  be  brant.  Lof- 
tiness appeal's  to  enter  into  all  the  meanings  of  the  word. 
Isl.  brattr,  acclivis,  ai'duus,     Sw.  brant. 

BREM  27 

Brash,  or  Water-brash,  a  sudden  sickness,  with  acid  rising 

in  the  mouth,  as  in  the  heart-burn.     V.  Wachter,  brasscn. 

This  word  it  also  used  in  some  places  to  denote  twigs,  and 

as  an  adjective  for  impetuous,  rash. 
Brashy,  delicate  in  constitution,  subject  to  fi-equent  bodily 

Brass,  money,  riches,    A  wealthy  person  is  said  to  have  plenty 

of  brass. 

The  brass  aw've  getten  at  the  race 

Will  buy  a  patch  for  Jacob's  face — Song,  X.  Y.  Z. 

Brat,  the  film  on  the  surface  of  some  liquids,  as  on  boiled  milk 
when  cooled.  Also  a  child's  bib  or  coarse  apron.  Is  it  in 
both  these  senses  from  Germ,  breiten,  to  spread  ?  In  the 
latter  it  may  come  from  Sax.  bratt,  which  Johnson  tran- 
slates a  blanket,  when  he  notices  it  as  a  child  in  contempt. 

Bratchet,  a  contemptuous  epithet,  generally  applied  to  an  ill 
behaved  child.     Fr.  Bratchet,  a  slow  hound. 

Brattle,  to  sound  like  thunder. — Brattle  of  "  thunner"  a 
clap  of  thunder. 

Braw,  finely  clothed,  handsome,  clever.  Teut.  braive, 

BRA^vLY,  Bravely,  very  well,  finely,  in  good  health.      Sw. 


Brawm,  a  boar. 

Her  grace  sits  mumping 

Like  an  old  ape  eating  a  brawm. 

Beaum.  ^  Flet.  Mad  Lover. 

Bray,  to  crush  or  bruise,  to  pound  in  a  mortar.     Fr.  braier. 

Breeks,  breeches.     Sax.  brccc. 

Brede  or  Breed,  breadth  or  extent.     An  old  English  word 

from  the  Sax.     See  Abrede. 
Breme,  v.  applied  to  a  sow  when  maris  appetens.     Brim,  a.  ar« 

dor,  aestus.     Sax.  bryne. 

28  BRER 

Brere,  to  sprout,  to  prick  up  as  grain  does  when  it  first  germi- 
nates. Hence  Breward,  Bruarts,  the  tender  blades  of 
springing  corn.     Sax,  broi'd. 

Brevvis,  a  large  thick  crust  of  bread  put  into  the  pot  where  salt 
beef  is  boiling  and  netuly  ready:  it  attracts  a  portion  of  the 
fat,  and  when  swelled  out  is  no  unpalatable  dish  to  those 
who  (like  some  of  our  northern  swains)  rarely  taste  meat. 
So  says  IVIrs.  Bundle,  who,  I  believe,  was  long  a  resident 
in  Northumberland.  After  this,  I  need  hardly  remark  that 
Mr.  Wilbraham  is  mistaken  in  thinking  it  is  used  only  in 
Clieshire  and  Lancashu'e.  The  word  occurs  in  Beamn.  & 
Flet.  but  in  the  sense  of  broth. 

Brewster,  a  brewer.  Hence,  I  conceive,  the  Brewster  Ses- 
sions, when  publicans  receive  theii"  licenses. 

Brian.  To  brian  an  oven,  is  to  keep  fire  at  the  mouth  of  it, 
either  to  give  light  or  to  preserve  the  heat. 

Bricks,  bread  something  like  French  rolls. 

Bride-ale.  The  day  of  marriage  has  always  been  a  time  of 
festivity.  Among  the  plebeians  in  Cumberland  it  glides 
away  amidst  nuisic,  dancing,  and  revelry.  Early  in  the 
morning,  the  bridegroom,  attended  by  his  friends  on  horse- 
back, proceeds  in  a  gallop  to  the  house  of  the  bride's  father. 
Having  alighted  he  salutes  her,  and  then  the  company 
breakfast  together.  This  repast  concluded,  the  whole  nup- 
tial party  depart  in  cavalcade  order  towai'ds  the  church, 
accompanied  by  a  fiddler,  who  plays  a  succession  of  tunes 
appropriate  to  the  occasion.  Immediately  after  the  per- 
formance of  the  ceremony  the  company  retire  to  some 
neighbouring  ale-homeland  many  a  flowing  bumper  of  home 
brewed,  is  quaffed  to  the  health  of  the  happy  pair.  Ani- 
mated with  this  earthly  nectar,  they  set  off  full  speed  to- 
wards the  futiu-e  residence  of  the  bride,  where  a  handker- 
chief is  presented  to  the  first  who  arrives.     In  Craven, 

BRID  29 

after  the  connubial  knot  is  tieil,  a  ribbon  is  proposed  as  the 
subject  of  contention  either  for  a  foot  or  a  horse  race. — 
Should  any  of  the  doughty  disputants,  however,  omit  to 
shake  hands  with  the  bride,  he  forfeits  the  prize,  though 
otherwise  entitled  to  win.  Whoever  fii-st  reaches  the 
bride's  habitation,  is  ushered  into  the  bridal  chamber,  and 
after  ha\'ing  performed  the  ceremony  of  tiu-ning  down  the 
bed  clothes,  he  returns,  cai-rying  in  his  hand  a  tankard  of 
luarm  ale,  pre^dously  prepared,  to  meet  the  bride,  to  whom 
he  triumphantly  offers  his  humble  beverage,  and  by  whom, 
in  return,  he  is  presented  with  the  ribbon,  as  the  honoiu*- 
able  reward  of  his  victorj'. 

Bride-cake.  It  is  customary  after  the  bridal  party  leave  the 
church  to  have  a  thin  currant-cake,  marked  in  squiu-es, 
though  not  entirely  cut  through.  A  clean  cloth  being  spread 
over  the  head  of  the  bride,  the  bride-groom  stands  behind 
her,  and  breaks  the  cake.  Thus  hallowed,  it  is  thrown  up 
and  scrambled  for  by  the  attendants,  to  excite  prophetic 
dreams  of  love  and  marriage,  and  has  much  more  viitue 
than  when  it  is  merely  put  nine  times  through  the  ring. 

Bride-wain,  a  custom  in  Cumberland  where  the  friends  of  a 
new  married  couple  assemble  together  in  consequence  of  a 
pi'evious  invitation  (sometimes  actually  by  public  advertise- 
ment) and  are  treated  with  cold  pies,  frumenty,  and  ale. — 
The  company  afterwards  join  in  all  the  various  pastimes  of 
the  country,  and  at  the  conclusion,  the  bride  and  bride- 
groom are  placed  in  two  chairs,  the  former  holding  a  pew- 
ter dish  on  her  knee,  half  covered  with  a  napkin.  Into 
this  dish  every  person  present,  how  high  or  low  soever, 
,  makes  it  a  point  to  put  something ;  and  these  offerings 
occasionally  amoimt  to  a  considerable  sum.  I  suppose  it 
has  olitained  the  name  of  umin,  from  a  very  ancient  custom. 

30  BRIG 

now  obsolete  in  the  north,  of  presenting  a  bride,  who  had 
no  great  stock  of  her  own,  with  a  waggon  load  of  furni- 
ture or  provisions.  On  this  occasion  the  horses  were  de- 
corated with  ribbons. 

"  There  let  Hymen  oft  appear 
"  In  saffron  robe  and  taper  clear, 
"  And  pomp,  and  feast,  and  revelry, 
"  With  mask  and  ancient  pageantry." 

Brigg,  a  bridge.     Pure  Saxon. 

Brissle,  to  scorch  or  di'y  very  hard.     Sax.  bmstlian,  to  make 

a  crackling  noise.   Brussle  has  the  same  meaning ;  as  brus- 

sled  peas,  peas  scorched  in  the  straw. 

He  routeth  with  a  slepie  noyse. 

And  Iromtkih  as  a  monkes  froyse. — Gow.  Conf.  Amau. 

Break  'em  more,  they  are  but  Imstled  yet. 

Bcainn.  S^  Flet.  Wife  for  a  Mcmth. 

Broach,  a  spire  or  steeple ;  as  Chester  broach,  Darlington 
broach,  the  broaches  of  Durham  Cathedral.  An  instru- 
ment on  which  yarn  is  wound,  is  also  called  a  broach. 

Brock,  a  badger.  Pure  Sax.  It  is  also  a  name  given  to  a 
cow,  or  husbandry  horse.  Brock-faced,  a  white  longitu- 
dinal mark  down  the  face  like  a  badger.  Su.-Got.  brokiig, 
of  more  than  one  colour. 

Broddle,  to  make  holes. 

Broke.  Sheep  are  said  to  be  so,  when  l^ing  under  a  broken 

Brotchet,  Brotchert,  or  Bragwort,  a  thin  liquor  made 
from  the  last  squeezings  of  honey-comb. 

Brott,  shaken  corn.     Sax.  gebrude,  fragments. 

Browden,  to  be  anxious  for,  or  warmly  attached  to  any  ob- 
ject. To  browden  on  a  thing,  is  to  be  fond  of  it.  Dut.  hroe-^ 
den,  to  brood. 

BULL  ol 

Browdin,  or  Browdaxt,  vain,  conceited. 

As  she  delights  into  the  low. 

So  was  I  hroxod'm  of  my  bow Cherry  and  the  She. 

Brown-leemers,  ripe  brown  nuts  that  easily  separate  from  the 
husks.     Probably  from  brown,  and  Fr.  les  meurs,  the  ripe 
Brulliment,  broil.     Fr.  broidller. 

Bubbly,  snotty.    "  The  baii'u  has  a  bubbly  nose." — Grose. 
I  thought  to  marry  a  sailor. 

To  bring  me  sugar  and  tea  ; 
But  I  have  married  a  keelman. 

And  that  he  lets  me  see. 
He's  an  ugly  body,  a  buhblij  body. 

An  iU-fard,  ugly  loon  ; 
And  I  have  married  a  keelman. 
And  my  good  days  are  done. 

Song,  T/tc  Sandgaie''s  Lamcntafiun. 

BuBBLY-JOCK,  a  turkey  cock.     V.  Jam. 
Buckle,  to  marry.     Significant  enough. 
Buckle-mouthed,  a  person  with  large  straggling  teeth. 
What  a  fyace,  begok  ! 
Had  hitclle-moitthcd  Jock, 
AVhen  he  twined  his  jaws  for  the  backey-o  ! 

Song,  S'Milwell  Hopji'tng. 
Buck-stick.     See  Spell  and  Ore,  and  Trippit  and  Coit. 
Budge,  to  bulge,  to  move  off,  generally  unwillingly.     Also  to 

abridge  or  lessen.     "  I  wont  budge  a  penny." 
Buer,  a  gnat. 

BuLE,  or  BooL,  the  bow  of  a  pan  or  kettle. 
Bull-fronts,  tufts  of  coarse  grass,  Aira  cccpitosa. 
Bull-stang,  a  dragon  fly. 

Bulls  and  Cows,  the  flower  of  the  Arum  maculalum,  also  called 
lords  and  ladies,  and  lam-lakens. 

32  BULL 

Bull-trout,  a  large  fine  species  peculiai*  to  Northumberland, 
and  much  esteemed.  The  larger  kind  of  salmon-trout 
taken  in  the  Coquet,  are  in  the  Newcastle  mai'ket  called 
bull  trouts  ;  but  these  fish  are  larger  than  salmon-trout  in 
the  head,  which  is  a  part  generally  admired  for  its  smallness. 

Bully,  the  champion  of  a  party,  the  eldest  male  person  in  a 
family.  Now  generally  used  among  keelmen  and  pitmen 
to  designate  their  brothers,  as  bitlly  Jack,  bully  Bob,  &c. 
Probabl}'  derivetl  from  the  obsolete  word  boulie,  beloved. 

Bum,  v.  to  strike,  to  beat,  to  spin  a  top.  Dut.  bommen,  to  re- 

Bum,  s.  the  follower  or  assistant  of  a  bailiff.  Johnson  has 
bum-bailiff,  a  well-known  name  for  an  unpopular  officer  of 
the  law,  but  the  north  country  bum,  is  a  distinct  personage, 
aiding  and  assisting  the  bailiff.  It  may  be  from  bound, 
though  more  likely  from  bum,  the  buttocks,  a  word  which 
Shakspeare  never  disdcuned  to  use,  when  he  thought  it 
best  to  call  a  thing  by  its  most  expressive  name. 

Bumble,  or  Bummel-kites,  bramble-berries.^Z)Mr.  Black- 
BowvvovvERS. — North.     Black-berries. — Newc. 

Bumbler,  a  large  wild  bee,  called  sometimes  bumble-bee.  Tent. 
bommele,  a  drone.  Bumbler-box,  a  small  wooden  toy  used 
by  the  bo3's  to  hold  these  insects. 

Bump,  a  stroke,  a  blow  received  by  running  against  any  thing ; 
often  applied  to  the  rising  of  the  flesh  occasioned  by  a 
blow.  Lsl.  bomps.  "  Bump  against  Jarrow,"  is  a  common 
expression  among  the  keelmen  when  the\-  run  foul  of  any 

The  laddie  ran  sweateii,  ran  sweaten, 

The  laddie  ran  sweaten  about ; 
Till  the  keel  went  hu)/ij)  (igahisi  Jarrow, 
And  three  o'  the  bullies  lap  out. 

Song,  The  Little  Pec  Dec. 

BURT  33 

Bumping,  a  peculiar  sort  of  punishment  amongst  youngsters. 
Too  many  boys  have  reason  to  remember  the  school  dis- 
cipline of  bumping,  admirably  described  by  Major  Moor. — 
V.  Suff.  Words,  p.  53. 

BuxcH-BERRY,  the  fruit  of  the  rubis  saxatUis,  of  which  country 
people  make  tarts. 

Bunch,  Punch,  to  strike  or  kick. 

Bunting,  a  large  piece  or  balk  of  timber. — Newcastle. 

Bur,  any  thing  put  under  a  wheel  to  stop  its  progress. 

Burn,  a  brook.  A  b^ini  winds  slowlj'  along  meadows,  and  ori- 
ginates from  small  springs  ;  while  a  beck  is  formed  by  wa- 
ter collected  on  the  sides  of  mountains,  and  proceeds  with 
a  rapid  stream,  though  never,  I  think,  applied  to  rivers  that 
become  estuaries.     Pure  Sax. 

Burn-the-Biscuit.     A  youthful  game. 

Burnt-his-Fingers.  When  a  person  has  failed  in  any  object 
or  speculation,  or  has  been  over-reached  in  any  endeavour 
or  undertaking,  he  is  said  to  have  burnt  his  fingers. 

Burr,  a  peculiar  whirring  sound,  made  by  the  natives  of  New- 
castle, in  pronouncing,  or  rather  in  endeavouring  to  pro- 
nounce the  letter  R,  derived  from  theii-  ancestors. — "  He 
has  the  Newcastle  bm-r  in  his  throat." — Prov. 

Rcjiinngm  language,  improving  m  notes. 
Letter  R  runs  far  smoother  and  glib  through  their  tliroats ; 
Their  Andrews,  these  sirnames,  bear  better  degrees, 
Ralphs,  Richardsons,  Rogersons,  uttered  with  ease. 

Address  of  the  Guildhall-Crows. 

Bur-tree,  the  common  elder.  Perhaps  bore-tree,  from  the 
quantity  or  size  of  the  pith,  which  renders  it  capable  of  be- 
ing easily  bored;  though  Dr.  Willan  says,  it  is  so  called 
because  the  flowers  grow  in  a  cjine,  close  together,  like 


34  BUSH 

those  of  the  bm\ — A  branch  of  this  tree  is  supposed  to  pos- 
sess great  viitue  in  guarding  the  wearer  against  the  charm 
of  witchcraft.  I  remember,  when  a  Httle  boy,  during  a 
school  vacation  in  the  country,  carrying  it  in  my  own  but- 
ton hole,  with  doubled  thumb,  when  under  the  necessity  of 
passing  the  residence  of  a  poor  decrepit  old  woman,  sus- 
pected of  holding  occasional  converse  with  the  spiiitual 
enemy  of  mankind. 

Bush  of  a  Wheel,  that  which  is  employed  to  fill  up  the  two 
great  vacancy  either  in  the  aperture  of  the  nave  or  between 
the  nave  and  the  /lurters,  that  is,  knocking  shoulder  of  the 
axle,  from  Fr.  hcurter,  to  knock. 

BusKY,  woody,  bushy,  Lat.  boscus.     Fr.  bosquet,  a  thicket. 
How  bloodily  the  sun  begins  to  peer 
Above  yon  husky  hill — Shak.  \st.  Hen.  IV. 

Blss,  to  cb'ess,  to  get  ready.     Germ,  jndzen,  to  deck  or  adorn. 
Sich  aufa  bcste  'putzen,  to  dress  to  the  best  advantage.     The 
Scotch  have  busk,  to  dress,  and  busks,  dresses. 
For  Geordy  aw'd  dee, — for  my  loyalty's  trig, 

And  aw  own  he's  a  gued  leuken  mannie  ; 
But  if  Avor  Sir  Matthew  ye  buss  iv  his  wig. 
By  gocks  !  he  wad  leuk  just  as  canny. 

Song,  Canny  Newcassel. 

Bust,  v.  to  put  a  tar  mark  upon  sheep.  Bust,  s.  the  mark 

But  and  ben,  the  outer  and  inner  apartment  where  there  are 
only  two  rooms.  Many  houses  on  the  borders,  where  the 
expression  is  common,  ai*e  so  constructed.     V.  Jam.  ben. 

Butter  and  Brede.  While  the  Southerns  say,  bread  and 
butter,  bread  and  cheese,  bread  and  milk,  the  Northum- 
brians place  in  the  reai'  that  great  article — the  staff"  of  life. 

CADG  35 

Butter-fingered,  said  of  persons  who  are  apt  to  let  things 

fall,  or  slip  through  theii*  fingers. 
BuzzoM,  or  BussoM,  a  besom  or  broom. 
Buy  broom  hussoms. 

Buy  them  when  they're  new, 
Buy  broom  biisso?ns. 

Better  never  grew Blind  Willie''s  Song. 

Byar,  Byer,  a  house  in  which  cows  are  bound  up — a  cow- 
house.    "  The  mucking  of  Geordie's  byre."      V.  Jam. 

Bye-bootings,  By-boltings,  or  Sharps,  the  finest  kind  of 
bran ;  the  second  in  quality  being  called  Treet,  and  the 
worst  Chizzel. 

Byspelt,  a  strange,  awkward  figure,  or  a  mischievous  person, 
always  acting  contrary  to  reason,  or  propriety,  as  if  labour- 
ing under  the  influence  of  a  spell. 


CaCK,  alvum  exonerare.  Lat.  cacare.  Teut.  JcacJcen. — Cack, 
Cackey,  from  the  verb. 

Cackle,  to  make  a  noise  like  a  hen,  to  giggle. 

Cadge,  to  carry.  Cadger,  to  a  mill.  Teut.  ketzen,  discurrere. 
It  also  means  to  stuff  or  fill  the  belly.  Hence  a  person  is 
said  to  be  cadgy,  cheerful,  merry,  after  good  eating  and 

Cadger,  a  packman  or  travelling*  huckster.     Before  the  for- 
mation of  regular  turnpike  roads  from  Scotland  to  North- 
umberland, the  chief  part  of  the  commercial  intercourse 
between  the  two  kingdoms  was  carried  on  through   the 
medium  of  cadgers.     Persons  who  bring  fish  from  the  sea 
to  the  Newcastle  market  are  still  called  cadgers. 
Here  cadgers  of  commerce,  commodities  cart. 
With  hucksters  and  hawkers,  to  Mayor  Millar's  mart. 
Song,  Framliiigton  Fab: 

36  CAFF 

Caff,  chaff.     Sax.  ceaf.     Germ,  and  Dut.  kaf. 
Caingy,  peevish,  ill-tempered,  testy. 

Cairn,  a  rude  heap  of  stones  found  on  the  summit  of  hills  and 
in  other  remarkable  situations.     Gael.  came. 
On  many  a  ca'irn''s  gray  pyramid. 
Where  urns  of  mighty  chiefs  lie  hid. 

ScoWs  Lay  ofiJie.  last  Minstrel. 

Calf-lick,  or  Cow-lick,  a  tuft  on  the  human  forehead  which 
cannot  be  made  to  lie  in  the  same  direction  with  the  rest 
of  the  hair.     This  term  nuist  have  been  adopted  from  a 
compai-ison  with  that  pait  of  a  calf's  or  cow's  hide,  where 
the  hairs,  having  different  directions,  meet  and  form  a  pro- 
jecting ridge,  supposed  to  be  occasioned  by  the  animals 
licking  themselves. 
Calf-yard,  a  person's  buth-place,  a  Newcastle-man's  fireside. 
Aw've  leern'd  to  prefer  me  awn  canny  calf-yaird; 
If  ye  catch  me  mair  frae't  ye'll  be  cunnun. 

Song,  Canny  Newcassel. 

Call,  to  abuse.     They  called  one  another  ! 

Call,  to  proclaim,  or  to  give  notice  by  the  public  crier.     To 

be  called  at  church,  to  have  the  banns  of  marriage  published. 

The  ceremony  of  proclaiming  every   fail-  in    Newcastle, 

which  is  attended  by  the  officers  of  the  corporation,  in 

state,  is  denominated  calling  the  fair. 
Callant,  a  stripling ;  a  man  clever  or  much  esteemed.     Q.  Fr. 

gallant  ? 
Caller,  cool,  fresh.     "  Caller  herrings" — "  caller  cocks,"  or 

"  caller  cockles" — "  caller  ripe  grosers" — Newc.  cries.    Isl. 

kalldiir,  |ngidus. 
Callet,  to  scold. — Calleting,  saucy,  gossiping. — A  Callet- 
I  ING  Housewife,  a  regular  scold. 

A  callet  of  boundless  tongue. — Shak.  Winter^s  Tale. 

CANT  37 

Cam,  a  ridge,  hedge,  or  old  earthen  mound.     Sax.  comb, 
Cammerell,  a  large  stretcher  used  by  butchers. 
Cample,  to  argue,  to  answer  pertly  and  frowardly  when  re- 
buked by  a  superior.     Germ,  kainpfen,  to  contend. 
Caxdle-cap,  an  old  hat  without  a  bruii,  with  a  candle  in  front, 

used  by  butchers. 
Canker,  rust. — Cankered,  cross,  ill-conditioned. 
Caxnv,  a  genuine  Newcastle  word,  applied  to  any  thing  supe- 
rior or  of  the  best  kind.  It  refers  as  well  to  the  beauty  of 
form  as  of  manners  and  morals ;  but  most  particulai'ly  is 
used  to  describe  those  mild  and  affectionate  dispositions 
which  render  persons  agreeable  in  the  domestic  state. 
"  Canny  Newcassel,"  par  excellence,  is  proverbial. — Canni- 
NESS,  caution,  good  conduct. 

God  bless  the  king  and  nation  ! 
Each  bravely  fills  his  station, 
Our  camiy  corporation, 

Lang  may  they  sing,  wi'  me. 

Song,  The  Keel  Row. 
Cant,  to  upset,  to  overturn. 

Bob  canted  the  form,  with  a  kevel, 

As  he  was  exerting  his  strength  ; 
But  he  got  on  the  lug  such  a  nevel, 
That  down  he  came  all  his  long  length. 

The  Collkr''s  Pay  Week. 
Cant-dog,  an  handspike  with  a  hook,  used  for  turning  over 

large  pieces  of  timber. 
Canting,  a  sale  by  auction,  proclaimed  publicly  on  the  spot 

where  it  is  to  take  place.     Ital.  incanto. 
Cantv,  men-y,  lively,  cheerful.     Su.-Got.  ganta,  ludificare. 
"  Some  canny  wee  boddie  may  be  me  lot, 
"  And  aw'll  be  canty  wi'  thinking  o't." 

L  4  <.nX  / 

38  CAP 

Cap,  to  overcome  in  argument,  to  excel  in  any  feat  of  agility. 
Tuet.  kappe,  the  summit. — Capper,  one  who  excels. 

Capsize,  to  overturn. 

Cab-handed,  left  handed.  One  of  the  ancient  Kings  of  Scot- 
land was  called  "  Kinath-Kerr,"  or  Kinath  the  left  handed. 

Carl,  Karl,  a  country  fellow,  a  gruiFold  man.  Sax.  ceorl. 
Isl.  karl.     Dut.  kaerel. 

Cablings,  grey  peas  steeped  all  night  in  water,  and  fried  the 
next  day  with  butter.  They  are  sei-ved  at  table,  on  the 
second  Sunday  before  Easter,  called  Cabling  Sunday, 
formerly  denominated  Care  Sunday,  which  is  Passion  Sun- 
day, as  Care  Friday  and  Care  Week,  are  Good  Friday 
and  Holy  Week — supposed  to  be  so  called  from  that  being 
a  season  of  great  religious  care  and  anxiety. 

Carr,  flat  marshy  land ;  a  pool  or  lake. 

Carrock,  or  CuRROCK,  a  heap  of  stones,  used  as  a  bounder 
mark  or  as  a  guide  for  travellers.  Also  a  mountain,  ap- 
pearing at  a  distance,  by  which,  when  the  sun  appears  over 
it,  the  country  people  compute  the  time  of  the  day. 

Carry-on-the-War,  to  keep  up  or  continue  fun  or  mischief 
after  it  has  once  commenced. 

Ah  !  no  ;  in  Heaton  cellars  they 

Would  rather  chuse  to  be, 
jVIost  jovial,  carrying-on-thc-war. 

All  under  lock  and  key  ! — Song,  BlackcWs  Field. 

Casings,  Cassons,  Cow-blades,  cow  dung  dried  for  fuel. 
Cassen,  cast  off;    as  "  cassen  clothes." — Cassen-top,  a  top 

thrown  off  with  a  string. 
Cast,  a  twist  or  contortion. 
Caster,  or  Castor,  a  little  box  ;  as  2yepper  caster.     Wanting 

in  this  sense  in  Todd's  John. 
Cast-up,  to  upbraid,  to  reproach. 

CHAN  39 

Cat-haws,  the  fruit  of  the  white  thorn.     The  larger  ones  are 

called  5z///-haws. 
Cat's-foot,  ground-ivy. 

Catterwauling,  wooing,  courting ;  or  rather  rambling  or  in- 
triguing in  the  night. 
Cat-with-two-tails,  an  earwig. 
Caud,  cold.     Teut.  kaud,  frigidus. 
Cave,  or  Kave,  to  separate,  as  corn  from  the  straw  or  chaff. 

Teut.  kaven. 
Cavel,  or  Kavel,  a  lot.     Teut.  kavel.     To  Cast  Cavels,  to 

cast  lots.     Teut.  kavelcn. 
Cawkers,  the  hind  parts  of  a  horse's  shoe  sharpened,  and 
pointed  downwards,  to  prevent  the  anunal  from  slipping. 
Also  the  iron  plates  put  upon  clogs,  which  see.     Lat.  calx. 
Certees,  Sarties,  certainly.     A  good  old  Spenserian  word, 
used  also  by  Shakspeare  and  others.     My  certes  !   maw 
sn/iees,  upon  my  faith  !  in  good  truth. 
"  Blue  stockings,  white  clocks,  and  reed  garters, 
"  Yellow  breeks,  and  my  slioon,  -vvi'  lang  quarters, 
"  Aw  myed  wor  bairas  cry, 
"  Eh  !  sarties  !  ni !  ni ! 
"  Sic  verra  fine  things  had  Bob  Cranky." 

Chaffs,  Chafts,  jaws,  jaw-bones,  chops. 

Chamberlye,  Chemmerlev,  fetid  or  stale  urine.  Omitted 
by  both  Johnson  and  Todd,  though  found  in  a  passage 
cited  from  Shakspeare  under  the  word  jo7'den. 

Changeling,  a  child  of  a  peevish  or  malicious  temper,  or  dif- 
fering in  looks  from  the  rest  of  a  family — supposed  to  have 
been  changed,  when  an  infant,  by  the  gipsies.  The  fairies 
of  old  were  famous  for  stealing  the  most  beautiful  and 
witty  children,  and  leaving  in  their  places  such  as  were 
ugly  and  stupid. 

40  '  CHAP 

Chap,  to  knock,  as  at  the  door.     Scotch. 
Chap,  Chep,  a  customer.     Also  a  general  term  for  a  man,  used 
either  respectfully  or  contemptuously. 
When  aw  was  drest. 
It  was  confest 
We  shem'd  the  chejps  frae  Newcassel-o. 

Song,  Swal-cedl  Hopping. 

Chare,  a  narrow  lane  or  alley.  Peculiar  to  Newcastle,  where 
there  are  several,  particularly  on  the  Quay-side.  Sax. 
cerre,  diverticulum.  Some,  however,  think  from  the  word 
ajar,  partly  open. 
Chattered,  bruised.  Corruption  of  shattered. 
Chatter-water,  tea.  I  suppose  from  chattering  or  gossiping 
over  it. 

Whyles,  o'er  the  wee  bit  cup  an'  platie, 
They  sip  the  scandal  potion  pretty, 

Burns,  Twa  Dogs. 

Cheerer,  a  glass  of  spirit  and  warm  water.  Not  a  bad  meta- 

Cheg,  or  Cheggle,  to  gnaw  or  champ  a  resisting  substance. 

Chieve,  to  succeed,  to  accomplish  any  business.  An  old  word 
used  by  Chaucer.     Fr.  ckevir,  to  master, 

Childer,  children.     The  Saxon  phu-al  termination. 

Childermass-day,  the  feast  of  the  Holy  Innocents,  a  festival 
of  great  antiquity.  An  apprehension  is  entertained  by  the 
superstitious  that  no  undertaking  can  prosper  which  is  begun 
on  that  day  of  the  week  on  which  it  last  fell.     Pure  Sax. 

Chimlay,  chimney. 

Chimlay-piece,  mantel-piece. — Chimlay-neuk,  chimney-cor- 

Chip,  to  crack  or  partly  break ;  said  of  an  egg  when  the  young 
bird  cracks  the  shell.     Dut.  k'qipen,  to  hatch  or  disclose. 

CLAM  41 

Chip-of-the-old-Block,  a  child  who  in  person  or  sentiments 
resembles  its  parents. — Brother-chip,  a  person  of  the 
same  trade. 

Chopp'd,  Chapp'd,  or  Hack'd-hands,  frost-bitten  hands, 

Choppixg-boy,  a  stout  bow  Dr.  John.,  dissatisfied  with  Skin- 
ner's definition  of  lusty,  says,  "  perhaps  a  greedy,  hungry 
child,  likely  to  live,"  which  is  certainly  erroneous, 

Choul,  or  Jowl,  the  jaw.     Sax.  ceole. 

Christian-horses,  a  nickname  for  sedan-chairmen. 

Chuck,  a  shell.  Chucks  and  Marvels,  a  game  among  chil- 

Chucker,  Double-chucker.  Terms  well  known  among 
Northern  topers. 

Chuckle-headed,  stupid,  thick-headed. 

Churn,  or  Kern-supper,  harvest  home.     See  Mell-supper. 

Chuse-but,  avoid. 

Clack,  excessive  talking,  clamour.     Teut.  Mack. 

Clag,  to  stick  or  adhere.  Dan.  kl<pg. — Claggv,  having  the 
property  of  sticking. 

Clagham,  Claggum,  treacle  made  hard  by  boiling. — Newc. 
Called  in  other  places  in  the  North,  clag-candy,  lady's  taste, 
slittery,  torn  trot,  and  treacle  ball. 

Cl.ui,  to  castrate  a  bull  or  ram. 

Clam,  to  starve,  to  be  parched  with  thirst.     Dut.  klemmen. 

"When  my  entrails 

Were  clumm''d  with  keeping  a  perpetual  fast. 

Massinger,  Rom.  Actor. 

Clammersome,  greedy,  rapacious,  contentious.    Dan.  klammer- 


Clamp,  to  make  a  noise,  to  tread  heavily  in  walking.     Dut. 

klompen.     Sw.  klanipig. 
Clamps,  pieces  ol"  iron  at  the  ends  of  a  fire-place. 


42  CLAN 

Clanker,  a  beating,  a  chastisement. 

That  day  aw  Hawks's  blacks  may  rue, — 
They  gat  mony  a  very  sair  clanker,  O  ; 
Can  they  de  owse  wi'  Crowley's  crew 
Frev  a  needle  tiv  an  anchor,  O. 

Song,  Swalwcll  Hopping. 

Clap,  to  touch  gently,  to  fondle,  to  pat. — Clap-benny,  a  re- 
quest made  to  infants  in  the  nurse's  arms,  to  clap  their 
hands,  as  the  only  means  they  have  of  expressing  theii* 
prayers.     Isl.  klappa,  to  clap,  and  bteii,  prayer. 

Clapper,  the  tongue,  especially  when  too  voluble. 

Clart,  to  daub,  to  bemii'e. — Clarts,  plural  of  dkt  or  mu-e. 
— Clarty,  miiy,  dirty,  wet,  slippery. 

Clash,  to  gossip.  Germ.  Jdatschen,  to  prattle.  Also  to  throw 
any  thing  carelessly  or  violentlj'. 

Claut,  to  scratch  or  claw,  to  scrape  together. 

Claver,  Clavver,  to  climb  up ;  mostly  applied  to  children. 
It  seems  to  be  a  coiTuption  of  cleavering,  or  adhering,  mixed 
with  the  idea  of  climbing. 

Clay-uaubin,  a  custom  in  Cumberland,  where  the  neighbours 
and  friends  of  a  new  married  couple  assemble  and  don't 
separate  until  they  have  erected  them  a  cottage.  From 
the  number  of  hands  employed  it  is  generally  completed  in 
a  day.     The  company  then  rejoice  and  make  merry. 

Cleck,  Clock,  to  hatch.  Isl.  kick.  A  hen  sitting,  or  desirous 
of  sittmg  on  her  eggs,  is  called  a  Clecker,  or  Clocker. 

Cleck  or  Clock,  Clecking  or  Clocking,  the  noise  made  by 
a  brooding  hen,  or  when  she  is  provoked.  Isl.  klak,  clan- 
gor avium. 

Cleck,  Cleckin,  the  entire  brood  of  chickens. 

Cleet,  a  stay  or  support  in  carpentry. 

Cleets,  pieces  of  u'on  worn  by  countrymen  on  their  shoes. 

COAL  43 

Cleg,  a  fly,  very  troublesome  in  hot  weather,  pai'ticularly  to 
horses.     Dan.  klaeg. 

Cleg,  a  clever  person,  an  adept. 

Clegning,  Cleaning,  the  after  birth  of  a  cow. 

Cleugh,  CLorGH,  a  ravine,  a  valley,  between  two  precipitous 
banks,  generally  having  a  runner  of  water  at  the  bottom. 
Sax.  dough.  The  admirers  of  old  poetry  are  familiar  \vith 
CljTn  of  the  Clough,  a  noted  archer,  and  the  companion  of 
our  celebrated  Northern  outlaws,  Adam  Bell  and  William 
of  Cloudeslee. 

Click,  to  snatch  hastily,  to  seize.     Germ,  klickcn,  to  throw. 

Clifty,  well  managing,  actively  industrious. 

Clip,  to  shear  sheep.  Dut.  kl'ippen.  Clipping,  a  sheep- 

Clish-clash,  Clish-ma-claver,  idle  discourse  bandied  about. 

Cloffey,  a  slattern,  a  female  dressed  in  a  tawdry  manner. 

Clogs,  a  sort  of  shoes,  the  upper  part  of  strong  hide  leather, 
and  the  soles  of  wood,  plated  with  iron,  often  termed  caio- 

Clointer,  to  make  a  noise  with  the  feet.  A  person  treading 
heavily  with  shoes,  shod  with  iron,  is  said  to  clointer. 

Cloit,  a  clown  or  stupid  fellow.     Teut.  kloete. 

Clouterly,  clumsy,  awkward.     Dut.  kloekte. 

Clubbey,  a  youthful  game,  something  like  doddart. 

Clump,  a  heavy  mass.     Germ.  Mump. 

Clumpy,  Clumpish,  awkward,  unwieldy. 

Clung,  closed  up  or  stopped ;  shrivelled  or  shrunk. 

Cluthers,  in  heaps.  •  Welsh,  cludcr,  a  pile. 

Coals.  To  call  over  the  coals,  is  to  give  a  sevei'e  reprimand. 
Supposed  to  refer  to  the  ordeal  by  fire. 

Coaly,  Coley,  a  cur  dog.  Gael,  culie,  a  little  dog.  Also  a 
cant  name  among  the  boys  for  the  lamp-lighter  in  Newcastle. 

44  COB 

Cob,  to  pull  the  ear.  A  punishment  among  children. 
Cobby,  Coppy,  stout,  heai-t}',  livelj- ;  also  tyrannical,  head- 
strong, or  in  too  high  spirits. 
Coble,  Coable,  Cobble,  a  peculiai'  kind  of  boat,  very  sharp 
in  the  bow,  and  flat  bottomed  and  square  at  the  stern  j  na- 
vigated with  a  lug  sail.  Used  by  the  pilots  and  fishermen 
on  the  North-east  coast  of  England. 

Cobble,  a  pebble  or  stone  that  may  be  easily  thrown  or  cobbled; 
in  some  places  confined  to  a  large  round  stone. 

Cobkler's-Monday,  every  Monday  throughout  the  year — a  re- 
gular holiday  among  the  "  gentle  craft."  I  am  told  this 
custom  originated  from  the  masters  requiring  the  greater 
part  of  the  day  to  cut  out  the  week's  work. 

Cock,  a  familiar  salutation. — "  How  are  you,  mi/  cock  ?" 

Cocker,  a  man  addicted  to  cock-fighting ;  a  diversion  still  very 
prevalent  among  the  lower  ortlers,  particularly  the  pitmen. 

CocKET,  or  CoppET,  pert,  apish. 

Cocks,  a  puerile  game  with  the  tough  tufted  stems  of  the  rib- 
wort plantain.      V.  Moor,  SufF.  Words. 

CoDD,  a  pillow  or  cushion.  Sax.  codde,  a  bag.  Isl.  kodde,  a 

Coddle,  to  indulge  with  warmth.  Old  Fr.  cadeler,  to  bring 
up  tenderly. 

Coo,  a  wooden  dish,  a  milk  pail.     Welsh,  caiug,  a  bowl. 

She  set  the  cog  upon  her  head. 
An'  she's  gane  singing  hame  ! 

Ball,  of  Cuwdcidiiwrcs. 

Cockers,  Coggers,  or  Hoggars,  properly  half-boots  made  of 
stiff-leather,  or  strong  cloth,  and  strapped  under  the  shoe ; 
but  old  stockings  without  feet,  used  as  gaiters,  are  often 
so  called. 

COOL  45 

CoGLY,  unsteady,  moving  from  side  to  side,  easily  overturned. 
Coke,  to  cry  jteccavi.     Ruddiman  says,  it  is  the  sound  which 

cocks  utter,  especially  when  they  are  beaten,  from  which 

Skinner  is  of  opinion  they  have  the  name  o{  cock.     Dr. 

Jam,  has  to  en/  cok,  to  acknowledge  that  one  is  vanquished, 

which  he  derives  from  O.  Celt,  coc,  mechant,  vile. 
Coil,  a  lump  on  the  head  from  a  blow  ;    also  a  great  stir.  In 

the  latter  sense  it  is  used  by  Shak.  and  Ben.  Jon. 
CoiT,  to  throw.     May  be  referred  to  the  rural  game  of  coits  or 

CoLD-FiRE,  a  fire  made  ready  for  lighting. 
CoLLEV,  butcher's  meat.     . 
Colloguing,  conversing  secretly,  plotting.     Lat.  colloqui. — 

CoLLOP-MoNDAV,  the  day   before  Shrove  Tuesday,  on  which 

it  is  usual  to  have  collops  and  eggs  for  dinner. 
CoLT-ALE,  an  allowance  of  ale  claimed  as  a  perquisite  by  the 

blacksmith  on  the  fii'st  shoeing  of  a  horse.     A  customary 

entertainment  given  by  a  person  on  first  entering  into  a 

new  office,  is  called  "  Shoeing  the  colt.^' 
Comb,  Colm,  a  confined  valley.     Welsh,  cwm. 
CoME-THY-WAYS-HiNNiE,  come  forward  ;  generally  spoken  to  a 

person  in  kindness. 
Comfortable,  a  covered  passage  boat  on  the  river  Tyne,  so 

called  from   its   containing   superior   accommodations   to 

"Jemmy  Joneson's  Whurry ;"  but  little  patronized  since 

the  introduction  of  steam-packets. 
Cook,  to  disappoint,  to  punish.     "  Aw'Il  cook  you." 
CooM,  the  dust  and  scrapings  of  wood,  j)roduced  in  sawing. 
Compete,  to  rival,  omitted  by  both  John,  and  Todd. 
Con,  to  fillip. 
Corby,  a  raven.     Fr.  corbeau. 

46  CORF 

Corf,  a  large  basket  made  of  strong  hazle  rods,  called  corf-rods, 
in  which  the  coals  are  drawn  from  the  pits.     Lat.  corbis. — 
Dut.  korf. 
CoRNEY,  half  tipsey.     Allusion  obvious  enough. 
Corn-crake,  land-rail,  or  daker  hen. 
CosEY,  snug,  warm,  comfortable.     Fr.  cozzi.     V.  Le  Roux, 
Cot,  a  small  bed  or  cradle.     Old  Fr.  coite. 
CoTTED,  Clotted,  entangled,  matted  together.     The  word  is 
usually  applied  to  haii'  or  wool,  as  hankled  is  to  silk,  thread, 
worsted,  &c. 
CoTTERELS,  cash. 

The  loss  o'  the  cottcrch  aw  diiina  regaird. 

For  aw've  getten  some  white-heft  o'  Lunnun. 

Song,  Canny  Newcasscl. 

CoTTERiL,  a  small  iron  bolt  for  a  window. 

CouL,  to  scrape  together  dung,  mud,  dirt,  &c. — Coul-Rake, 

the  instrument  by  which  this  is  performed. 
CouNGE,  a  large  lump,  as  of  bread  or  cheese. 
Coup,  to  empty,  to  overturn.     To  coup  a  cart — to  coup  one's 

crcils.     Sw.  gujipa,  to  tilt  up. 
Coup,  Cowp,  to  barter  or  exchange.   Su.-Got.  kocpa.  Horse- 
COUPERS,  horse  dealers. 

A  bonny  seet  when  Tyne  we  saw. 

It  set  wor  hearts  a  loupen. 
Is  there  a  stream  that's  here  belaw, 
That  wiv  it's  fit  for  coupen. 

Song,  hy  M.  Y.,  one  of  the  WuUmnan  Club. 

Coup-CART,  a  short  team,  closed  with  boards.     Teut.  kuype. 
CouR,  Cower,  to  stoop  low,  to  crouch  down  by  bending  the 

hams.     Su.-Got.  kure.    "  Cooring  o'er  the  hearth  stone." 
CowE,  Coo,  to  intimidate,  to  keep  in  subjection.    Isl.  kuga, 

adigere. — Cowed,  Cooed,  daunted,  dastardly,  timid. 

CRAM  47 

CowED-covv,  CowEV,  a  cow  without  horns. 

Cow-paw'd,  left  handed. 

Cow-SHAREN,  the  leavings  of  the  cow.  Sax.  scearn.  Dung  in 
Teutonic,  is  sham,  and  in  Suio-Gothic,  skarn.  We  have 
also  Sfuu-bud,  an  old  word  for  a  beetle  ;  supposed  to  be  so 
called  from  its  being  continually  found  under  horse  or  cow 
dung.  It  will  astonish  some  of  my  South  country  readers 
when  I  inform  them  that  fresh  cow-sharen  is  occasionally 
applied,  as  a  cooling  poultice,  to  the  faces  of  young  dam- 
sels in  Northumberland,  if  over  flushed  with  any  cutaneous 

CowsTROPPEL,  a  cowslip. — Northumberland. 

Covv-WA,  or  How-WAY,  come  away  ! 

CoYSTRiL,  a  raw  inexperienced  lad  ;  a  contemptible  fellow. 
He's  a  coward  and  a  coysirU  that  will  not  drink  to  my  niece. 

Shuk.  Twelfth  Night. 

Crack,  i'.  to  brag  or  boast  of  any  thing ;  to  praise  it.  Dut. 

Ethiop's  of  their  sweet  complexion  crack. 

Sliak.  Lo-e's  Lah.  Lost. 

Crack,  s.  chat,  conversation,  news.     "  Wliat's  your  crack." 

Cracker,  a  small  baking  dish. 

Cracker,  a  small  piece  of  glass  shaped  like  a  pear,  and  which, 

when  the  small  end  is  broken  off,  flies  into  a  thousand 

pieces  ;  Prince  Rupert's  drop. 
Cracket,  a  low  stool. 
Cracks,  an  act  of  superiority.     "  I'll  set  you  yoiu-  cracks." — 

In  a  crack,  quickly,  immediately. 
Crag,  a  rough  steep  rock.     Pure  British. 
Crajie,  to  mend  by  uniting,  as  joining  broken  china,  or  wooden 

bowls.     V.  Ray,  cleam. — Crasier,  the  operator,  generally 

a  travellins;  tinker. 

48  CRAM 

Crammelly,  weak ;     generally  ai)plied    to  walking.      "  The 

horse  goes  rather  crammelly  this  morning." 
Cramp,  to  contract,  to  crumple  or  pucker.     Teut.  hrompen. 
Cranch,  to  crush  a  hard  substance  between  the  teeth.  Round 
sand  thrown  upon  the  floor  is  said  to  cranch  under  the 
Crankies,  a  cant  name  for  pitmen.     See  Cranky. 
The  Crankies,  farrer  back  nor  I  naw, 
Hae  gyen  to  Sizes  to  see  trumpets  blaw, 
Wi'  white  sticks,  an'  Sheriff, 
But  warn't  myed  a  sang  of. 
Nor  laugh'd  at,  like  clever  Bob  Cranky. 

Song,  Boh  Crankifs  Compluhit. 

Crankxe,  weak,  shattered.     Teut.  krank. 

Cranks,  two  or  more  rows  of  ii'on  crooks  in  a  frame,  used  as 
a  toaster. 

Cranky.  That  man  in  the  village,  who  is  most  conspicuous 
for  dress,  or  who  excels  the  rest  of  the  villagers  in  the 
sports  and  pastimes  held  in  estimation  amongst  them,  is 
called,  by  way  of  pre-eminence,  the  Cranky. — Dur.  and 
North.     See  Crankies. 

Cranky,  a.  sprightly,  exulting,  jocose.  It  also  means,  ailing, 
sickly.     Dut.  krank. 

Crate,  a  sort  of  basket  made  rectangulai-ly  of  strong,  upright 
rods  inserted  into  cross  pieces,  and  forming  an  open  work 
side  for  packing  glass  and  pottery  ware.     Lat.  crates. 

Cree,  to  seeth  ;  hence  creed  wheat  or  barley. 

Creil,  a  kind  of  semi-circular  basket  of  wicker  work,  in  which 
provender  is  carried  to  sheep  in  remote  pastures,  or  on  the 
mountains,  during  the  distress  of  a  snow  storm.  Its  sides 
are  stiff,  and  its  bottom  supple,  serving  for  hinges.  This  is 
called  a  sheep  creil,  and  is  strapped  over  a  man's  shoulde'**. 

CROS  49 

Baskets  for  fish  and  efrgs,  pens  for  poultry,  and  wicker  uten- 
sils for  various  other  purposes,  are  also  called  crcils  in 
Newcastle  and  the  neighbourhood. 

Creiled,  placed  or  packed  in  a  creil,  as  poultry  or  eggs. 

Crewel,  fine  worsted  of  various  colours,  now  chiefly  confined 
to  what  is  used  by  females  in  leaiming  embroidery.  Lexi- 
cographers seem  not  to  have  imderstood  the  meaning  of  the 
word.  One  of  the  commentators  on  Shakspeare,  quite 
ignorant  of  its  sense,  might  have  spared  his  remarks. 

Crib,  a  child's  bed.     Not  in  Todd's  John,  in  this  sense. 

Crimble-i'-th'-poke,  to  fly  from  an  agreement,  to  act  cow- 

Crine,  to  pine,  to  shrink.     Germ,  hriechen. 

Crinkle,  to  wrinkle,  to  bend  under  a  load. 

Cris-cross,  the  mark  or  signature  of  those  who  cannot  write. 
The  alphabet  was  formerly  called  the  Christ-cross  row,  pro- 
bably from  a  superstitious  custom  of  writing  it  in  the  form 
of  a  cross,  by  way  of  charm. 

CuoAKUM-SHiRE,  a  caut  name  for  Northumberland,  in  which 
Newcastle  may  be  included,  from  the  peculiar  croaking  in 
the  pronunciation  of  the  inhabitants. 

Crock,  a  flake  of  soot  in  an  open  chimney ;  also  short  nnder- 
hair,  in  the  neck ;  and  in  some  places  an  old  ewe. 

Crook,  a  disease  in  sheep,  causing  the  neck  to  be  crooked. 

Croon,  Crune,  to  bellow  like  a  disquiet  ox.  Dut.  kreuncn,  to 
groan. — Crooning,  the  cry  of  the  beast.  It  is  also  fre- 
quently applied  to  the  cowardly  and  petted  roai'ing  of  a 
disappointed  child. 

She  can  o'er  cast  the  night  and  cloud  the  moon, 
And  mak  the  deils  obedient  to  her  crunc. 

Raimay,  Gent.  Shcphad. 

Cross-grained,  testy,  ill-tempered. 


so  CROS 

CRoss-THE-srcKLE,  Cross-ovvre-the-buckle,  a  peculiar  and 
difficult  step  in  dancing. — Xcwr.  To  do  it  well,  is  con- 
sidered a  great  accomplishment. 

Bob  hey.  thee  at  loAvpin  ami  fliiigin, 
At  the  bool,  foot-ball,  clubby,  and  swingin  : 
Can  ye  jump  up  and  shuffle, 
And  C7-0SS  mere  the  hucklc, 
"W'lien  ye  dance  ?  like  the  clever  Bob  Cranky. 

Song,  Boh  Cranlofs  ^Sizc  Si/nda;/. 

Crowdy,  a  mess  of  oatmeal — a  genuine  Northumbrian  dish; 
especially  when  prepared  and  eaten,  according  to  the  ap- 
2^roved  receipt  of  the  author  of  "  Metres,  addressed  to  the 
Lovers  of  Truth,"  &c.     See  his  admu'able  directions  j). 
213,  2d  Edit. 
Crowdy-main,  a  riot,  a  mixture  of  high  and  low,  any  confu- 
Crowlev's-crew,  sons  of  Vulcan  attached  to  the  extensive 
iron  works,  at  Winlaton  and  Swalwell,  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Newcastle,  established  by  Sir  Ambrose  Crawley 
about  1 30  years  ago,  and  said  to  be  governed  by  a  peculiar 
code  of  then*  own. 
Cruddle,  to  curdle.     It  also  means,  to  crouch,  to  shrink. — 
Ml'.  Wilbraham  has  Crewdle  or  Croodle,  -to  crouch  to- 
gether like  frightened  chickens  on  the  sight  of  a  bird  of 
Cruick-yor-hough,  crook-1/our-hough,  sit    down — a  friendly 
A^'iv  huz  i'  the  North,  when  aAv'ni  wairsli  i'  my  way, 

(But  t'  knaw  wor  warm  hearts  ye  yor-sell  come), 

Aw  lift  the  first  latch,  and  baitli  man  and  dame  say, 

Cruick  yor  hough,  canny  man,  for  ye're  welcome. 

Song,  Canny  Ncuxussd. 

CUND  51 

Crump,  hard,  brittle,  crumbling ;    as  bread  or  cake  of  that 

Cruse,  Croose,  or  Grouse,  brisk,  lively.     "  As  crowse  as  a 

new  washen  louse." — Old  Prov. 
Crut,  a  dwarf,  or  any  thing  curbed  in  its  growth. 
Cruttles,  crumbs,  broken  pieces. 
Cuckoo-spit,  white  frothy  matter  seen  on  certain  plants  in  the 

Cuddle,  to  embrace,  to  squeeze,  to  hug.     Teut.  kudden. 
Now  aw  think  it's  liigh  time  to  be  steppin. 

We've  sitten  tiv  aw's  about  lyem  ; 
So  then,  wiv  a  kiss  and  a  cuddle. 

These  lovers  they  bent  their  ways  heym. 

Song,  The  Pitmaii's  Courtship. 

CuDDV,  or  CuDDV-Ass,  an  ass.  Teut.  kudde,  grex. — Cuddy's- 
LEGS,  a  barbarous  unmeaning  name  for  large  herrings,  pecu- 
liar to  the  Newcastle  fish  market. 

Cull,  s.  a  fool.  Cull,  a.  silly,  foolish.  "  Thou'rt  a  r?///,"  is 
often  used  by  a  Northumbrian  to  cheat  the  devil  of  his 
due,  by  avoiding  the  denunciation  of  calling  his  brother  a 


Some  culls  went  hyeni,  some  crush'd  to  town. 
Some  gat  aboot  by  Whickham-o. 

Song,  Swalwell  Hojipiiig. 

Our  viewer  sez,  aw  can't  de  better, 
Than  send  him  a  story  cull  letter. 

But  writing  a'U  let  rest ; 

The  pik  fits  maw  hand  best, 
A  pen's  ower  sma  for  Bob  Cranky. 

Song,  Bob  Cranhi/\  CumpMiU. 

Cullv-shangev,  a  riot  or  uproar. 
Cuxdy,  Cunliff,  a  conduit. 

52  CUR 

Cur,  a  term  of  reproach  ;  as  "  ketti^  cur,"  a  vile  person. 

Curfew,  the  evening  bell.  Its  origin  and  purpose  are  too 
well  known  to  need  repetition  here.  I  merely  allude  to  it 
for  the  purpose  of  stating  that  its  name  is  still  retained  in 
Newcastle,  where  it  is  rung  at  the  original  time — eight  in 
the  evening. 

CuRN-BERRiEs,  currauts.  Churry-ripe-curn-berries,  New- 
castle crj'  for  currants. 

Cushat,  the  ring  dove,  or  wild  pigeon.  Major  Moor  is  dispos- 
ed to  derive  this  i^retti/  word  from  Coo-chat,  that  is  cooing 
and  chattering  ;  but  I  have  little  doubt  the  true  etymo- 
logy is  Sax.  cusceate,  from  cusc,  chaste,  in  allusion  to  the 
conjugal  fidelity  of  the  bird. 

CusHY-cow-LADY,  a  beautiful  little  scarlet  beetle,  with  black 
spots ;  sometimes  called  Lady-bird. 

Cut,  a  quantity  of  yarn,  twelve  of  which  make  what  is  called 
a  hank,  the  same  as  skain  in  the  South. 

CuT-AXD-coME-AGAiN,  a  hearty  welcome,  plenty. 

Cute,  quick,  intelligent,  sly,  cunning,  clever.  Mi".  Wilbraham 
thinks  this  word  is  probably  an  abbreviation  of  acute,  but 
is  it  not  more  likely  direct  from  Sax.  cuth,  expertus  ? 

CuTEs,  KuTEs,  the  feet. 

Did  ever  mortal  see  sic  brutes, 

To  order  me  to  lift  my  cities. 

Ad  smash  the  fool,  he  stands  and  talks, 

How  can  he  learn  me  to  walk. 

That's  walk'd  this  forty  year,  man  ? 

The  Pitnwn^s  Revenge  againut  Bonajjurte. 

Cutter,  to  fondle,  to  make  much  of. 

C UTTERING,  the  cooing  of  a  pigeon.      Also  applied  to  private 

or  secret  conversation.     Dut.  kouten. 
CuTTv,  short.     Gael,  cutach. — Cutty-gun,  a  short  pipe. 

DARK  53 


Dad,  to  shake,  to  strike.     "  A  dad  on  the  head." — Dad-of- 

Bread,  a  large  piece  of  bread. 
Daddle,  to  walk  unsteadily,  to  saunter  or  trifle. — Dawdy,  a 

slattern.     Isl.  dauda  dopjM. 
Daddle,  the  hand.     "  Give  w*  a  shake  of  your  daddle." 
Dadge,  Dodge,  to  walk  in  a  slow  clumsy  manner. 
Daffle,  to  betray  loss  of  memory  and  mental  facultj'.     Per- 
sons growing  old  and  in  their  dotage,  are  said  to  dajfle,  and 

to  be  dafflcrs. 
Daft,  simple,  foolish,  stupid.    Su.-Got.  doef,  stupidus.    Dajpe 

occurs  in  Chaucer,  Peirs  Ploughman,  &c. 
Dag,  v.  to  drizzle. — Dag,  s.  a  drizzling  rain.     "  Daggij  day." 

Isl.  daugg. 
Daggle,  or  Draggle,  to  bemire. — Daggled,  Draggled,  dir- 
tied.    "Draggle-tailed  Dorothy-o  !"     According  to  Ray, 

from  dag,  dew  upon  the  grass.     See  Dag. 
Dainty,  pleasant,  worthy,  excellent.     Isl.  daindis. 
Dairns,  small,  unmarketable  fish. 
Daker-hen,  land  rail,  or  corn-crake. 
Dame,  Deame,  the  mistress  of  the  house.     /'.  Note  in  Cumb. 

Ball.  p.  65. 
Dandy-candy,  Dog's-t**d,  candied  sweetmeats. — Newc. 
Dang,  a  foolish  evasion  of  an  oath. 
Dannat  or  DoNNOT,  a  good  for  nothing,  idle  person ;  generally 

a  female.     Do-naught.     The  devil,  in  Cumberland. 
Dapper-fellow,  a  pert,  brisk,  tidy  little  man. 
Dark,  Dart,  v.  to  listen  with  an  insidious  attention.     Allied 

to  the  old  verb,  dark,  used  by  Chaucer,   Spenser,  and 

Dark,  a.  blind.     Almost  Dark,  neai'ly  bhnd.     Quite  Dark, 

stone  blind. 

54  DARN 

Darn,  to  mend  stockings,  &c.  by  chequering  the  threads. 
Welsh,  (lam,  to  patch. 

Dash-my-buttons,  a  moderated  imprecation. 

Dauber,  a  plasterer.  The  ancient  style  of  a  branch  of  the 
fraternit}'  of  bricklayers  in  Newcastle  was  Cutters  and  Dau- 
bers. The  cat  was  a  piece  of  soft  clay  thrust  in  between 
the  laths,  which  were  afterwards  daubed. 

Daver,  to  stun,  to  stupify.  Davered,  benumbed,  stupified. 
Teut.  daveren,  tremere. 

Daw,  to  dawn.     Sax.  dagian,  to  grow  light. 

The  other  side  from  whence  the  morning  daws. 

Drayton,  Polydlhion. 

Daytiljian,  Daytaleman,  a  day  labourer,  chiefly  in  husbandry. 
One  who  tills  by  the  day. 

Daze,  to  dazzle,  to  stupify,  to  frighten.  Teut.  daesen,  deli- 
rare,  insanii'c. 

Dazed,  blinded  with  splendour,  astounded,  benumbed  with 

Dazed-meat,  meat  ill  roasted. — Dazed-bread,  bread  not  well 

Dead-house,  a  place  in  Newcastle  for  the  reception  of  di-owned 

Dead-nip,  a  blue  mai-k  on  the  body,  ascribed  by  the  vulgar  to 
necromancy.      V.  Kilian,  dood-7iepe. 

Deaf,  rotten ;  as  a  deaf  nut.  Teut.  doove  noot. — Barren  or 
blasted ;  as  deaf  corn,  which  is  pure  Saxon. 

Dean,  Dene,  properly  a  dell  or  deep  wooded  valley,  with  run- 
ning water  at  the  bottom,  but  applied  to  any  hollow  where 
the  ground  slopes  on  both  sides.  Sax.  den,  a  cave  or  lui-k- 
ing  place. 

Deave,  to  deafen,  to  stupify  with  noise.     Isl.  deyfa. 

DILL  55 

Debateable-iands,  large  tracts  of  wild  country,  on  the  con- 
fines of  Northumberland,  which  were  a  continued  source 
of  feud  and  contention,  until  all  disputes  respecting  them 
were  compromised,  under  an  arbitration,  between  the 
houses  of  Percy  and  Douglas. 

Deeds,  rubbish  of  quarries  or  drains. 

Deet,  or  DifiHT,  to  dress  or  clean,  to  winnow  corn.  Sax. 
dihtan,  parare,  disponere.     See  Keel-deeters. 

Deft,  pretty,  neat,  clever,  handy.  Stated  in  Todd's  John,  to 
be  obsolete,  but  not  so  in  the  North.     Sax.  darft,  idoncus. 

He  said  I  were  a  deft  lass — Brmuc's  Nortlicrn  Lass. 

Deg,  to  moisten  with  water,  to  sprinkle.  Sax.  deagan,  tingere. 
This  word,  used  by  Shak.  in  the  Tempest,  is  not  in  Todd's 
John.,  nor  in  Nares. 

Desse,  v.  to  lay  close  together,  to  pile  up  in  order. — Dess,  s. 
a  truss  of  hay,  Chaucer  uses  dels,  for  a  seat,  and  Spenser 
has  desse,  a  desk  or  table,  from  old  Fr.  dais. 

Deuce,  the  devil,  or  an  evil  spu-it.  "  Deuce  take  him."  St. 
Austin  makes  mention  of  some  libidinous  demons,  or 
spirits,  that  used  to  folate  the  chastity  of  women,  which 
spirits,  he  sa3's,  the  Gauls  called  duses  fqiios  diisios  nuncii- 
pant  GciUi.)      V.  Aug.  de  Civit.  Dei.  1.  i.  c.  23. 

DiCKY-wiTii-HiM,  all  over  with  him.  Said  of  a  person  when 
ruined,  or  thwarted. 

Didder,  to  shiver  with  cold.  Germ,  zittei-n,  to  tremble.  V. 

DiFFicuLTER,  more  difficult.     A  common  comparative. 

Dike,  a  ditch,  hedge,  or  fence,  Teut.  dijck,  agger.  In  a  coal 
mine,  it  means  a  large  crack  or  breach  of  the  solid  strata, 
A  depot  for  coals  at  the  staith  is  also  called  a  di/ke. 

Dill,  to  soothe  pain.     Isl.  dilla,  lallarc. 

56  DING 

Ding,  to  dash  with  violence.  Su.-Got.  daeiign,  tundere. — 
Ding-down,  ding-doon,  to  overthrow.     Very  common. 

Ding,  to  push  or  drive.     Sax.  denegan,  to  beat. 

DiNMAN,  or  DiNMONT,  a  female  sheep  after  the  first  shearing. 

DiNNEL,  DiNNLE,  or  DiNDi.E,  to  be  affected  with  a  prickling  or 
shooting  pain,  as  if  of  a  tremulous  short  motion  in  the  par- 
ticles of  one's  flesh  ;  such  as  arises  from  a  blow,  or  is  felt 
in  the  fingers  when  exjjosed  to  the  fire  after  frost.  Dut. 
tintelen,  to  tingle. 

DiRDOM,  DuRDUM,  a  great  noise,  or  uproar.  Gael,  diardmi, 
anger.     Welsh,  dwrdd,  a  stir. 

DiRL,  to  move  quickly,  to  thirl,  to  whiz.  Sax.  tliirlian,  per- 

'Twas  but  yestreen,  nae  farther  gaen, 

I  threw  a  noble  throw  at  ane  ; 

Wi'  less,  I'm  sure,  I've  hundreds  slain  ; 

But  deiJ- ma-care, 
It  just  play'd  dhi  on  the  bane. 

But  did  nae  mair. 

Burns,  Death  and  Doctor  Tlorrihoolx. 

DiSGEST,  digest.     Used  by  Beaum.  and  Flet.  and  others. 

Dish-faced,  hollow  faced. 

DiSHER,  a  maker  of  wooden  bowls  or  dishes. 

DiPNESs,  depth.     Isl.  diup.  altum. 

DizENED,  Bedizened,  dressed,  decorated. 

I  put  m}'  clothes  off,  and  I  dizai'd  him. 

Bcaum.  ^  Flet.  Pilgfim. 

DoBBiES,  spirits  or  demons.  They  appear  to  be  of  different 
kinds.  Some — attached  to  particular  houses  or  farms — are 
of  a  good  humom-ed  chsposition,  and  though  naturally  lazy, 
are  said  to  make,  in  cases  of  trouble  and  difficulty,  incre- 

DODD  -y 

dible  exertions  for  the  advantage  of  the  family ;  such  as 
stacking  all  the  hay,  or  housing  the  whole  crop  of  corn  in 
one  night.  Others — residing  in  low  granges  or  barns,  or 
near  antiquated  towers  or  bridges — have  a  very  different 
character  imputed  to  them.  Among  other  pranks,  they 
will  sometimes  jump  behind  a  horseman,  and  compress 
him  so  tightly,  that  he  either  perishes  before  he  can  reach 
his  home,  or  falls  into  some  lingering  and  dii-eful  malady. 
DocKON,  the  dock,  rumex  obtusifulius.  A  charm  is  connected 
with  the  medicinal  application  of  this  plant.  If  a  person 
be  severely  stung  with  a  nettle,  it  is  customarj'  to  collect 
a  few  dock  leaves,  to  spit  on  them,  and  then  to  rub  the 
part  affected,  repeating  the  incantation,  "  In  dockon,  out 
nettle,"  till  the  violent  smarting  and  inflammation  subside — 
seldom  exceeding  ten  minutes.  These  words  are  said  to 
have  a  siniilai-  effect  with  those  expressed  in  the  old  Monk- 
ish adage,  "Exeat  ortica,  tibi  sit  perisceiis  arnica;"  the 
female  garter  bound  about  the  part  which  has  suffered, 
being  held  a  remedy  equally  efficacious.  Mr.  Wilbraham 
remarks  that,"  In  dock,  out  nettle"  is  a  kind  of  proverbial 
sajing,  expressive  of  inconstancy.  This  observation  will 
contribute  to  explain  an  obscure  passage  in  Chaucer's 
Troilus  and  Creseide,  b.  iv.  st.  66. 

"  Thou  biddest  me  I  should  love  another 

"  All  freshly  new,  and  let  Creseide  go, 

"  It  lithe  nat  in  my  power,  leve  brother, 

"  And  though  I  might,  3'et  wovdd  I  nat  do  so, 

"  But  canst  thou  plaien  raket  to  and  fro, 

•'  Nettle  in,  dock  out,  now  this,  now  that,  Pandare  ? 

*'  Now  fbule  fall  her  for  thy  wo  that  care." 

DoDD,  to  cut  wool  from  and  near  the  tails  of  sheep. — Dod- 
DINGS,  the  cuttings.  Dod,  to  lop,  as  a  tree,  is  an  old  word. 
"  Dodder'd  oak."  i 

58  DODD 

DoDDART,  a  bent  stick  with  which  the  game  of  doddart  is  play- 
ed. Two  captains  choose  their  party  by  alternate  votes, 
when  a  piece  of  globulai'  wood,  called  an  orr  or  coit,  is 
thrown  down  in  the  middle  of  a  field,  and  each  side  endea- 
vom's  to  di'ive  it  to  the  allei/,  hail,  or  goal.  Same  as 
clubbey,  hockey,  shinney,  shinneifhaw. 

DoDDED,  without  horns,  as  dodded  sheep.  Perhaps  an  abbrc- 
\dation  of  doe-headed. 

Dodder,  Dotiier,  to  shalie,  to  tremble ;  to  nod,  as  in  the 
palsy  of  decrepitude. — Dodder-grass,  quaking  grass,  briza. 

Dodge,  to  jog,  to  incite. 

DoDY,  a  corruption  of  George,  applied  only  to  children,  and 
originating  in  a  childish  pronunciation  of  Georgee,  by  the 
common  inl'antile  substitution  of  d  for  g,  and  the  not  un- 
common omission  of  r,  especially  in  Newcastle,  when  a 
broad  vowel  precedes. 

Doff,  to  undress,  to  put  off.     From  do  off.     See  Don. 

Thou  wear'st  a  lion's  hide. 

Doff  it  for  shame. — Shak.  King  John. 

Dog,  a  wooden  utensil  in  form  of  a  dog,  with  iron  teeth,  for 
toasting  bread.  Also  a  piece  of  iron  placed  at  each  end  of 
a  fire  place  to  keep  up  the  fii'e. 

Dole,  to  set  out  or  allot ;  applied  to  land.  Sax.  dcelan  to  di- 
vide. In  Cumb.  a  narrow  plot  of  ground  in  a  common 
field,  set  out  by  land-marks,  is  called  a  Deail. 

Dole,  grief,  sorrow,  lamentation.  Old  Fr.  do/,  dole.  Mod. 
Fr.  deuil.  By  no  means  obsolete,  as  stated  in  Todd's 
John.     Alms  distributed  at  funerals  are  still  called  doles. 

Don,  to  dress,  to  put  on.  An  old  word  from  do  on.  Stated 
in  Todd's  John,  to  be  obsolete;   but  it  common  use 

i«  the  North      See  DoFF 

DRAF  59 

DoNCY,  affectedly  neat,  accompanied  with  the  idea  of  self-im- 

DooK,  or  Duck,  to  bathe.     Dut.  duckcn. 

DoosE,  Douce,  Douse,  snug,  comfortable,  clean,  neat,  tidy, 
sweet-looking — applied  to  a  beautiful  and  attractive  wo- 
man.    Lat.  dulcis.     Fr.  doux,  douce. 

DoosE,  Douce,  a  blow.  "  Doose-i'-the-chops,"  a  blow  on  the 
face. — DoosEY,  or  Doosey-cap,  a  punishment  among  boys. 

Double,  to  clench.     "  He  doubled  his  neif." 

Doup,  Dowp,  clunes.  Isl.  Dl\f.  "  As  fine  as  F**ty-Poke's 
Wife,  who  dressed  her  doiijo  with  primroses." — A  New- 
castle comjjarison. 

Doutsome,  hesitating,  uncertain  as  to  the  event. 

Dow,  Doo,  a  little  cake.     See  Yule-dow. 

DowLY,  lonely,  melancholy,  sorrowfid.  "  A  dowly  place" — 
"a  dowly  lot." 

Down-come,  a  fall  in  the  mai-ket,  or  indeed  in  any  other  sense. 

DowN-DiNNER,  tea,  or  any  afternoon's  repast.  V.  Bouch. 

Down-house,  the  back  kitchen. 

Down-in-the-mouth,  dispirited,  dejected,  disheartened. 

DowN-i.YiNG,  an  accouchement. 

Dowp,  a  carrion  crow. 

DowPY,  the  smallest  and  last-hatched  of  a  breed  of  birds. 

Doxy,  a  sweetheart ;  but  not  in  the  equivocal  sense  used  by 
Shak.  and  other  play  writers. 

Dozened,  spiiitless,  impotent,  withered. 

Drabbl'd,  Drabble-tailed,  dirtied.     Draggled. 

Draff,  brewers'  grains,  with  which  cows  and  swine  are  fed. — 
Teut.  draf.  Both  Hanmer  and  Johnson  have  misinter- 
preted this  Shakspearian  word,  and  Nares  hath  perpetuated 
the  error. 

60  DRAP 

Drape,  a  cow  whose  milk  is  dried  up.  Sax.  drepcn,  to  fail — 
having  failed  to  give  milk.  Drape  sheep,  oves  rcjiculae, 
credo  ab  A.  S.  drcepe,  expulsio,  drcBped,  abactus.    Skinner. 

Draup,  Dreap,  to  drawl,  to  speak  slowly  and  monotonously. 

Drawk,  Drack,  to  saturate  with  water.  Su,-Got.  draenka, 
aqua  submergere. 

Dreap,  to  drench.     "  Dreaping  o'  wet." 

Dree,  to  suffer,  to  endm-e.     Sax.  dreogan,  to  undergo. 

He  did  great  pyne  and  meikle  sorrow  dree. — Ross,  Helenore. 

Dree,  weary,  long,  tediously  tiresome.  Apparently  a  rapid 
pronunciaticvii  of  Germ,  durre,  dry,  both  in  a  physical  and 
metaphorical  sense;  but  see  Dr.  Jam.  In  Northumberland, 
within  the  memory  of  old  people,  the  farmers  had  a  sort 
of  cart  without  wheels,  drawn  by  one  horse,  called  a  dree. 

Dresser,  a  long  chest  of  drawers  about  three  feet  high,  with 
an  opening  in  the  centre  for  pots  and  pans,  making  a  sort 
of  kitchen  table.    Tent,  drcssoor.    Fr.  dres.iovr,  a  side-board. 

Driblet,  "  a  small  sum  ;  odd  money  in  a  sum." — Dr.  John. 
It,  however,  means  a  small  inconsiderable  thing  of  any  sort. 

Drip,  stalactites,  or  petrefactions. 

Droning,  a  laz}- indolent  mode  of  doing  a  thing. — Dronishis 
a  ver}'  old  word. 

Drought,  Draught,  a  team  of  horses  in  a  cart  or  waggon, 
both  collectively  taken. 

Drumly,  Drummely,  muddy,  confused.  Misled  by  Hanmer 
and  Pegge,  to  drumblc  is  in  Todd's  John,  misinterpreted 
to  drone,  to  be  sluggish.  The  example  from  ShaJc.  Merry 
Wives  of  Windsor,  "  Look  how  you  driunhle"  unquestion- 
ably means  how  confused  you  are. 

Then  bouses  drumhj  German  water. 
To  mak  himsel  look  fair  and  flitter. 

Burns,  Tzva  Dogs. 


Drunkard' s-CLOAK,  a  great  tub  or  barrel  of  a  peculiar  con- 
struction, for  the  punishment  of  drunkards  in  Newcastle. 
V.  Gardiner's  Englands  Grievance,  p.  in.,  and  Brand's 
History  of  Newc.  vol.  ii,  p.  192. 

Druve,  Druvy,  dirty,  muddy.     Sax.  ge-drefan,  turbare. 

Dub,  a  small  pool  of  water ;  a  piece  of  deep  and  smooth  wa- 
ter in  a  rapid  river.  Moe.-Got.  diep,  deep.  Celt,  dub/i,  a 

DlJBLER,  Doubler,  a  lai'ge  dish  of  earthenware.  Doheler  is  in 
Peirs  "Mugs  and  r/«^/e?-5,  wives  ! " — Newc. 

DuB-SKELPER,  bog-trottcr ;  applied  to  the  borderers. 

Ducket,  a  dove-cot. 

Ducks  and  Drakes,  a  pastime.  Flat  stones  or  slates  arc 
thrown  upon  the  surface  of  a  piece  of  water,  so  that  they 
may  dip  and  emerge  several  tunes,  without  sinking.  "  Nei- 
ther cross  and  pile,  nor  ducks  and  drakes,  are  quite  so  an- 
cient as  handy-dandy." — Arbuthnot  and  Pope,  quoted  in 
Todd's  John.  I  do  not  know  the  age  of  handy-dandy,  but 
the  sport  of  ducks  and  drakes  is  of  high  antiquity,  being  ele- 
gantly described  by  IMinutius  Felix. 

Dud,  a  rag.  Gael.  dud. — Duds,  clothes  of  a  dii-tj'  or  inferior 
kind.      V.  Jam. — Dudman,  a  scare-crow. 

DuLLBiRT,  DuLBURT,  DuLBARD,  a  stupid  persou,  a  blockhead. 

Dull,  hard  of  hearing.     Same  in  Scotland. 

DuMFouNDED,  pcrplcxcd,  confused.     V.  Jam.  dumfounder. 

Dumpy,  sullen. — In  the  Dumps,  a  fit  of  sullenness.  Dut. 
dom,  dull,  stupid. 

DuNGEONABLE,  slu'cwd,  or  as  the  vulgar  express  it,  devilish. — 
As  Tartarus,  signifies  hell  and  a  dungeon  ;  so  dungeon  is 
applied  to  both. — Rai/. 


DuNSH,  DuNCH,  to  push  or  jog  with  the  elbow.     Teut.  donsen. 

DuNTER,  a  porpoise. 

DusH,  to  push  with  violence.     Teut.  doesen,  pulsare  cum  im- 

Dust,  tumult,  uproar.     "  To  kick  up  a  dust."     Su.-Got.  di/st, 

dust,  tumultus,  fragor.     Also  money.     "  Down  with  your 

DwiNE,  to  pine,  to  be  in  a  decline  or  consumption.     Sax.  dwi- 

nan,  tabescere. — Dwiny,  ill   thriven. — Dwain,  a   fainting 

fit,  or  swoon. 
And  then  hee   sickened  more  and  more,  and  dried  and 
izeincd  avfay.^Hist.  Prince  Arthur,  part  3,  chap.  175. 


Eald,  old  age.     Pure  Saxon.     Chaucer  has  elde,  and  Shak. 

Eam,  Eame,  uncle.     Sax.  eame. 

Henry  Hotspur,  and  his  came, 
The  Earl  of  Wor'ster — Drayton,  Pohjolhioti. 

The  nephues  straight  depos'd  were  by  the  eame. 

Mirror  for  Magistrates. 

Ear,  a  kidney,  as  the  ear  of  veal.  It  is  supposed  to  be  so 
called  from  its  resemblance  to  an  ear,  and  being  a  name 
more  delicate  than  Iddney ;  but  it  is  probably  a  corruption 
of  Germ,  mere,  a  kidney.  The  old  name,  presenting  a  less 
familiar  idea,  might  be  retained  from  delicacy,  as  the  old 
French  words  mutton,  veal,  beef,  and  pork,  are  considered 
less  offensive  than  sheep,  calf,  ox,  and  pig,  when  these 
animals  are  brought  to  table. 

Earn,  Yearn,  to  coagiUate  milk.     V.  J\we,  rccnna. 

Earning,  Yearning,  rennet.     Sax.  gerunmng. 

EIGH  63 

Easings,  eaves  of  a  house.    Sax.  efcse.     Peii's  Ploughman  has 

Eath,  Eith,  eas}'.     Sax.  eath. 

Where  ease  abounds  yt's  eath  to  do  amiss — Sjynscr,  F.  Q. 
Eaver,  Eever,  a  corner  or  quarter  of  the  heavens,     V.  WiJb. 

and  see  Art. 
Edder,  the  long  part  of  fence  wood  put  upon  the  top  of 

fences.     Dr.  John,  says,  not  in  use ;  but  I  have  heai'd  it 

in  most  of  the  Northern  counties. 

Save  edder  and  stake 

Strong  hedge  to  make. — Tusser,  Huslandry. 

Ee,  singular  of  eye.  Sax.  eag. — Een,  plural.  Sax.  eagan. 
Chaucer  uses  eyen,  for  the  eyes. 

Ee,  a  spout ;  as  the  mill-ee. 

Eeleators,  young  eels  from  two  to  five  inches  long.  Hordes 
of  little  urchins  wander  about  the  shores  of  the  Tyne, 
at  low  water,  in  search  of  them  under  the  stones.  When 
secured  by  the  head,  they  use  the  following  jargon, 
"  Eele  !  Eeleaator  !  cast  yoiu*  tail  intiv  a  knot,  and  aw'l 
thraw  you  into  the  waater." 

Eem,  leisure.  Seldom,  I  think,  used,  except  in  Cumb.  V. 

Egg,  Egg-on,  to  instigate,  to  incite.     Sax.  cggian. 

Wherfore,  they  that  cggeii  or  consenten  to  the  sinne, 
been  partners  of  the  sinne,  and  of  the  dampna- 
tion  of  the  sinner Chaucer,  Persones  Tale. 

Eggler,  a  person  who  goes  about  the  country  collecting  eggs 
for  sale. 

EiGH,  Eve,  Aye,  yes.  The  use  of  this  adverb  is  perhaps  more 
characteristic  of  a  Northern  dialect  than  any  other  word 
that  could  be  named,  as  it  is  nearly  universal  and  uniform  ; 

64  EKEO 

though  it  is  probable  it  was  at  first  merely  a  provincial 
mode  of  pronouncing  the  old  ya.  So  far  as  I  remember, 
it  does  not  occur  in  Chaucer ;  nor  am  I  aware  that  it  is  to 
be  met  with  in  any  publication,  older  than  the  tune  of 

Eke-out,  to  use  sparingly.  Chaucer  has  eeke,  to  add  to,  to 

Elbow-grease,  hai'd  rubbing,  or  any  persevering  exercise 
with  the  arms.     "  Lucernum  olere,"  old  Prov. 

Eldin,  Elding,  fuel,  such  as  turf,  peat,  or  wood.  Sax.  aelet. 
Isl.  elldr.     Dan.  ild. 

Elf-locks,  entangled  or  clotted  haii-.  It  was  supposed  to  be 
a  spiteful  amusement  of  Queen  Mab,  and  her  subjects,  to 
twist  the  hair  of  human  beings,  or  the  manes  and  tails  of 
horses,  into  hard  knots,  which  it  was  not  fortunate  to 


This  is  that  very  Mab, 
That  plats  the  manes  of  horses  in  the  night ; 
And  bakes  the  elf-locks  in  foul  sluttish  hairs, 
Which,  once  untangled,  much  misfortune  bodes. 

Shuk.  Rom.  and  Jul. 

Elf-shots,  the  name  vulgarly  given  to  the  flint  arrow  heads 
of  our  ancestors,  supposed  to  have  been  shot  by  fairies. 

There  every  herd,  by  sad  experience  knows 
How  wing'd  with  fate,  their  elf-shot  arrows  fly. 

When  the  sick  ewe  her  summer  food  foregoes, 
Or  stretch'd  on  earth  the  heai-t-smit  heifers  lie. 

Ode,  Poj).  Superst'd.  Jligldands,  p.  10. 

Ell-dockjens,  butter  bur,  great  colts' -foot.     Tusselago  major, 

— North. 
Ellek,  Eluck,  Alexander. 
Elleb,  Aller,  the  alder.      Sax.  eelr.     Germ,  eller.     This 

EVIL  65 

tree  abounds  in  the  North  more  than  in  any  other  part  of 
the  kingdom,  and  seems  always  to  have  been  there  hehl  in 
great  respect  and  veneration.  A  contrary  notion — coun- 
tenanced by  Shakspeai'e — has,  liowever,  prevailed,  in  con- 
quence  of  Judas,  as  it  is  said,  having  been  hanged  on  a 
tree  of  this  kind  ;  but  for  which  I  have  in  vain  searched 
for  an  ancient  authority. 

Ell-mother,  step  mother. 

Else,  already.     Sax.  elles. 

Elsin,  Elson,  an  awl.  Tent,  aehene,  subula.  "  A  cobbler's 

Elspith,  Elizabeth. 

End-irons,  two  large  moveable  iron  plates  used  to  contract 
the  fire  place.  When  a  great  fire  is  wanted  they  are  placed 
at  a  distance ;  and  nearer  for  a  small  one.  V.  Skinner, 

Enoo,  Exow,  by  and  I)y.     "  Aw'l  come  enoo." 

EsH,  the  ash  tree.     Teut.  esc/i. 

Etow,  or  Atoo,  broken  in  two. 

Ettle,  to  intend,  to  attempt,  to  take  aim.      V.  Ihre.  cptfa. 

EvENDOON,  even  down,  plain,  honest,  downright.  "  Even  doon- 

Evil-eye,  an  envious,  malicious  eye. 

You  shall  not  find  me,  daughter, 
After  the  slander  of  most  step-mothers. 
Evil-eyed  unto  you.  Shak.  Cyniheline. 

The  superstitious  supposed  the  first  morning  glance  of  a 
person  with  an  evil-eye  to  be  certain  destruction  to  man 
or  beast.  Though  the  effect  might  not  be  instantaneous, 
it  was  eventually  sure.  If  he,  who  had  this  unfortunate 
propensity,  were  well  disposed,  he  cautiously  glanced  his 


66  EWEG 

eye  on  some  inanimate  object,  to  prevent  the  direful  con- 
sequences. Connected  with  an  evil-eye,  is  a  common  ex- 
]3ression  in  the  North,  "  no  one  shall  say  black  is  your  eye^^ 
i.  e.  no  body  can  justly  speak  ill  of  you. 

Doll,  in  disdaine,  doth  from  her  heeles  defie ; 
The  best  that  breathes  shall  tell  her  black^s  tier  eye  : 
And  that  it's  true  she  speaks,  who  can  say  nay  ? 
When  none  that  lookes  on't  but  will  sweare  'tis  gray. 

Old  Epigram. 
Tho'  he  no  worth  a  plack  is. 
His  awn  coat  on  his  back  is. 
And  nane  can  say  tfiat  hlack  is. 

The  white  o' Johnny's  ee. 

Song,  The  Keel  Row. 

EwE-GovvAN,  the  common  daisy.     North  Tindale. 
Ewer,  Ure,  Yure,  an  udder. 


Fad,  fashioned.  "  111  fad."  The  Scotch  have  ill'faur'' d,  ill 
favoured,  and  weel-faur'd,  well  favom'ed.  In  Promptorium 
Parvulorum  sive  Clericormn,we  find,  "  com\y or ^weW far ynge 
in  shape ;  elegans  ;"  and  in  Hormanni  Vulgaria,  we  have, 
"  he  looked  unfaringly,  aspectu  fuit  incomposito."  See 

Fad,  Faud,  a  bundle  of  straw,  twelve  of  which  make  a  thrave. 
Sax.  feald,  plica. 

Fadge,  a  bundle,  as  of  sticks.     Siv.fagga,  onerai'e. 

Fadge,  a  small  flat  loaf,  or  thick  cake.     Vwfouace. 

Faggot,  a  contemptuous  epithet  for  a  female.  "  Faggot  of 
misery."     "  Idle  Faggot." 

Faikes  !  Faix  !  faith,  upon  my  faith. 

FANT  67 

Fain,  glad.     "  Fair  words  make  fools  fain." — Prov.      Sax. 
fccgan.     \A.fegmn. 

Ah- York,  no  man  alive  so  fain  as  I. 

Shak.  2.  Hen.  VI. 

Fair,  Fairing,  a  present  at  or  from  a  fair.     "  How  are  you 

for  ray  fair  ?" — "  How  are  you  for  mine,  aw  spoke  first." 
Fair-fall-you,  a  blessing  attend  you. 

Fairy-butter,  a  fungus  excrescence,  sometimes  found  about 
the  roots  of  old  trees.  After  great  rains,  and  in  a  certain 
degree  of  putrefaction,  it  is  reduced  to  a  consistency,  which, 
together  with  its  coloiu",  makes  it  not  unlike  butter. 
Fairv-rings,  circles  of  dai'k  green  grass,  frequently  visible  in 
meadow  fields;  round  which,  according  to  Fairy  mytho- 
log}',  these  "  pretty  ladies"  were  accustomed  to  dance  by 

"  Those  rings  and  roundelayes 

which  yet  remaine, 

On  many  a  grassy  plaine." 

Fairie''s  Farewell. 

They  do  request  you  now 
To  give  them  leave  to  dance  a  fairy-nng. 

Randolph,  Amyntat. 

The  footseps  of  fairy  and  fay 

In  the  grassplot  are  plain  to  be  seen, 

Where  at  midnight,  in  dancing  the  hay, 
They  lighten  the  cares  of  their  Queen. 

Dcrvjcnt,  an  Ode,  p.  1 2. 

Familous,  relating  to  a  family.     "  'Tis  a  familous  complaint." 
Fand,  found. 

Fantome-corn,  lank,  light  corn. — Fantome-iiay,  light,  well 
gotten  hay.      V.  Ray. 

G8  FAR  A 

Faraxp,  .?.  state  of  preparation  for  a  journey — fashion,  man- 
ner, custom. — Farand-man,  a  traveller  or  itinerant  mer- 
chant.— Farant,  a.  equipped  for  a  journey — fashioned, 
shaped  ;  as  fight'ing-farant,  in  the  fighting  way  or  fashion  ; 
well  or  ill-farant,  well  or  ill  looking.  See  Aud-farant. — 
Fauantly,  adv.  orderly,  in  regular  or  established  modes. 
— All  these  expressions  may  be  traced  to  the  old  verb 
fare,  (from  Sax.  faran,)  to  be  on  a  journey.  We  may,  as 
remarked  by  Dr.  Willan,  wonder  at  the  ideas  of  foresight, 
preparation,  and  formal  st}'le,  connected  with  a  journey  in 
oiu"  island  ;  but  on  reverting  to  the  tune  of  the  Heptarchy, 
when  no  collateral  facilities  aided  the  traveller,  we  shall  be 
convinced  that  a  journey  of  any  considerable  extent,  must 
have  been  an  undertaking  that  would  require  much  previous 
calculation,  and  nice  arrangement.  Indeed,  within  the  last 
century,  what  we  now  call  a  trip  from  Newcastle  to  Lon- 
don, was  considered  so  perilous  an  enterprize,  that  the 
traveller,  as  a  necessary  precaution,  regularly  made  a  will, 
and  arranged  his  most  important  affairs. 

Fare,  to  near  or  approach.     "  The  cow  fares  a-calving." 

Farlies,  trifles.  "  Spying  farlies." — Farlies,  or  Ferlies, 
strange  things ;  properly  sudden,  or  unexpected.  Sax. 
ferlice.  The  word  occurs  in  Peirs  Ploughman,  and  in  the 
writings  of  Chaucer,  Drayton,  and  others. 

Farn,  or  Farex-tickled,  freckled,  sun  burnt. — Farn-tickles, 
freckles  on  the  skin ;  said  to  be  from  resembling  the  seeds 
of  the  fern — -freckled  with  fern  ;  but  perhaps,  fair  and 
tickled,  fair  and  freckled. 

Fassens-een,  Fasting^ s-eren.  Shrove  Tuesday  evening.  The 
eve  of  the  mass  of  the  great  feast,  or  feasting' s  even. 

Fash.  v.  to  trouble,  to  teaze.  "  I  cannot  be  fash'd."  Fr. 
facher. — Fash,  s.  trouble,  care,  anxiety.  Fr.  facherie. — 
Fashious,  a.  troublesome.     Fr.  fachciur,  facheuse. 

FECK  69 

Fast  and  Loose,  or  Puick  ix  the  Belt,  a  cheating  game,  still 
occasionally  practised  by  Jaws,  and  low  sharpers  at  fairs. 
r.  Nares. 
Fat-hen,  nuick  weed,  or  goose  foot.     Chenopodium  album. 
Fai  D,  Fad,  fold  yard. — Pin-f.U),  pinfold.    Sax. /aid,  stabulum. 
Faugh,  fallow.     Mr.  Wilbraham  says  an  abbreviation  of  the 
word ;  but  is  it  not  from  Isl.  faaga,  polire,  or  Su.-Got. 
feia  velfceia,  purgare  ? 
Favour,  to  resemble,  to  have  a  similai*  countenance  or  appear- 
ance.    "  He  favours  his  father."     Cheshire  has  no  exclu- 
sive claim  to  this  word.      V.  Wilb. 
Good  Faith,  me  thinks  that  this  young  Lord  Chamont 
Favours  my  mother,  sister,  doth  he  not  ? 

Ben  Jon.  Case  is  Altered. 

Faws,  itinerant  tinkers,  or  venders  of  pottery  wai'e  ;  generally 
accompanied  by  their  wives  and  families.  Like  then*  an- 
cestors the  gipsies,  the  female  branches  are  still  famous  at 
palmistry  and  fortune  telling.  In  Lodge's  Illustrations  of 
Brit.  Hist.  vol.  i.,  p.  13.5,  is  a  curious  letter  from  the  Jus- 
tices of  DiH-ham  to  the  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  Lord  Presi- 
dent of  the  Council  in  the  North,  dated  19th  Jan.  1549, 
concerning  the  gipsies  and  faws. — Faw-gang,  a  company 
of  riffraff. 

Feal,  to  hide.  "  He  that  feals  can  find."— Prov.  M.fel, 

Fearful,  Fearfoo,  very,  exceeding.  "  Fearful  sorry" — very 

Feat,  neat,  dextrous.  Su.-Got.  faff,  apt,  ready. — Featly, 

She  dances  fcatli/ S7lal^:.  Whiter^s  Talc. 

Feck,  might,  activity,  abundance.  Perhaps  Sa\.faccl(,  space. 
In  Scotland,  Feck,  is  quantity ;  mani/  feck,  plenty ;  lUtlc 

70  FECK 

fech,  scarcity.  Germ,  fach,  a  portion  or  compartment ; 
einfach,  single;  tweyfach,  double;  mehrfach,  many  fold. 

Feckful,  strong,  powerful,  brawny. 

Feckless,  feeble,  helpless,  inefficient. 

Fell,  s.  a  rocky  hill,  a  mountain  or  common  scarcely  admit- 
ting of  cultivation.  Isl.  fell,  one  mountain  resting  on 
another.  Su.-Got.  fiacll,  a  ridge  of  mountains.  Germ. 
fels,  a  rock. 

Fell,  a.  sharp,  keen.     Hence /e//,  savage,  cruel,  &c. 

Fellon,  a  disease  in  cows,  occasioned  by  cold.  Skinner  de- 
rives it  from  Sax.  feUe,  cruel,  on  account  of  the  anguish 
the  complaint  occasions ;  and  the  autlior  of  the  Crav.  Gloss, 
from  Dut.  felen  or  feylen,  to  fail ;  because  milch  cows, 
which  are  subject  to  it,  fail  of  giving  their  milk ;  or  from 
hellen,  to  bow  or  hang  down,  as  the  udders  of  cows  are 
frequently  enlarged  in  this  disease.  A  cutaneous  eruption 
in  children  is  also  called  the  fellon. 

Feltered,  entangled. 

'Ri^.fdtred  locks  that  on  his  bosom  fell. — Fairfax. 

Femmer,  weak,  slender.     Isi.framur,  mollis. 

Fen,  to  appear  to  do  any  thing  neatly,  or  adroitly,  not  to  be 
deterred  by  shame. — Fensome,  neat,  becoming,  adroit. 
"  I  cannot  fen,"  signifies  I  am  restrained  by  a  sort  of  awe 
arising  from  the  presence  of  some  person  for  whom  I  have 
a  respect  or  dread. 

Fend,  to  make  a  shift,  to  be  industrious,  to  struggle  with  diffi- 
culties, to  ward  off.  "  He  fends  hard  for  a  Hving."  It  is 
also  used  in  allusion  to  the  state  of  health,  as  "  \\ovi  fends 
it,"  i.  e.  how  are  you  in  health. — Fendy,  good  at  making 
a  shift,  warding  off  want.  Fend,  is  an  old  word  for  sup- 

FETT  71 

Fend  and  Prove,  to  argue  and  defend. 

Fere,  Fibre,  a  brother,  friend,  or  companion.  Sax.  gefcra, 

And  here's  a  hand,  my  trusty  ^ere, 

And  gie's  a  hand  o'  thine : 
And  we'll  tak  a  right  gude  willie-waught, 

For  auld  lang  syne.  Btirns,  Aiild  Lang  Sync. 

The  word  is  used  by  Spenser  for  a  husbaml. 
But  faire  Clarissa  to  a  lovely  fen; 
Was  lincked,  and  by  him  had  many  pledges  dere. 

SpenciT,  Faerie  Quecnc. 

Fest,  to  bind  or  place  out  an  apprentice  under  an  indentm'e. 
Su.-Got.  faesfa,  to  fasten. — Festing-penny,  money  given 
by  way  of  earnest,  to  a  servant,  at  a  hii'ing. 
Fest,  or  The  Fest,  a  place  at  the  Quay,  Newcastle,  where 
keelmen  generally  receive  their  orders. 
There  pitmen,  with  baskets  and  gay  i)oesy  waistcoats. 

Discourse  about  nought  but  whee  puts  and  hews  best ; 

Thei'c  keelmen,  just  landed,  swear  may  they  be  stranded ; 

If  they're  not  shav'd  first  while  their  keel's  at  the_^i/. 

Song,  Quayside  Sliaver. 

Fettle,  v.  to  put  in  order,  to  repau-  or  mend  any  thing  that  is 
broken  or  defective.  Dr.  John,  explains  this  word  "  to 
do  trifling  business,  to  ply  the  hands  without  labom*,"  and 
calls  it  a  cant  word  from  feel.  Mr.  Todd  corrects  this 
mistake,  and  quoting  Grose's  definition  which  is  different 
from  that  here  assigned  to  it,  thinks  it  probably  comes  from 
Su.-Got.  f J/ fct,  studium.  The  word  has  the  same  meaning 
in  Cheshire  as  that  which  I  have  given,  and  Mr.  Wilbra- 
ham  says,  "  it  appears  to  me  to  be  derived  with  some  de- 
flection of  the  word,  faire,  to  do,  which  itself  comes  from 
the  Latin  facere.     The  nearest  which  occurs  to  me  is  the 

72  FETT 

old  French  word  fnifio-e,  which  has  exactly  the  same  mean- 
ing as  our  substantive  fettle,  and  is  explained  by  Roque- 
fort, in  his  Glossaire  de  la  Langue  Romaine,  by  Fafon, 
mode, forme"  S^c. 

Fettle,  s.  order,  good  condition,  proper  repair.  Used  by 
Roger  Ascham,  in  his  Toxophilus. 

Few,  is  used  not  only  for  a  small  number,  but  also  for  a  little 
quantity  ;  as  a  "  little y<?w  broth." 

Fiddlestick,  an  interjectional  expression  of  disbelief  or  doubt, 
usually  bestowed  on  any  absurd,  nonsensical  conversation. 

FiDGiNG,  uneasy,  impatient. 

Fig,  to  supply  ginger  to  a  horse,  to  excite  him  to  carry  a  fine 
tail.     A  common  practice  at  fairs. 

FiKE,  V.  to  fidget,  to  be  restless  or  busied  about  trifles.  Su.- 
Got.  film,  cursitare. — Fike,  s.  restlessness,  trifling  cares. — 
FiKEY,  a.  fidgetty,  minutely  troublesome. 

File,  to  soil,  to  foul,  to  defile.     Sax.  afylan,  contaminare. 

FiNMKiNG,  FiNNiKY,  trifling,  scrupulously  particular.  Perhaps 
variations  oi finical. 

FiPPLE,  the  under  li[).  "  See  how  he  hangs  his  fipple^  V. 

First-foot,  the  name  given  to  the  person  w\io  first  enters  a 
house  on  New  Year\<;  Dai/ — regarded  by  the  superstitious 
and  the  credulous  as  influencing  the  fate  of  the  family,  espe- 
cially the  fair  part  of  it,  for  the  remainder  of  the  year.  To 
exclude  all  suspected  or  unlucky  persons,  I  find,  it  is  cus- 
tomary for  one  of  the  damsels  to  engage,  before  hand,  some 
favom'ed  youth,  who — elated  with  so  signal  a  mark  of  female 
distinction — gladly  comes  enrli/  in  the  morning,  and  never 
empty  handed. 

FissLE,  FisTLiNG,  to  make  a  rustling  noise,  to  fidget.  Teut, 
futselen,  agitare. 

FLEE  73 

FiTT,  to  vend  or  load  coals. — Fitter,  the  vender  or  loader. — 
Running-fitter,  his  deputy. 

Fix-fax,  a  sort  of  gristle,  the  tendon  of  the  neck.  Germ. 

Fizz,  to  scorch,  to  fly  off,  to  make  a  hissing  noise,  l^.fysa. 
— Fiz-GiG,  a  comical  person. — Fizzle,  a  jocular  name  for 
a  mistake  of  the  most  offensive  kind. 

FizzoG,  Physiog,  the  face.     Contraction  of  Physiognomy. 

Flacker,  to  flutter,  to  vibrate  like  the  wings  of  a  bird  under 
alarm,  to  quiver,  Su,-Got,  fleckra.  Germ,  fiackern. — 
Flicker  is  used  by  Chaucer  and  Shakspeare. 

Flah,  Flaw,  a  square  piece  of  turf,  dried  and  used  as  fuel. — 
^ax.flean,  to  flay  off. 

Flam,  a  fall — also  flattery  bordering  on  a  lie. 

Flapper-ghasted,  frightened,  as  if  by  a  ghost.  Moor  has 
Jlabber-gasted,  astonished,  confused. 

Flaut,  Flought,  a  roll  of  wool  carded  ready  for  spinning. 

Flay,  to  frighten. — Flay'd,  affrighted,  terrified,  timorous. — 
"  Aw's  flayed,"  I'm  afraid. — Flaying,  an  apparition  or  hob- 
goblin.— Flay-some,  frightful. — Flay-cravv,  a  scare-crow. 

Flea-bite,  Flee-bite,  a  ludicrous  designation  for  any  trivial 
pain  or  danger. 

Flecked,  spotted,  streaked.     \^\.flecka,  discolor. 

Fleech,  to  supplicate  in  a  flattering  manner,  to  wheedle. — 
TevA.Jletsen. — Fleeching,  flattering,  supplicating. 

Flee  or  Fly-by-t he-sky,  a  silly,  flirting,  absurdly  dressed,  gig- 
gling gii-1. 

Fleet,  shallow ;  as  a  fleet  pan  or  vessel,  fleet  water.  Sax. 
fleding,  fluxus. 

Fleet-milk,  milk  without  cream  ;  from  the  \exh  fleet,  to  skim 
off  the  suiface. 

74  FLEI 

FhF.i^G-TZATnEV., flj/ing-adder,the  pond  or  marsh  fly.    The  vul- 
gar are  afraid  of  being  stung  by  it. 
Flick  of  bacon,  a  side  or  flitch  of  bacon.     Sax.  ^icce. 

Another  broughte  a  spycke 
Of  a  hacon  Jlicke Skelton. 

JE^LIGGED,   fledged.      "  Flig'd   o'er  the  rfowp."      Isl.  fleigur ; 

h&nce  JliggerSy  young  birds  that  can  fly. 
Flinders,  shreds,  broken  pieces,  splinters.     Dut.  fientem. 
Fling,  to  dance  in  a  peculiar  manner,  as  the  Highland  fling. 

Also  to  kick. 

The  angry  beast. 
Began  to  kick  antX  Jling. 

Butler,  Hiidibras. 

Flire,  to  laugh,  or  rather  to  have  a  countenance  expressive  of 
laughter,  without  laughing  out.     \s\.flyra,  subridere. 

Flisk,  to  skip  or  bounce.  "  She's  afiisky  jade."  Su.-Got. 
flasa,  lascivire,  or  Sv/.flasig,  frolicksome. 

Flirtigig,  a  wanton,  giggling  lass. 

Flit,  to  remove  from  one  habitation  to  another.  Su.-Got. 
flytta. — Flitting,  the  act  of  removing. — Moonlight-flit- 
ting, going  away  in  debt  to  the  landlord. 

Flite,  to  scold,  to  make  a  great  noise.  Sax.flitan,  to  brawl. 
— Fliting,  scolding,  brawling. 

Flity,  giddy,  light  headed.     "  Aflity  body." 

Flow,  Flough,  cold,  windy,  boisterous,  bleak.  "  Its  flow 
weather."     "  Here's  a  flow  day." 

Flowter,  a  fright. — Flowtered,  affrighted. 

Fluck,  Flook,  Flucker,  Jenny-flucker,  a  flounder.  Sax. 
floe,  a  flat  fish. 

Flvm,  flumviery,  flattery. 

Flung,  deceived,  beaten.    "  He  was  sadly  flung." 

FOUM  75 

Flusteration,  hurry,  confusion,  sudden  impulse. 
Fly-by-night,  a  worthless  person  who  gets  into  debt,  and  runs 

off,  leaving  the  house  empty. 
Fog,  the  grass  grown  in  autumn  alter  the  hay  is  mown. 

One  with  another  they  would  lie  and  play. 

And  in  the  deep  fog  batten  all  the  day. — Drot/ton. 

Foist,  to  smell  nuisty.     Not  in  Todd's  John,  as  a  verb. 
Footing,  an  entertainment  given  on  entering  at  a  school,  or  on 

any  new  place  or  office. 
Fond,  foolish.     An  old  Northern  word. — Fond-as-a-bissom, 

remarkably  silly,  ridiculously  good-natured. 
Force,  or  Forse,  a  cascade  or  waterfall.     Sii.-Got.  fors,  a 

cataract.   The  High  Force  in  Teesdale  is  an  object  of  great 

FoREBY, besides,  over  and  above.     Dan./o;/;/,  by,  past,  over. 
FoRE-ELDEB,  an  ancestor.     Sax.  forcaldian. 
Fore-end,  the  beginning  of  a  week,  month,  or  year. 

I  have  lired  at  honest  freedom  ;  pay'd 
More  pious  debts  to  heaven  than  in  all 
The  forc-cnd  of  my  time. 

Shuk.  Cymhclinc. 

FoRE-HEET,  forethought ;  from  Fore-heed,  to  pre-consider. — 
Having-to-tiie-fore,  having  any  thing  ready  or  forth- 

Forenenst,  opposite  to,  over  against,  towards — as  in  part  pay- 
ment of  a  debt. 

FoRKiN-ROBBiN,  an  ear  wig ;  so  called  from  its  forked  tail. — 

Foumart,  Foomart,  a  pole  cat.  Foulmarl.  Old  Eng.  fnfi- 

76  FOZY 

FozY,  Fuzzy,  light  and  spung}'.  Sax.  wosig,  humidus.  Teut. 
voos,  spongiosus. 

FouT,  FoAVT,  an  indulged  or  spoiled  child ;  any  foolish  person. 

FouTER,  a  despicable  low  fellow. — Fouty,  Footy,  base,  mean. 
Old  Vr.foutii,  a  scoundrel. 

Frame,  to  attempt.  "  He  frames  well" — he  appears  to  do  it 
well.  "  How  does  he  frame" — how  does  he  set  about  it. 
Sax.fremman,  efficere  et  formare. 

Fratch,  to  scold,  to  quarrel. — Fratcher,  a  scold,  or  quarrel- 
some person. 

Fratished,  perished,  half  frozen. 

Freelage,  the  freedom,  or  privilege,  of  a  burgess. — Xetvc. 
Germ,  frilatz,  free. 

Freet,  Freit,  a  spectre  or  frightfvU  object,  a  superstitious  ob- 
servance or  charm,     \si.frett,  an  oracle. 

Frem'd,  strange,  foreign,  not  related  to. — Frem'd-person,  a 
stranger.  Sax.  and  Germ. //-fwV/.  Dan.  /rem /«e^.  The 
word  is  also  used  to  denote  any  thing  u^icommon.  "  It's 
rzXhev frem\l  to  be  ploughing  with  snow  on  the  ground." 

Fresh,  the  swelling  of  a  river,  a  flood,  a  thaw. 

The  butter,  the  cheese,  and  the  bannocks. 

Dissolved  like  snow  in  a.  fresh. 
And  still  as  they  stuck  in  their  stomachs. 

With  liquor  they  did  them  down  wash. 

The  Mitfurd  Galloway^s  Ramhle. 

Fresh,  metaphorically,  partly  intoxicated. — Fou,  quite  tipsey. 
— Drunk  as  Neivgate,  Drunk  as  a  lord,  completely  be- 

Fret,  Freet,  to  lament,  to  grieve.  "  She  freets  dreadfully 
after  the  bairns." 

Fretten,  spotted,  marked  ;  as  pock-fretten.  Sax.  frothian, 

FUDG  77 

FniDAY.  This  in  the  calendar  of  superstition  is  a  clay  of  ill 
omen,  on  which  no  new  work  or  enterprize  must  be  begun. 
Marriages,  I  believe,  seldom  happen  on  it,  from  this  cause. 
Dr.  Buchanan,  in  his  interesting  paper  on  the  religion  and 
literature  of  the  Burmas  (Asiatic  Reseai'ches,  vol.  6.  p.  172) 
informs  us,  that  with  them  "  Friday  is  a  most  unlucky  day 
on  which  no  business  must  be  commenced," 

"  Friday's  moon. 
Come  when  it  will,  it  comes  too  soon."— jProi'. 

Frim,  handsome,  thriving,  in  good  case.     Sax. /r^orw,  fortis. 

Froating,  anxious,  unremitting  industry. 

Frough,  loose,  spungy,  easily  broken  ;  often  applied  to  wood, 

as  brittle  is  to  mineral  substances. 
Frow,  Frowe,  a  slattern,  a  lusty  female,    Dut.  vrow.   Germ. 


Buxom  as  Bacchus' /ro«. 

Bcaiim.  ^  Flct.  Wit  at  scv.  Weapons. 

Fruggan,  the  pole  with  which  the  ashes  in  an  oven  are  stirred. 
FuDDER,  FooTHER,  f other,  as  much  as  a  two-horse  cart  will 

contain.     Sax.futher,  a  wain-load. 
Fuddle,  food  nie,  drinking  to  excess,  so  as  to  make  ale  the 
chief  food. 

Oh  !  the  rare  virtues  of  this  barley  broth ; 
To  rich  and  poor  it's  meat  and  drink  and  cloth. 

Praise  of  Yorkshire  Ate,  p.  6. 

"  Merrily,  merrily  fitddle  thy  nose, 

'«  Until  it  right  rosy  shall  be ; 
"  For  a  jolly  red  nose,  I  speak  under  the  rose, 

"  Is  a  sign  of  good  company." 

Fuddle,  to  intoxicate  fish.     Unacknowledged  by  Waltonians. 
Fudge,  fabulous.     ^a\.  fccgnn,  according  to  Skinner,  a  merry 
story. — Fudgy,  a  little  fat  person. — Crai\  Gloss. 

78  FUFF 

FijFF,  to  blow  or  pufF.    Germ,  pfnffen. — Fuffv,  light  and  soft. 
Fur,  a  furrow.     Sax.  fur. — Rig-and-fur,  ridge  and  furrow. 

"  Rig  and  furr'd  stockings." 
FvSBA,fuzzball,  a  fungus  found  in  fields,  which,  when  ."pressed, 

emits  quantities  of  dust. 
Fusome,  handy,  handsome,  neat. 

Fuss,  to  attempt  to  do  any  thing  in  a  huiried  or  confused  man- 

Gab,  ?>.  to  prate,  to  tattle.  An  old  word.-^GAB,  Gabbing,  GoisJ^ ' 

s.  idle  talk,  prating. 
Gad,  Gaed,  a  fishing  rod.     Sax.  gad,  stimulus. 
Gadding,  gossiping — going  about  from  house  to  house. 
Gageb,  Gadger,  an  exciseman.     From  to  gauge,  a  part  of  his 

Gaily,  pretty  well ;  a  common  answer  to^rfie  '^al\itation,  "  How 
arc  you?" — Gay,  tolerable.  "  He's.a'§a^.sort  of  person." 
Also  considerable.  "  A  gay  while'.'Jjc.^  '  v' 
Gain,  aciuious  Northumbrian  expression,  of  doubtful  etymo- 
logy, and  of  various  signification,  generally  attached  to 
other  words  to  express  a  degree  of  ccfmparison ;  as  gain 
quiet — pretty  quiet ;  gain  brave — tolerably  courageous  ; 
gain  near — conveniently  near  or  at  hand.  , 

Gaitings,  single  sheaves  of  corn  set  up  to  dry.  Isl.  gat.  for- 
Gaee,  Geyal,  to  ache  with  cold ;  as  the  fingers  do  when  frost 
bitten ;  or  when  very  cold  water  is  taken  in  the  mouth. — 
Also  to  fly  open  with  heat  or  dryness,  as  is  often  the  case 
with  particular  kinds  of  wood,  such  as  holly,  box,  &c. — 
The  first  sense  is  perhaps  from  Lat.  gelu,  frost,  cold  ;  or 
from  Germ,  gellen,  to  tingle. 
Galley-bauk,  a  balk  in  a  chimney,  with  a  crook,  on  which  to 
hang  pots,  &c. 

GAUV  70 

Gam,  to  make  game  of,  to  quiz, 

Gant,  or  Gaunt,  to  yawn.     Sax.  ganian. 

Gan,  Gang,  to  go.  Sax.  gan. — Gang,  a  row  or  set. — Gang- 
way, a  temporary  passage  or  thoroughfare.  Sw.  gaang,  a 

Gantree,  Gantry,  a  stand  for  ale  or  beer  barrels.     V.  Jam. 

Gar,  to  make,  to  force,  to  compel,  "  I'll  gar  you  do  it." — 
Dan.  giore. 

Gars,  Gurse,  grass.  Sax.  gcsrs. — Gursing,  a  grazhig,  a  pas- 

Garsil,  small  branches  cut  for  the  purpose  of  mending  hedges. 
Smiilar  to  rice. 

Garth,  a  small  inclosure  adjoining  to  a  house.  Sax.  geard,  a 
yard.     The  church-yard  is  called  the  kirk-garth. 

Gate,  Gait,  a  right  of  pasturage  for  cattle.  Their  straj-  or 
grazing  for  any  specified  time. 

Gate,  Gyet,  a  way,  path,  or  street.  In  many  of  the  Northern 
towns  the  name^  of,  streets  which  end  with  gate,  as  Bailiff- 
gate,  Narrow-gate,  &c.  have  no  allusion  to  gates  having 
ever  been  there.     Isl.  gata. 

Gaum,  to  comprehend,  to  understand,  to  distinguish,  to  consi- 
der.    Moe.-Got.  gaumgan.     Teut.  gauw. 

GAUMLESis,  silly,  ignorant,  vacant. 

Gaup,  to  stare  vacantly.  "  What  are  ye  gauping  at."  Dut. 
gaapen,  to  gape. 

Gawky,  s.  a  vacant,  staring,  idiotical  person.  Sw.  gaek.  Germ. 
geek,  a  fool. 

Gawky,  a.  awkward,  stupid,  foolish.     See  Gowk. 

Gauve,  to  stare  about  in  a  clownish  manner.  Germ,  gaffen, 
adspectare.     V.  Wachter. 

Gav£lock,  a  strong  iron  bar  used  as  a  lever.  Sax.  gaveloc, 
catapulta.  Su.-Got.  gaffla/c,  ]a,culi  genus  apud  veteres  Sui- 

80  GAVE 

Gavy,  an  ungainly  female,  "  of  a  strange  gait,  and  of  unco  man- 

Gawvison,  a  simpleton,  a  gaping  silly  fellow. 

Gear,  stock  or  wealth  of  any  kind.  "  A  vast  o'  gear."  Sax. 
geara. — Gears,  draught  horse  trappings. 

Geck,  to  toss  the  head  scornfully.     Tent,  glecken,  ludere. 

Ged.  In  the  Northern  parts  of  Northumherland,  anglers  call 
the  pike  a  ged. 

We'll  crack  how  mony  a  creel  we've  fill'd, 

How  mony  a  line  we've  flung, 
How  mony  a  ged  and  sawmon  kill'd, 

In  day's  when  we  were  young. 

Fisher's  Garland,  1824. 

Gee,  an  affront,  stubbornness.  "  Took  the  gee"  a  common 

Geld,  to  deprive  any  thmg  female  of  the  power  of  generation. 
This  is  its  old  sense,  and  is  so  used  by  Shak.  in  the  Win- 
ter's Tale,  when  Antigonus  threatens  his  three  daughters. 
Its  other  sense,  I  believe,  is  general. 

Gentles,  maggots  or  grubs,  used  as  bait  for  fishing. 

Gesling,  a  gosling.     Su.-Got.  gaasling, 

Gew-gaw,  a  Jew's  harp,  the  Scotch  trump. 

GiBB,  a  hook. — Gibbon,  Gibby,  Gibby-stick,  a  walking  stick 
with  a  hook,  or  the  top  bent  down  for  a  handle ;  a  nut 

Gibby-stick,  confectionary  in  that  form. 

Gib-fish,  the  milter  of  the  salmon.  See  some  very  curious  in- 
formation concerning  it,  in  the  North  Country  Angler,  p. 
39  and  seq. 

Gibraltar-rock,  veined  sweetmeat — sold  in  lumps,  resembling 
a  rock. 

GIRD  81 

GiF,  if.     Pure  Saxon. 

GiFF-GAFF,  unpremeditated  discourse.     "  Giff-gnff  makes  good 

Gifts,  white  specks  on  the  finger  nails,  presages  of  felicity, 

not  always  realized.  V.  Brand's  Pop.  Antiq.  vol.  ii.  p.  639. 
GiGLOT,  a  giddy  laughing  girl.  Shak.  has  it  in  a  worse  sense. 
Gilder,  Gildert,  a  snare,  made  of  horse  hair  or  small  wire,  for 

catching  birds.     Sec  Bewick's  cut  of  the  Tawny  Bunting. 

GUer,  deceiver,  occurs  in  Chaucer. 
Gill,  a  narrow  glen  with  steep  and  rocky  banks  on  each  side, 

and  with  a  runner  of  water  between  these  banks.     Lsl.  gil^ 

fissura  montium. 
GiLLABEU,  to  chatter  nonsense.     "  What  are  you  gillabering 

about,"  a  true  old  Northumberland  expression. 
GiMLiCK,  a  gimlet. — Gimlick»eye,  a  squint,  vulgo,  cock-eye, 
GiMMER,  a  female  sheep  from  one  to  two  years  old. — Gelt- 

GiMMER,  a  barren  ewe. — A  Gimmer-lamb,  a  ewe  lamb. — 

The  word  gimmer  is  also  used  contemptuously  among  the 

lower  orders  of  women  in  Newcastle.     Q.  Dut.  gemalen? 
Gimp,  or  Jimp,  spruce,  nice  in  person  or  manner. 
Gin,  if.     Oki.    V.  Ray. 

Gin  a  body  meet  a  body, 

Coming  through  the  rye ; 
Gin  a  body  kiss  a  body. 

Need  a  body  cry  ? — Scottish  Ballad. 

Ginger-pated,  Ginger-heckl'd,  red  haired. 
Gin.vey-tiv-a-shilling,  the  confident  wager  of  the  Knights  of 

the  Cleaver. 
Gird,  Gurd,  a  hoop.     Sax.  gyrdel,  cingulum. 
Girdle,  a  circular  iron  plate,  with  a  bow  handle,  on  which 

cakes  are  baked.     In  more  simple  times  a  slate,  called  a 

82  GIRN 

backstone,  was  used  for  the  purpose.     Su.-Got,  grissel.  V. 

GiRNEGAVv,  the  cavity  of  the  mouth.  From  girn,  the  old  word 
for,  and  present  northern  pronunciation  of,  grin. 

GisERS,  GuisERs,  persons  who  dance  in  masks.  A  custom  of 
great  antiquity,  not  yet  obsolete.  Teut.  guyse-setter, 

GiSTiNG,  the  feeding  of  cattle,  which,  in  some  places,  are  called 
gisements  ;  the  tythe  due  for  the  profit  made  by  such  gist- 
ing,  where  neither  the  land  nor  the  cattle  otherwise  pay  ^ 
any  thing.     Old  Fr.  giste,  demeure,  habitation,  endroit  ou 
Ton  couche.     Roquefort. 

Give,  to  menace  or  threaten.     "  I'll  give  it  you." 

GiZENED,  opened,  cracked,  pined ;  as  an  empty  cask  exposed 
to  the  sun.     Isl.  gisinn,  hiulcus . 

GizzERN,  the  gizzard.     Fr.  gesier.     Old  mode  of  spelling. 

Glaky,  giddy,  unsteady,  playful. 

Glare,  Glaur,  dirt,  filth. 

Glave,  smooth.     Hence,  glaver'mg,  flattering. 

Glavering,  Glaivering,  talking  foolishly  or  heedlessly. 
Germ,  klaffen. 

Glazener,  a  glazier.     Very  common. 

Glead,  a  kite.     Sax.  glida.     Su.-Got.  glada,  mUvus. 

Glee,  Gley,  Glead,  to  squint.     V.  Ray. 

Gleek,  to  deceive  or  beguile.  In  this  sense  is  to  be  reail  the 
expression  from  Shakspeare,  "  I  can  gleek  upon  occa- 
sion," misinterpreted  by  Hanmer  and  Pope,  to  joke,  or  scoff; 
and  given  as  an  example,  in  Todd's  John,  under  "  to  sneer," 
to  gibe,  to  droll  upon.  Mi-.  Lambe,  on  this  passage,  sen- 
sibly remarks,  that,  "  a  fool  may  utter  rustic  jokes  or 
scoffs ;  but  it  requires  some  small  share  of  art  or  wisdom, 
to  beguile  or  deceive." 

GOKE  83 

Gleg,  v.  to  glance,  to  look  sharp. — Gleg,  a.  slippery  j  smooth, 

so  as  to  be  easily  moved.     Also  clever,  adroit.     Isl.  gldggr, 

acutus,  perspectus. 
Glent,  to  peep,  to  glance.     Isl.  glenna,  pandere. 
Guff,  a  slight  or  transient  view,  a  glimpse,  a  fright.     "  Eh  ! 

what  a  gliff  I'd  getten  in  the  kirk  garth,  the  neet  now  ! 

He  was  sect  a  tenth  in  the  clecvers  that  gard  him  rin  se 

Glime,  to  glance  slyly,  to  look  out  at  the  comer  of  an  eye. 
Glintin,  Glinting,  glancing,  shining. 

The  Shepherd  he's  wliistling  o'er  Barrahurn  brae. 
And  the  sun  beams  are  glintin  far  over  the  sea. 

Fisher''s  Garland,  1823. 

Gloppen,   to'  startle,  to  surprize. — Gloppened,  astonished, 

frightened.     Q.  Germ,  glupen  ? 
Glower,  v.  to  gaze  or  stare  with  dilated  eyes.     Teut.  gluyeren, 

to  look  asquint. — Glower,  s.  a  broad  impudent  stare. 
Glumps,  sulkiness.     Chaucer  has  glombe,  and  Skelton  ghcm. 

— Glumpy,  sullen  or  sour  looking. — To  sit  glouping,  to 

sit  silent  or  stupid. 
Gob,  the  mouth ;  hence  to  goblile.    "  Mump  your  gob,  "  scum 

your  gob,"" — low  expressions  in  Newcastle. — Gob-stick, 

a  spoon.     V.  Moor,  p.  146-7. 
Gob-and-guts  like  a  young  Craw,  a  burlesque  expression, 

dealt  out  to  ignorant  people,  too  fond  of  talking.     Of  the 

same  kind  is,  No  Guts  in  your  Brains — gross  stupidity. 
Gobbet,  a  lump  of  meat — that  which  is  put  into  the  gob  or 

mouth. — Raw-gobbit,  or   Goi.burt,  an   unfledged   bird. 

Figuratively,  any  imcultivated  person.  •» 

GoKE,  Gowk,  the  core  of  an  apple,  the  yoke  of  an  egg,  the  in- 
ner part  of  any  thing. 

84  GOLL 

Collar,  Goller,  to  shout,  to  speak  in  a  boisterous  or  mena- 
cing manner. 

Goneill,  Gonneril,  a  half-wit,  a  dunce. 

Goodman,  the  husband  or  master  of  the  house. — Goodwoman, 
the  wife  or  mistress. 

Gob,  Gore,  dirt,  any  thing  rotten  or  decayed.  Pure  Saxon. 
Glaur,  has  the  same  meaning. 

Gossamer,  down  of  plants,  cobwebs,  vapour  arising  from 
boggy  or  marshy  ground,  in  warm  weather.  There  is  an 
excellent  article  on  this  word  in  the  Crav.  Gloss. 

Got,  a  word  called  into  action  on  almost  every  occasion.     Ex, 

She  got  her  bed,  and  soon  got  about  again. 

He  got  to  Newcastle,  and  got  back  before  night. 

The  ship  had  got  on  the  rocks,  and  then  she  was  got  off, 

and  got  into  harbour. 
He  got  bad,  he  got  worse,  Jje  got  better,  and  'then  he  got 

He  got  awny  at  last.  . 

Gotham,  a  cant  name  for  Newcastle. 

Heav'n  prosper  thee,  Gotham!  thou  famous  old  town. 
Of  the  Tyne  the  chief  glory  and  pride ; 

May  thy  heroes  acquire  immortal  renown. 

In  the  dread  field  of  INIars,  when  they're  try'd. 

Song,  Kiver  Axea'. 

GowD,  GowDV,  a  toy,  or  play-thing.     V.  Todd's  Joim.  iraud. 

GowDER,  an  obscene  term  ;  borrowed,  I  suppose,  from  the  in- 
tercourse of  foxes.  Hence  the  name  of  Gowdy-cluue,  in 

Gowk,  a  fool  or  simpleton ;  the  cuckoo.  Teut.  gauch. — 
Ai'RiL-GOWK,  April  fool. 

GREE  85 

GovvpEN,  GowpiNG,  the  hollow  of  both  hands  placed  together. 

Isl.  gaiqm.     Su.-Got.  goepn,  nianus  concava. — Gowpen- 

FULL,  as  much  as  both  hands  united  can  hold.    "  Gold  in 

GowsTY,  GowsTLY,  ghastly,  frightful.     Also  dismal  or  uncom- 
fortable, as  applied  to  a  house  without  ceiling,  &c.    "  What 

a  goiL'sty  holcTie  lives  in." 
Gradely,  decently,  orderly.     Sax.  grad,  ordo. 
Grains,  branches  ;  as  the  grains  of  a  tree,  the  grains  of  a  fork. 

Su.-Got.  gren,  ramus. 
Gbaith,  to  clothe  or  fiu-nish  with  any  thing  suitable.     Sax, 

Gbaithixg,  clothing.     From  the  verb. 
Grange,  a  barn,   granary,  or  store-house.      Originally   that 

belonging  to  the  lord  of  a  manor,  or  to  a  monastery.     Fr. 

Grape,  to  feel.     Sax.  grapian.     See,  a  good  article  in  Moor, 

Grape,  a  dung  fork  with  three  or  more  prongs.     Su.-Got. 

grepe,  tridens. 
Gravelled,  vexed,  mortified,  perplexed. 
Grawsome,  Growsome,  ugly,  frightful.     Derived  by  Dr.  Wil- 

lan  from  groiuse,  to  be  chill ;  to  shiver,  or  to  tremble  with 

Gray-stones,  coarse  mill-stones.     Fr.  groz.  rough. 
Great,  Greet,  intimate,  familiar. 
Gree,  to  agree.     Old  Fr.  greer.     To  "  bear  the  gree^^  to  be 

Greedy-gut,  a  voracious   eater. — Greedy-hounds,   hungry 

Green-table,  the  large  table  in  the  Guildhall,  of  Newcastle. 

86  GREE 

The  jailor,  for  trial,  had  brought  up  a  thief, 

Whose  looks  seemed  a  passport  for  Botany  Bay  ; 
The  lawyers,  some  tvith  and  some  wanting  a  brief. 
Around  the  green  table  were  seated  so  gay. 

Song,  My  Lord  'Size. 

Greeney,  the  green  grosbeak.     Le  Verdicr,  Buffon. 

Greet,  to  cry,  to  weep.     An  old  word. — Grat,  wept. 

Grey-hen,  a  large  stone  bottle.  Often  used  on  the  borders 
for  holding  smuggled  whiskey.  Fr.  bouteille  de  gres,  a 
stone  bottle.     V.  Moor,  grey-beard. 

Grey-hen,  the  female  of  the  black-cock. 

Grime,  to  mark  or  daub  with  soot.  This  is  the  only  proper 
meaning  of  this  Shakspearian  word. — Grimy,  sooty. 

Grip,  to  grasp  fast  by  the  hand.     Sax.  gripan,  to  gripe. 

Grip,  Gruap,  Groop,  the  space  where  the  dung  lies  in  a  cow 
housg,  having  double  rows  of  stalls  ;  that  is,  the  opening 
or  hollow  between  them.  Sax.  grcBp,  a  trench  or  sink. 
Hence  the  Javel  Grooj},  in  Newcastle. 

Grippy,  mean,  avaricious,  hardly  honest.  Sax.  gripend,  ra- 

Groaning,  an  accouchement.     Etymon  plain. 

Groaning-cake,  the  cake  provided  in  expectation  of  the  ac- 
couchement. It  seems  from  time  immemorial  to  have  been 
an  object  of  superstition,  and  persons  have  been  known  to 
keep  a  piece  for  many  years. 

Groaning-chair,  the  chair  in  which  the  matron  sits  to  receive 
visits  of  congratulation. 

Groaning-cheese,  or  the  Sick  Wife's  Cheese,  a  large  Che- 
shire cheese  provided  on  the  same  occasion  as  the  cake. 
I  understand  a  slice  of  the  first  cut  laid  under  the  pillow, 
enables  young  damsels  to  dream  of  their  lovers,  particularly 

GUMS  87 

if  previously  tossed  in  a  certain  nameless  part  of  the  mid- 
wife's apparel.  In  all  cases  it  must  be  pierced  with  three 
pins,  taken  from  the  child's  pincushion. 

Groats,  oats  with  the  hulls  taken  off,  but  unground.  Sax. 
grid,  grout.  Groats  were  formerly  much  used  in  the  com- 
position of  black  puddings,  which  see.  Hence  the  northern 
proverb,  "  blood  without  groats  is  nothing,"  meaning  that 
family  without  fortune  is  of  no  consequence.  A  street  in 
Newcastle  is  called  the  Groat-in&rket. 

Grobble,  to  make  lioles. 

Groser,  Grozkr,  a  gooseberry.    Fr.  groseille.    Lat.  grossula. 

Groves,  the  refuse  of  tallow  chandlers,  made  into  thick  cakes 
as  food  for  dogs. 

Gruff,  rough,  savage,  imperious.     Su.-Got.  grof,  crassus. 

Grumphev,  a  species  of  jostling  among  school  boys,  in  en- 
deavoiu-ing  to  hide  any  thing  which  one  takes  from  another. 

GuKST,  a  ghost.  Sax.  gast.  The  streets  of  Newcastle,  it  is 
said,  were  haunted  by  a  nightly  guest,  in  the  shape  of  a  dog, 
calf,  or  pig,  to  the  no  small  terror  of  such  as  were  afraid  of 
shadows.  Their  gambols  were  frequently  performed  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  old  "  Dog-loup-stairs." 

GuESTNiNG,  an  hospitable  welcome — a  warm  reception.  Isl. 
gisting,  hospitum. 

GuiL,  or  GuiLE-FAT,  or  Vat,  a  wort-tub  in  which  the  liquor 
ferments.     Dut.  gyl-ku'ip. 

GuLLEY,  a  large  knife  used  in  fiu'm  houses,  principally  to  cut 
bread,  cheese,  &c.  for  the  family.  Perhaps,  originally  a 
butcher's,  for  the  gvilet, 

GuMSHON,  Gumption,  common  sense,  combined  with  energy ; 
shrewd  intelligence ;  a  superior  understanding.  An  ex- 
cellent word,  of  high  antiquitj- — referred  by  Dr.  Jamieson 
to  Moe.-Got.  gaum-jan,  percipere. 



Haams,  HAiMES,  Hame-sticks,  two  pieces  of  crooked  wood 
attached  to  a  horse's  collar.  Isl.  hals,  collum.  Teut. 
hamme  koe-hamme,  nuniella. 

Hack,  a  strong  pick-axe  or  hoe  used  in  agriculture.  Dan. 
hakke,  a  mattock. 

Had  aa\  ay  !  Had  away  !  go  away ;  a  term  of  encouragement, 
I  believe,  peculiar  to  the  north. 

Haffle,  to  waver,  to  speak  unintelligibly.  Dut.  hakkelen,  to 
falter  or  stammer. 

Hag,  a  sink  or  mire  in  mosses,  or  any  broken  ground  in  a 
bog ;  a  white  mist,  similar  to  dag  ;  a  wood  into  which  cat- 
tle are  admitted  ;  also  a  cutting  of  hanging  wood. 

Haggar-maker's  Shop,  a  public  house. 

Haggis,  Haggish,  a  dish;  made  sometimes  of  fruit,  suet,  and 
minced  entrails,  and  sometimes  only  of  oatmeal,  suet  and 
sugar — stuifed  into  a  sheep's  maw  and  boiled.  It  was  till 
lately  a  common  custom  in  many  country  places,  to  have 
this  fare  to  breakfast  every  Christmas-day ;  and  some  part 
of  the  family  sat  up  all  night  to  have  it  ready  at  an  eai'ly 
hour.  It  is  now  used  at  dinner  on  the  same  day.  Sold 
in  the  Newcastle  market. 

Ye  powers,  wha  mak  mankind  your  care, 
And  dish  them  out  their  bill  o'  fare, 
Auld  Scotland  wants  nae  skiiiking  ware 

That  jaups  in  luggies  ; 
But,  if  ye  wish  her  gratefu'  prayer, 

Gie  her  a  Haggis  ! — Burns. 

Haggish,  an  opprobious  epithet  for  a  female — partaking,  as  it 
were,  of  the  nature  of  a  hag. 

HALL  85) 

Hagmexa,  Hogmena,  a  name  appropriated  to  December,  and 
to  any  gift  during  that  month,  especially  on  the  last  day. 
The  poor  children  in  Newcastle,  in  expectation  of  their 
hogmena,  go  about  from  house  to  house  knocking  at  the 
doors,  singing  their  carols,  and  wishing  a  merry  Christmas 
and  a  liappy  New  Year.  "  Please  will  you  give  us  wor 
hogmena."  The  origin  appears  quite  uncertain.  Some 
pretend  to  derive  the  term  from  the  two  Greek  words, 
uyiu  firtvvi,  holy  moon,  while  others  maintain  that  it  is 
only  a  corruption  from  the  French,  hommc  est  nc,  in  allu- 
sion to  the  nativity. 

Hag-worm,  the  common  snake.     Coluber  natrlv. 

Hain,  to  save,  to  preserve.     Haining  wood  ;  Raining  land. 

Hake,  to  loiter,  to  lounge,  to  sneak. 

Halfers  !  an  exclamation  entitling  the  person  making  it  to 
half,  or  half  the  value,  of  any  thing  found  by  his  com- 
panion. If  the  finder  be  quick  he  exclauns  "  no  halfers — 
findee  keepee,  lossee  seekee,"  to  destroy  the  right  of  claim. 

And  he  who  sees  you  stoop  to  th'  ground, 
Crils  halves  !  to  ev'rv  thing  you've  found. 

Savage,  Horace  to  Scteva  imitated, 
Hallabaloo,  Hilleuai,oo,  a   noise,  an   uproar,  a  clamour. 

"  Kick  up  a  h'dlehaloor  "  My  eye,  what  a  hUlebaloo  /" 
Halle  e'en,  Halloween,  All  Hallow  Even,  the  vigil  of  All 
Saints'  Day,  on  which  it  is  customary  with  young  people 
to  dive  for  apples,  or  catch  at  them  when  stuck  upon  one 
end  of  a  kind  of  hanging  beam,  at  the  other  extremity  of 
which  is  fixed  a  lighted  candle,  and  that  with  their  mouths 
only,  their  hands  being  tied  behind  their  backs.  V. 
Brand's  Pop.  Antiq.  vol.  i.  p.  300. 
Hallen,  the  corner  at  the  entry  into  the  house  by  means  of 
the    hecli-door — the  partition  between  the  door  and  the 


90  HALL 

fire-place.  Su-Got  haell,  the  stone  at  the  thresh-hold. — 
V.  Ihre. 

Hallen-pin,  a  pin  fixed  upon  the  hallen  for  the  purpose  of 
hanging  up  coats,  hats,  &c. 

Hallen-post,  the  post  at  the  extremity  of  the  sconce. 

Hallion,  a  term  of  reproach.     "  Ye  lang  hallion." 

Haime,  Haam,  home.     A  pm-e  old  word.     Sax.  ham. 

Hamshackle,  to  fasten  the  head  of  an  animal  to  one  of  its 
forelegs.  Vicious  cows  and  oxen  are  often  so  tied,  espe- 
cially when  dinven  to  slaughter. 

Han,  plurad  for  have.  This  old  contraction  of  haven  is  not 
obsolete,  as  stated  by  Dr.  Johnson. 

Handy,  a  small  wooden  vessel  with  an  upright  handle. 

Hang-gallows,  a  very  worthless  fellow — a  prophetic  allusion 
to  an  ignominious  end. 

Hangment.  To  'play  the  hangment,  is  to  be  much  enraged — 
to  play  the  very  deuce. 

Hank,  v.  to  fasten,  to  form  into  hanks  or  skains. — Hank,  s.  a 
skain  of  thread,  a  rope  or  latch  for  fastening  a  gate.  Isl. 
hanlcy  a  collar  or  chain.  To  keep  a  good  hank  upon  your 
horse,  is  to  have  a  good  hold  of  the  reins.  To  make  a 
ravelled  hank,  to  put  any  thing  into  confusion. 

Hank,  a  habit.     From  hankering,  a  strong  desire. 

Hajs'KLe,  to  twist,  to  entangle  thread,  silk,  or  worsted. 

Hanniel,  a  loose,  disorderly  fellow — one  not  to  be  trusted. 

Hansel,  Handsel,  the  first  money  received  for  the  sale  of 
goods.  The  fish  women  and  hucksters  in  Newcastle  re- 
gularly spit  upon  what  they  fii'st  receive  in  a  morning  to 
render  it  propitious  and  lucky — that  it  may  draw  more 
money  to  it.  Su.-Got.  handsoel,  mercmionii  divenditi 
primitiae.  V.  Ihre.  Hansel  is  also  the  first  tcse  of  any 
thing ;  in  which  sense,  however,  I  tun  inclined  to  believe  it 
is  "eneral. 

HARR  91 

Haxsel-Monday,  the  first  Monday  in  tlie  New  Year ; 
when  it  is  customary  to  make  children  and  servants  a  pre- 

Hantle,  much,  many.  Sw.  anted,  number ;  or  perhaps  a 

Hap,  to  cover  up  warmly,  as  in  bed.  Sax,  heapean,  to  heap 

Happen,  perhaps,  possibly. 

Happenny,  a  half-penny. — Happerth,  half-penny  worth. 

Happing,  a  coarse  covering,  a  rug  for  a  bed.  Hap-harht,  a 
coverlet  for  a  servant,  is  a  very  old  word. 

At  the  West-gate  came  Thornton  in. 

With  a  hap,  and  a  half-penny,  and  a  lamb  skin. 

This  is  an  old  saying  in  Newcastle,  in  allusion  to  the  cele- 
brated Roger  Thornton — one  of  its  most  wealthy  merchants 
and  greatest  benefactors — who,  it  is  said,  came  there  with 
only  a  half-penny  in  his  pocket,  and  an  old  ]i(tp2nng  on  his 

Hard-corn,  wheat  or  maslin.  Probably  from  being  sown 
before  winter. 

Hardleys,  Hardlees,  hai'dlj'.     Universal  among  the  vulgar. 

Hare,  Harl,  a  mist  or  fog.      V.  Skinner,  a  sea  harr. 

Harry,  to  rob,  to  plunder,  to  oppress.  Sax.  hergian.  The 
word,  in  this  sense,  is  by  no  means  confined  to  Scotland. 
V.  Todd's  Johnson.  It  is  common  in  Northumberland 
and  Durham,  particularly  as  applied  to  a  bu'd  nest ;  and 
being  used  by  Milton,  ought  to  be  considered  as  classical 

The  Saxons  with  perpetual  landings  and  invasions 
hurried  the  South  coast  ^>^  Britain. 

Hist.  Enir.  H.  n. 

m  HARR 

IIarrygaud,  Habrygad,  a  blackguard  sort  of  person.  Ray 
says,  a  wild  girl,  but  I  think  I  never  heard  it  applied  to  a 

Harstone,  Harstane,  the  hearth  stone. 

Harumstarum,  Harumscarum,  wild,  unsettled — running  after, 
you  know  not  what.  Germ.  herum-Hchar,  a  wandering 
troop  ;  plural,  scharcn,  vagabonds. 

Hash,  a  sloven,  one  who  does  not  know  how  to  act  or  be- 
have with  propriety,  a  silly  talkative  person.  It  is  also 
used  in  a  different  sense,  though  perhaps  not  local  : 

Brave  Prudhoe  triumphant  shall  skim  the  wide  maiii, 

The  hasli  of  the  Yankees  he'll  settle. 
And  ages  hereafler  shall  serve  to  proclaim, 

A  Xorthinuberland  free  o'  Newcassel. 

Song,  Northnmberland!' s  free  of  Ncuxasscl, 

Hask,  coarse,  harsh,  rough,  parched.  Q.  Lat.  Jmcere?  A 
linsk  ivind  is  keen  and  parching.  Hash-lips  are  j)archcd 
lips.  The  word  is  also  applied  to  the  sense  of  feeling, 
when  any  thing  from  its  touch  appears  unpleasantly  dry 
or  hard.     Coarse  worsted  is  hask  to  the  feeling. 

Hassock,  a  stool  or  cushion  to  kneel  upon,  formerly  made  of 
rushes.  Sw.  hwass  a  rush,  and  saeck  a  sack.  There  is  a 
tract  of  laud  adjoining  the  Tyne,  near  Dunston,  called  the 
Hassocks,  which,  it  is  probable,  was  once  covered  witii 
rushes  of  which  hassocks  were  made. 

Hatter,  to  shake.    "  I'm  all  battered  to  pieces." 

Haugh,  flat  or  mai'shy  ground  by  the  side  of  a  river.  Isl.  hai^i, 
ager  pascuus. 

Hauncu,  Hainch,  to  throw ;  as  a  stone  from  the  hand,  by 
jerking  it  against  the  haunch. 

Hause,  the  neck.     A  very  old  word.     Sax.  hals. 

HEAR  93 

Haver,  Haivlk,  r.  to  talk  foolishly,  to  speak  without  thought. 
Isl.  gifra,  blaterare. 

Haver,  or  Havver,5.  oats.  Dut.  haver. — Haver,  or  Havvek- 
MEAL,  oatmeal. — Haver,  or  Hawer-bread,  large,  round, 
thin  oaten  cakes,  baked  on  a  girdle. 

Haveril,  Hoveril,  a  fool,  a  half-wit.  From  haver,  haiver, 
which  see.     "  Parfitly  rediccloxis  is  that  haveril  thcre?^ 

Hawk,  to  expectorate.  Welsh,  hocld,  to  throw  up  phlegm. 
"  Haiuking  or  spitting."     Shak. 

Haws.     See  Cat-haws. 

Hav-makixg.  When  the  grass  is  first  cut,  it  is  called  a  swede  ; 
when  spread  out,  a  terld  or  teed ;  when  dried  read}'  for 
gathering,  a  whin-roiv  or  wind-row.  It  is  ne!xt,  particu- 
larly if  the  rain  threaten,  put  into  a  small  quantity  called 
a  cock  ;  afterwards  into  a  ktjle,  consisting,  perhaps,  of  two 
or  three  times  as  nuich  as  a  cock ;  and  finally  into  a  pike, 
containing  about  half  a  ton ;  in  which  state  it  remains 
until  taken  from  the  field  to  stack.  This  practice  may 
vary  a  little  in  different  districts. 

Haze,  to  drizzle,  to  be  foggy.     V.  Ray. 

Haze-gaze,  wonder,  astonishment. 

Heald,  to  incline,  to  bend  laterally. 

Heap,  a  wicker  basket.     Sax.  hip,  species. 

Heap,  a  good  many.     "  A  heap  of  folks." 

Hearn,  Harn,  the  name  of  coarse  linen  cloth,  about  New- 

Heerin,  Herrin,  Harrin,  herring.  "  Fresh-heerin — fresh- 
heerin  : — four  twopence  caller  herrin — four  twopence 
caller  herrin  : — here's  yor  cuddy's-Iegs — here's  yor  Dum- 
bar  wethers — here's  yor  Januwury  harrin."  Cry  in  the 
Newcastle  market. 

Heart-scad,  any  thing  disagreeable  or  contrary  to  your  ex- 
pectation or  wishes ;  grieved. 

94  HEAR 

Heartsome,  jnerry,  cheerful,  lively. 

Heather,  heath  or  ling. — "  Heather  buzzoms." 

HEAVisojrE,  dark,  dull,  drowsy. 

Heck,  a  rack  for  cattle  to  feed  in.     Su.-Got.  haeck. 

Heck,  a  latch,  the  passage  into  a  house. — Heck-door,  the 
inner  door — the  door  from  the  mell-doors  into  the  kit- 
chen.— Half-heck,  a  half,  or  lower  part  of  a  door. 

Heck-berry,  the  bird  cherry.  Prunus  padus.  Sw.  haeggc- 

Heck-board,  a  loose  board  at  the  back  part  of  a  cart. 

Heckle,  to  dress  tow  or  flax. — Heckler,  a  tow  or  flax-di'csscr. 
Teut.  hekelaer. 

Heckle,  Heckle-flee,  an  artificial  fly  for  fishing. 

Heft,  a  haunt.     Su.-Got.  haefda. 

Heifer,  a  young  cow  until  it  has  had  a  calf. 

Helm-wind,  a  singular  phenomenon  so  called.  Besides  other 
places  in  Cumberland  and  Westmorland,  it  rushes  from  an 
immense  cloud  that  gathers  round  the  summit  of  Cross- 
Fell — a  mountain  encompassed  with  desolate  and  barren 
heights — covering  it  like  a  helmet. 

Helter-skelter,  in  great  haste,  disorderly.  Skinner's  deri- 
vation from  Sax.  heolster  sceado  (unless  we  reject  Dr. 
Johnson's  translation  and  adopt  that  of  Dr.  Jamieson), 
seems  to  me  far  fetched ;  and  that  given  by  Grose,  though 
thought  by  Mr.  Todd  a  better,  is,  in  my  mind,  equally 
fanciful.  A  friend  suggests  it  may  be  from  hie  et  aliter. 
The  Crav.  Gloss,  refers  to  the  Dutch.  Well  may  etymo- 
logy, in  cases  like  this,  be  pronounced — eruditio  ad  libitum. 

Hemmel,  a  shed  or  covering  for  cattle.     Germ.  heim. 

Hempy,  mischievous — having  the  qualities  likely  to  suffer  by 
cat  o'nine  tails,  or  by  the  halter.  Applied  jocularly  to 
giddy  young  people  of  both  sexes. 

HICK  95 

Hen-pen,  the  clung  of  fowls.     The  country  people  sonietmies 

use  it  in  bouking  linen.     Sec  Bouk. 
Hen-scrattings,  small  ciiTuIai'  white  clouds — said  to  indicate 

rain  or  wind. 
Herd,  a  keeper  of  cattle.     Sax.  hj/rd.     Isl.  hirdingi. 
Hekonsevv,  Heronseugh,  a  heron.     Not  merely  a  young  one 
as  stated  by  Mr.  Tyrwhitt.     V.  Skinner,  /icrnsAes. 
I  wol  not  tellen  of  hir  strange  sewes, 
Ne  of  hir  swamies,  ne  hir  Ju-ronsewcs. 

Chaucer,  Sqiiwrcs  Talc, 

Hetter,  eager,  earnest,  keen.     Perhaps  from  /lut. 

Heuck,  hook,  a  crook  or  sickle.     "  The  (/iioni  (corn)  is  ready 

for  the  heuck."     Dut.  hoek. 
Heuck-fingered,  thievish.     Perhaps  only  cant. 
Heudin,  a  piece  of  leather  connecting  the  handstafl'  of  a  flail 

with  the  swingle. 
Heugh,  a  dry  dell,  a  ravine  without  water. 

Word  went  east,  and  Avord  went  west. 

And  woi'd  is  gone  over  the  sea. 
That  a  Laidley  worm  in  Spindleston-7/e«^'-Zs, 
Would  niui  the  North  country. 

The  Laidley  Worm, 

Heuph,  Hcph,  a  measure,  something  less  than  a  peck. 
Hiccup-snickup,  the  hiccough.     SnecJcup  is  used  by  Shak. 
and  Beaum.  and  Flet.     A  repetition  of  the  following  in- 
cantation is  said  to  cure  this  disagreeable  convulsion. 
Hickup-snickup,  stand  up,  straight  up ; 
One  drop,  two  drops — good  for  the  hiccup. 

Major  Moor  gives  a  different  version  of  these  lines. 
Hicklety-picklety,  Higgledy-piggledy,  intermixed,  irregu- 
lar, in  the  utmost  confusion. 

96  HIDE 

Hide,  to  beat.     "  I'll  hide  your  jacket." 

HiGHT,  called.  An  old  word,  used  by  Chaucer,  Spenser,  and 

Hike,  to  swing,  to  put  in  motion.  A  nurse  hikes  her  child 
when  she  tosses  it  up  and  down  in  her  arms.  The  hiking 
of  a  boat. 

HiKEY,  a  swing. — Hikey-board,  better  represented  in  Bew- 
ick's tail  piece  of  two  monkeys  engaged  in  the  sj)ort,  Qua- 
drupeds, p.  484,  ed.  1830,  than  I  can  pretend  to  describe  it. 

Hind,  a  servant  or  bailiff  in  husbandi'y.     Sax.  hineman. 

Hind-berries,  rasps.  Sax.  hindberian.  Lye  mis-translated 
this  into  fragum  ;  and  the  suggestion  in  Todd's  John,  of 
bramble-berries,  is  also  erroneous. 

Hinder-ends,  refuse  of  corn — such  as  remains  after  it  is  win- 

Hinney,  Hinny,  a  favourite  term  of  endearment.     Probably  a 
corruption  of  honey,  or  it  may  be  from  Sax.  hina,  domes- 
ticus.     "  Hinney  dear  !  what  were  ye  sajin  ?"     "  Was  te 
speaking,  hinney  ?"     "  Hinney  bairns,  be  quiet." 
Where  best  thou  been,  maw  canny  Mnny  ? 
An'  where  best  te  been,  maw  bonny  bairn  ? 

Song,  Maw  Canny  Hinny. 

Hinney  how  !  an  interjectional  exclamation  of  surprize,  ac- 
companied with  gladness. 

Hip,  to  hitch  or  hop  on  one  foot. — Hip-step-and-jump,  a 
youthful  gambol. — Hinchy-pinchy,  something  similar. 

HiPE,  to  rip  or  gore  with  the  horns  of  cattle. 

Hippings,  cloths  for  infants.     To  put  the  hips  in. 

Hiring,  a  fair  or  mai'ket  at  which  country  servants  are  hii-ed. 
Those,  who  offer  themselves,  sjtand  in  a  body  in  the  market 
place,  with  a  piece  of  straw  or  a  green  branch  in  their 
mouths  to  distinguish  them.     The  engagement  concluded. 

HOBT  97 

the  lasses  begin  to  file  off,  and  pace  the  streets  in  search 
of  admirers,  while  the  lads,  with  equally  innocent  designs, 
follow  after.  Having  each  picked  up  a  sweetheai't,  they 
retire  to  different  ale-houses,  where  they  spend  the  re- 
mainder of  the  day  in  a  manner  that  appears  highly  indeli- 
cate and  unpleasant  to  a  spectator,  unaccustomed  to  these 
nu'al  amusements. 

HiRPLE,  HuRPLE,  to  halt,  to  walk  lame,  to  creep.  Su.-Got. 

Hirst,  Hurst,  a  woody  bank,  a  place  with  trees.  Sax.  hurst. 
V.  Spelman,  hursta,  and  Kilian,  horscJd,  horst.  Hirst  and 
Long-hirst,  in  Northumberland. 

Hitv-tity,  Hoity-toity,  haughty,  flighty.     Fr.  haute  tite. 

Hives,  water-blebs,  an  eruption  in  the  skin.  Su.-Got.  haefwa, 
to  rise  up. 

Hizey  Prize y,  the  court  of  Nisi  Prius. 

Hob,  the  side  of  a  fire  place.  Also  a  clown  ;  contracted  from 

Hob  or  Nob.  Much  has  been  written  concerning  this  north- 
ern expression.  See  Grose's  Class.  Diet.;  Brand's  Pop. 
Ant. ;  Todd's  John. ;  and  Nares'  Gloss.  But  is  it  any 
more  than  a  burlesque  translation  of  tete  a  tete  ? 
Haiipt  is  the  German  word  for  the  head,  and  knob  the 
ludicrous  English  word — from  knob,  a  protuberance. 

Hobble,  a  scrape,  a  state  of  perplexity.     Teut.  hobbelen. 

Hobblety-hoy,  an  uncultivated  stripling,  "  neither  man  nor 
boy."  Hoyden,  with  which  this  term  is  evidently  con- 
nected, was  formerly  applied  to  any  mde  ill-behaved  per- 
son of  either  sex.  Children  call  a  large  unmanageable  top, 
a  hobblety-hoy. 

HoBBLY,  rough,  uneven.     "  A  hobbly  road." 

HoBTHRUsT,  a  local  spirit,  famous  for  whimsical  pranks.  In 

98  HOCK 

some  farm-houses  a  cock  and  bacon  ai'e  boiled  on  Fassen^s- 
eve  (Shrove  Tuesday);  and  if"  any  person  neglect  to  eat 
heartily  of  this  food,  Hobthrust  is  sure  to  amuse  himself 
at  night  with  cramming  him  up  to  the  mouth  with  higg- 
chaff.  According  to  Grose,  he  is  supposed  to  haunt 
woods  only — Hob  o  t'hurst. 

Hockey.     Sec  Doddart. 

HoFF,  hough,  to  throw  any  thing  under  the  thigh. 

Hog,  a  one  year  old  sheep.  "  Wether-hog — ewe-hog."  Nor- 
man Fr.  hogctz. 

HoGGERS,  upper  stockings  without  feet,  like  gaiters. 

HoGH.     Both  a  hill  and  a  hollow.     V.  Johnson. 

Hole  in  the  Coat,  a  blemish  in  character  or  conduct.  "  Aiv'l 
get  a  hole  in  yor  coat." 

Holm,  in  Saxon  generally  signifies  the  sea  or  a  deep  water ; 
but  it  is  frequently  used  with  an  adjective  to  designate  an 
insular  situation.  Dry  grounds  nearly  surroundetl  by  the 
course  of  rivers,  or  situated  in  low  places  by  their  edge, 
are  often  called  Holms : — The  holms  on  Ullswater  and 
Windermere. — Dunholm,  a  name  of  Durham. 

Holt,  a  peaked  hill  covered  with  wood.     Sax.  holt,  lucus. 

HoLY-STONEs,  holed-stones,  are  hung  over  the  heads  of  horses 
as  a  chai-m  against  diseases : — such  as  sweat  in  their  stalls 
are  supposed  to  be  cured  by  the  application.  I  have  also 
seen  them  suspended  from  the  tester  of  a  bed  as  well  as 
placed  behind  the  door  of  a  dwelling-house,  attached  to  a 
key — to  prevent  injm'y  from  witches.  The  stone,  in  all 
cases,  must  be  found  naturally  holed — if  it  be  made  it  has 
no  efficacy.     See  Adder-Stones. 

Honour-bright!  Bet  Watt  !  a  protestation  of  honour  among 
the  vulgar ;  originating  with,  and  still  retained  in  com- 
memoration of,  a  late  well-known  Newcastle  worthy. 

HooR,  a  whore.     Sax.  liure,  meretrix. 

HOT  99 

Hop,  v.  to  dance.     Sax.  hojrpan.     Teut.  happen.     This  is  the 
original  sense.     Though  unnoticed  by  the  great  Lexico- 
grapher, it  has  not  escaped  his  able  editor,  Mr.  Todd. — 
Hop,  s.  a  dance.     See  Hoppen,  Hopping. 
Hope,  a  small  brook,  or  the  valley  through  which  a  brook  may 

run  ;  as  Stanhope,  Bollihope,  &c.  Durham. 
Hoppen,  Hopping,  a  country  wake  or  rural  fair ;  several  of 
which  are  held  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  New- 

To  horse-race,  fair,  or  hopp'm  go, 

There  play  our  casts  among  the  whipsters, 

Throw  for  the  hammer,  lowp  for  slippers. 

And  see  the  maids  dance  for  the  ring. 

Or  any  other  pleasant  thing  ; 

F***  for  the  pigg,  lye  for  the  v.'hetstone. 

Or  chuse  what  side  to  lay  our  Letts  on. 

Joco-tcr'wus  Discourse.  Idwcen  a  NortlmmberJcind  Gen- 
tleman am]  his  Tenant,  a  Scotchman. 

Hopple,  or  Hoffle,  to  tie  the  legs  together. 

Horney,  Horxey-top,  the  end  of  a  cow's  horn  made  like  a 
top  for  boys  to  play  with. 

Horney,  or  Horney -way,  an  untruth,  a  hoax.  "  By  the 
hornet/  way." 

Horse-coupek.     See  Coup,  Cowp. 

Horse-godmother,  a  large  masculine  wench. 

Horse-shoes,  the  game  of  coits,  or  quoits. 

Hot,  a  sort  of  square  basket  formerly  used  for  taking  manure 
into  fields  of  steep  ascent.  The  bottom  opened  by  two 
wooden  pins  to  let  out  the  contents.  I  have  heard  old 
people  say,  that  between  the  confines  of  Yorkshire  and 
Westmorland,  it  was  common  for  the  men  to  occupy  them- 
selves in  knitting,  while  the  women  were  engaged  in  the 
sei*vile  employment  of  carrying  these  hots  on  their  backs. 

loo  HOTP 

HoT-PoT,  wanned  ale  with  spirit  in  it. 

HouGHER,  the  pubHc  wliipper  of  criminals,  tlie  executioner  of 
felons,  in  Newcastle.  lie  is  still  a  regular  officer  of  the 
town,  with  a  yeai'ly  salary ;  and  is  said  to  have  obtained 
this  name  from  a  power  he  had  formerly  of  cutting  the 
houghs,  or  rather  the  sinews  of  the  houghs,  of  swine  that 
were  found  infesting  the  streets.  In  the  Gloss,  to  Doug- 
las's Virgil,  to  hoch,  from  Sax.  hoh,  is  rendered  "  suffragines 
succidere,"  to  hamstring. 

HoAVDON-PAN-CANT,  an  awkward  fall,  an  overturn. — Howdon- 
PAN-CANTER,  a  slow  ungraccful  canter. 

Holt!  Hout-away  !  an  exclamation  of  disbelief  or  disappro- 
bation.    Pshaw ! 

HowDV,  HovvDY-wiFE,  a  midwife.  Brand  sneers  at  the  de- 
rivation from  "  How  d'  ye — midwives  being  great  goss- 
ipers,"  but  I  think  that  which  he  supplies  is  far  more  ridi- 
culous. I  have  not  been  fortunate  enough  to  discover  any 
original  to  my  own  satisfaction,  but  I  may  perhaps  be  per- 
mitted to  observe,  in  defence  of  what  has  been  so  much 
ridiculed,  that  "  How  d'  ye,"  is  a  natural  enough  salutation 
to  a  sick  woman  from  the  midwife ;  who,  by  the  way,  is 
called  in  German  die  wehmiitter,  or  the  oh  dear  mother. 
As  it  is  with  antiquaries,  so  I  fear  with  etymologists — 
ancient  woman,  "  whether  in  or  out  of  breeches,"  will 
occasionally  betray  themselves. 

HowK,  to  dig,  to  scoop.     Su.-Got.  holka,  cavare. 

Howl,  a  hollow  or  low  place.  "  Wherever  ther&'s  a  hill 
there's  sure  to  be  a  howl."  Sax.  hoi,  latibulum. — Howl- 
kite,  a  vulgar  name  for  the  belly. 

HovvLET,  Jenny-howlet,  the  common  or  tawny  owl.  Fr. 
hulotte      Also  a  term  of  reproach. 

Adder's  foi'k,  and  blind  worm's  sting, 
Lizard's  leg,  and  howlcfs  wing. — Shuk.  Macbeth. 

HUNK  101 

HowsoMivvER,  HowsoMNiv\ER,  howevcr. 

Hovv'wAY,  come  away  ;  a  term  of  solicitation  very  common  in 

Hoy,  to  heave  or  throw,  as  a  stone. 
HoYT,  an  awkward  ill-bred  youth. 

Hubby-shew,  Hubby-shoo,  a  disturbance,  a  noise,  a  state  of 
confusion.     Teut.  hobbelen,  inglomerare ;    schowe,  specta- 
Hud,  the  side  of  the  fire  place  within  the  chimney.     Pans  not 

in  use  are  placed  on  the  "  hud  stane." 
HuDDiCK,  HuDDOCK,  the  cabin  of  a  keel  or  coal  barge.     Dut. 

'Twas  between  Hebbron  and  Jarrow, 
There  cam  on  a  varry  Strang  gale. 
The  skipper  luick'd  out  o'  th'  hnddock. 
Crying,  'smash,  man,  lower  the  sail ! 

Song,  The  Little  Pee.  Dee. 

Huddle,  to  gather  together,  to  embrace.     Germ,  hudeln. 
Huff,  v.  to  offend.     "  She's  easily  huffed." — Huff,  s.  offence. 

«  He's  in  the  huffl" 
Hug,  to  carry,  especially  if  difficult.     "  Had  and  hug^t  away," 
HuGGERMUGGERiNG,  doing  any  thing  in  a  confused,  clandestine, 

or  unfair  manner.     V.  Todd's  John,  and  Nares'  Gloss. 
Hulk,  a  lazy,  clumsy  fellow.     Shak.  has  "  the  hulk  Sir  John." 

— "  You  idle  lazy  pay-wife  hiUk." — Neivc. 
Hull,  a  place  in  which  fowls,  &c.  are  confined  for  the  purpose 

of  fattening. 
Humble.     To  humble  barley,  to  break  off"  the  beard  or  awns. 

Su.-Got.  hamla,  to  mutilate.     Allied  to  this,  is  a  hummel- 

led-coiv,  a  cow  without  horns. 
Hunkered,  elbowed,  crooked.    "  This  wheat  is  sadly  hunker- 

103  HUNK 

Hunkers,  haunches.  This  word  seems  used  by  the  Northum- 
brian vulgar  only  in  the  sense  of  sitting  on  the  hunjcersy 
that  is,  with  the  hams  resting  on  the  back  part  of  the  an- 
kles, the  heels  generally  being  raised  from  the  ground. — 
Such  is  the  position  of  a  woman  milking  a  cow,  which  in 
Durham  is  called  hencoivr  fashion,  probably  from  hen  and 
cnuver,  to  sit  on  eggs — from  the  position  of  a  brooding  hen. 
A  friend  of  mine  connected  with  a  colliery,  where  a  child 
had  been  injured,  enquii-ing  of  the  father  how  the  accident 
happened,  received  the  following  answer,  which  I  cm  in- 
duced to  give  as  a  specimen  of  Pit  language  : — "  It  was 
sitten  on  its  hunkers  howking  glinters  fra  mang  the  het  ass, 
when  the  lowe  teuck  its  claes,  and  brant  it  to  the  van'y 
a*se,"  i.  e.  it  was  sitting  on  its  haunches  digging  vitrified 
shining  scoria  from  among  the  hot  ashes,  when  the  flame 
took  its  clothes,  and  burnt  it  to  the  very  buttocks. 

HuNT-THE-HARE,  a  game  among  children — played  on  the  ice 
as  well  as  in  the  fields. 

HiRTER,  the  shoulder  of  the  axle  against  which  the  nave  of 
the  wheel  knocks,     Fr.  heurter,  to  knock. 

Hurtle,  to  contract  the  body  into  a  round  form,  as  through 
pain,  severe  cold,  &c. 

HusE,  Hauste,  a  short  cough,  a  hoarseness.  Sax.  hwosta, 

Hutch,  a  chest.  The  Town's  Hutch,  in  the  Guildhall  of 
Newcastle,  is  a  fine  old  chest,  on  which  the  chamberlains 
transact  their  business.     Fr.  huche. 

"Why  dost  thou  converse  with  that  trunk  of  humours, 
that  bolting-A«M  of  beasthness,   that   swollen 
parcel  of  dropsies,  that  huge  bombard  of  sack. 
Shak.  I.  Hen.  IV. 

INT  A  103 

HuTHERiKiN-LAD,  ti  ragged  youth — u  sort  of  Houjblety-hoy, 

which  see. 
Huz,  Uz,  ive  as  well  as  us.     Very  common. 
Hyel,  Hale,  whole.    Isl.  hcUl.     Su.-Got.  hel,  totus. 


ICE-SHOGGLE,  ail   icicle.      Sax.   ice-icel.     Dut.  yskegel.     Mi'. 

Todd  has  admitted  icide,  on  the  authority  of  Grose. 
I'fakins,  in  faith — a  frequent  asseveration.     Shak.  uses  i faith, 

in  the  Merry  Wives  of  Windsor. 
Ill,  v.  to  reproach,  to  speak  ill. — Ill-willed,  a.  malevolent, 

ill-natured.     Isl.  Ulvilie,  malevolentia. 
Inclixg,  Inkling,  a  desire,  an  imperfect  hint  or  intimation — 

written  by  Mrs.  Hutchinson  (Memoirs,  4to.  p.  357)  inclin. 

Etymologists  have  differed  as  to  the  derivation  of  this  word. 

It  may  be  from  Fr.  un  clin  (d'oeil)  a  wink,  if  not  from  Su.- 

Got.  iJbincka,  connivere. 
Income,  any  swelling  or  other  bodily  infirmity,  not  apparently 

proceeding  from  any  external  cause — or  which  has  formed 

unexpectedly.     Ancome,'m  the  same  sense,  is  an  old  word. 
Indifferent,  tolerably,  in  pretty  good  health. 
Ing,  a  meadow.     The  word,  however,  seems  to  be  chiefly  ap- 
plied to  moist  ground,  or  such  as  is  subject  to  occasional 

overflowings.     It  also  often  occurs  in  the  names  of  places. 

Common  to  the  Sax.  Dan.  and  other  languages. 
Ingle,  a  fire,  or  flame.     Gael,  aingeal.     V.  Todd's  Jiohn. 
Inkle,  an  inferior  kind  of  tape.     "  Beggars  inkle." 
Insense,  to  understand ;  to  have  sense  infused  into  the  mind. 

V.  Nares'  Gloss. 
Intack,  an  inclosure.     A  part  taken  in  from  a  common. 

104  IS 

Is,  the  third  person  singular  of /o  be,  is  ahnost  constantly  used 
among  the  vulgar  for  the  first  and  second  persons.  "  /y 
sui-e,  thou  is" — am  sure,  thou  art. 

IscA  !  IsCA  !  or  Iska  !  Iska  !  a  Northumbrian  shepherd's 
call  to  his  dog.  Sc.  isk,  iskie.  Mr.  Lambe,  in  his  Notes 
on  Flodden  Field,  p.  66,  fancifully  observes,  that  this  term 
is  evidently  an  abbreviation  of  Li/cisca,  the  name  of  the 
Roman  shepherd's  dog. 

multum  latrante  Lycisca — Virg.  Ed.  3. 

With  greater  verisunilitude  it  has  been  said,  that  it  is  from 
Fr.  icy,  hither ;  the  word  used  in  France  for  the  same 
pui'pose.  Dr.  Jamieson,  however,  remarks  that  Teut.  aes, 
aesken,  and  Germ,  ess,  signify  a  dog. 

Iv,  in. — Intiv,  into.     Very  general. 

IzzARD,  the  letter  Z. 

Jabber,  gai-rulity.     From  the  verb,  which  is  very  old. 

Jack,  a  young  male  pike,  under  a  foot  in  length. 

Jackalegs,  Jockelegs,  a  large  clasped  knife.  Generally  con- 
sidered to  have  obtained  this  name  from  Jacques  de  Liege, 
a  famous  Flemish  cutler. 

Jackey,  English  gin,  of  which  some  of  the  "  good  folks"  in 
Newcastle  partake  rather  freely. 

Jagger-galloway,  a  pony  with  a  peculiar  saddle  for  canying 
lead,  &c.  Jag,  is  a  Scotch  word  (or  job  j  and  Moor  has 
jag,  a  waggon  load. 

Jaistering,  swaggering.  It  is  common  to  call  a  person  of  an 
airy  manner,  "  a  jaisteiing  fellow" — "  a  jaistering  jade." 

Jam,  v.  to  squeeze  into ;  to  render  firm  by  treading. 

JEWE  105 

Jam,  Jaum,  s.  jamb. 

Jannock,  leavened  oat  bread.     See  Bannock. 

Jarble,  to  wet,  to  bedew  ;  as  by  walking  in  long  grass  after 
dew  or  rain. 

Jar-woman,  an  occasional  assistant  in  the  kitchen — a  sort  of 
char-woman.  Called  also  a  Heigh-how,  from  a  notorious 
propensity  to  all  kinds  of  low  gossip. 

Jasey,  Jazey,  a  worsted  wig.  A  very  old-fashioned  article, 
still  worn  by  some  octogenarians. 

Jaunis,  Jaunus,  the  jaundice.     Fr.  jauiiisse. 

Jaup,  v.  to  move  liquid  irregularly.  "  The  water  v/ent  jauping 
in  the  skeel."  Also  to  chip  or  break  by  a  gentle,  though 
sudden  blow.  It  is  customary  at  Easter,  when  paste-eggs 
ai'e  in  vogue,  to  jaup  two  of  them,  by  hitting  the  ends  to- 
gether. "  Aw  II  jaup  oiiny  body  narrow  enders."  He  whose 
egg  does  not  break  is  entitled  to  have  the  other. 

Jaup,  s.  the  sound  of  water  agitated  in  a  narrow  or  irregular 
vessel.     Isl.  gialfur,  a  hissing  or  roaring  wave. 

Jaw,  noisy  speech,  coarse  raillery.  "  Had  yor  jaw" — hold 
your  tongue. 

Jee,  Jye,  wry,  crooked.  "  Jee-wye."  Sw.  gaa,  to  turn 

Jeeps,  a  severe  beating — a  sound  thrashing. 

Jenk,  to  jaunt,  to  ramble.     Vrom  junket,  to  feast  secretl}'. 

Jevvei,,  an  expression  of  affection — familiar  regard.  Fr.  mon 
joie,  my  darling,  maiv  jewel  J 

Ye  jewels  of  our  father,  with  wash'd  eyes 
Cordelia  leaves  you. — Shak.  King  Lear. 

With  am'rous  looks,  he  calls  her  jewel. 
And  said, — How  can  you  be  so  cruel  ? 

The  Cullier's  IFcddiuM: 

106  JIBL 

JiBLETs,  or  Giblets,  "  the  parts  of  a  goose  which  are  cut  oft" 
before  it  is  roasted,"  Todd's  John.  But  it  is  the  inside  as 
well.  Old.  Fr.  gibelez.  In  Newcastle  they  call  Avhat  is 
taken  from  one  goose,  a  ^)«j/-  of  jiblels.  At  Christmas, 
hardly  any  person,  however  poor,  is  without  &j'Metj)ie. 

Jiffy.     "  Jv  a  jiffy" — in  a  moment,  in  an  instant. 

Jigger,  an  airy  swaggering  person.  "  A  comical  jigger."  Per- 
haps, originally,  one  disposed  or  suitable  to  a  jig. 

Jim,  Jimmy,  s.  James. 

Jim,  JiMJfY,  Jim  I',  a,  slender,  neat,  elegant.  Q.  Su.-Got. 
skampt  ? 

JiMMER,  a  small  hinge  for  a  closet  door  or  desk.  See  an  expla- 
nation of  jimvicrs,  with  which  the  gimmal  ring  is  thought 
to  be  connected,  in  Brand's  Pop.  Ant.  vol,  ii.  p.  27.  Also 
Nares'  Gloss,  gimmal,  and  Moov,jimmers. 

Jin,  Jinny,  Jinney,  Jane. 

JiNGLE-CAP,  shake  cap.  Much  practised  among  the  young  pit- 
men and  keehnen. 

JiNKKRS,  BY  JiNKERS,  a  sort  of  tlcmi-oath.  A  vaiiation  of 

JiNNY-spiNNER,or  Long-legg'd-tyalyur,  a  vcry  long  slender- 
legged  spider  or  fly. 

Jinny-spinner,  a  play-thing  among  children.  See  a  long  list 
of  juvenile  games,  many  of  which  are  common  in  the  North, 
in  Suff.  Words,  move  all. 

Jobation,  Juration,  a  lecture  or  reprimand. 

Jock  and  Jock's-man,  a  juvenile  si)ort,  in  which  the  follower 
is  to  repeat  all  the  pranks  the  leader  can  perform. 

Joggle,  to  shake,  to  totter,  to  cause  to  totter.  Teut.  schocke- 
len,  vacillare. 

Jog-trot,  an  inactive,  or  any  peculiar  line  of  conduct,  pertina- 
ciously adhered  to.  Perhaps  adopted  from  the  jog-trot  pace 
of  the  Northumbrian  fai'mers. 

JUMP  107 

JoixiFiCATioN,  a  scene  of  festivity,  or  merriment.    "  A  regular 

Jolly,  stout,  large  in  person.    "  A  jolly  landlady."     Also 

hearty,  jovial.     "  A  jolly  fellow." 
JooKiNGS,  corn  beat  out  of  the  sheaf  in  throwing  off  the  stack ; 

often    a  perquisite  to  those  who  assist  in  carrying  the 

sheaves  into  the  barn. 
Jorum,  a  pot  or  jug.     Chaucer  has  Jordane,  and  Shakspeare 


The  horrible  crew. 

That  Hercules  slew. 
Were  Poverty — Calumny — Trouble — and  Fear  : 

Such  a  club  would  you  borrow, 

To  drive  away  sorrow. 
Apply  for  a  jorum  of  Newcastle  beer. 

Song,  Newcastle  Berr. 

Joseph,  a  riding  coat  or  habit,  with  buttons  in  front ;  worn  by 
ancient  dames — not  bluestockings. 

JouKREY-PAUKEREY,  any  sort  of  underhand  trick  or  dexterous 
artifice ;  legerdemain. 

Jowl,  v.  to  knock,  or  rather  to  give  a  signal  by  knocking. 

Jowl,  s.  the  head.    "  Cheek  by  jowl" — close  together. 

JoAVL  OF  Salmon,  the  head  and  shoulders.  If  split  it  is  called  a 
single  jowl. 

JuJiBLEMENT,  confusion.     From  the  verb. 

Jumps,  a  kind  of  easy  stays.     ¥r.juj)pe. 

JuMP-wiTH,  JuMP-iN-wiTH,  to  meet  with  accidentally,  to  coin- 
cide. Jump  occurs  several  times  in  Shakspeare  ;  mean- 
ing in  some  places  to  agree  with,  in  others  to  venture  at,  or 
hazard.     In  one  place  it  appears  to  be  intended  for  just. 

108  K.\E 

Kaf  !  a  common  interjectional  expression  of  disbelief,  con- 
tempt, or  abhorrence. — Neuw.  I  can  only  refer  to  the  lan- 
guage oi jack-daws  for  its  etymology. 

Jack-daws,  kaiv'mg  and  fluttering  about  the  nests,  set 
all  their  young  ones  a-gaping ;  but  having  no- 
thing in  their  mouths  but  air,  leave  them  as 
hungry  as  before Locke. 

Kail,  Kale,  cabbage,  greens  ;  also  broth  or  pottage. — North. 
Isl.  kal.     Dan.  kaal.     Welsh,  cawl. — Kail-pot,  a  large 
metal  pot  for  culinaiy  purposes.  "  As  black  as  a  kail-pot." 
Kairn,  a  heap  of  stones,  a  rude  moniunent, — See  Cairn. 
We  the  adjacent  mountains  all  discern, 
"With  each  his  head  adorned  with  a  kairn. 

Cheviot,  a  Poem,  p.  b. 

KjVSIstary,  mad.  Perhaps  the  same  as  Sc.  camsterie,  cams- 
tairie,  frowai'd,  perverse,  unmanageable ; ;  which  Dr.  Jam. 
derives  from  Germ,  kamp,  and  starrig,  stiff;  or  it  may  be 
a  sort  of  pleonasm,  from  cam,  which  in  Gael,  is  applied  to 
any  thing  crooked  or  awry,  and  stary,  staring,  wild-looking. 
Karl-cat,  a  male  cat.  Dut.  kaerel,  a  fellow. 
Kedge,  to  fill.   Hence  Kedge-belly,  a  large  protuberant  body, 

a  glutton. 
Kee,  Kee-side,  empkaticalhf  the  Newcastle  Quay,  extending 
from  Tyne  Bridge  to  the  end  of  Sandgate. 
Fareweel  Tync  Brig  and  cannie  Kce, 

Where  aw've  seen  monny  a  shangey. 
Blind  Willey,  Captain  Starkey,  tee — 
Bold  Archy  and  great  Hangey. 

Glkhrisl,  Voyage  toLunnhi. 

KEEL  109 

Keek,  to  peep,  to  look  with  a  prying  eye,  to  view.     Su.-Got. 

heka.     Dut.  k\jhen. 
Keel,  to  cool,  to  render  cool.    Sax.  ccelan,  algere.     Sir  Thos. 

Hanmer — at  best  but  a  sorry  expounder  of  our  immortal 

bard — in  attempting  an  explanation  of 

While  greasy  Joan  doth  keel  ttu;  pot. 

Shak.  Love''s  Lahour's  Lout. 

Strangely  says,  "  to  drink  so  deep,  as  to  turn  up  the  bot- 
tom of  the  pot,  like  turning  up  the  keel  of  a  ship  .'"  Ma- 
jor Moor  is  equally  at  fault : — he  thinks  "  scouring  the 
pot  with  its  bottom  inclined  conveniently  for  that  opera- 
tion ;  or  keeling  it  in  the  position  of  a  ship  rolling  so  as 
to  almost  shoiv  her  keel  out  of  the  water."  V.  SuflT.  Words, 
killer  or  keeler.  The  expression  "  keel  the  pot,"  really 
means  neither  more  nor  less  than  to  render  it  cool ;  that 
is,  to  take  out  a  small  quantity  of  the  broth,  &c.  and  then 
to  fill  up  the  pot  with  cold  water ;  a  common  practice  in 
Northumberland.  The  word,  however,  as  shewn  by  the 
examples  from  Gower  and  Chaucer,  quoted  by  Mr.  Todd, 
is  not  confined  to  the  kitchen. 

Keel,  Red-Keel,  ruddle,  decomposed  iron  used  for  mai'king 
sheep,  &c.     Gad.  oil.     Fr.  chaille.     Jamieson. 

Keels,  the  vessels  or  barges  in  which  coals  are  carried  from 
the  colliery-staiihs  to  the  ships,  in  the  Tyne  and  Wear. 
Keel  is  a  very  ancient  name  of  Saxon  origin  for  a  ship  or 
vessel — ceol,  navis.  On  the  first  arrival  of  the  Saxons 
they  came  over  in  three  large  ships,  styled  by  themselves, 
as  Verstegan  informs  us,  keeles.  In  the  Chartulary  of 
Tynemouth  Monastery,  the  servants  of  the  Prior  who 
wrought  in  the  barges  (1.378),  are  called  kelcm,  an  appella- 
tion plainly  synonimous  with  the  present  keelmen. 

110  KEEL 

Keel-Bullies,  keehnen,  the  crew  of  the  keel— the  pai'tners 
or  brothers.     See  Bully. 

Keel-Deeters,  the  wives  and  daughters  of  the  keehnen,  who 
sweep  the  keels,  having  the  sweepings  of  the  small  coals 
for  their  pains.  To  deet,  in  northern  language,  means  to 
wipe  or  make  clean. 

Keelage,  keel  dues  in  port.  This  word  is  in  Todd's  John, 
but  in  too  limited  a  sense. 

Keen.  The  hands  are  said  to  be  keened  with  the  frost,  when 
the  skin  is  broken  or  cracked,  and  a  sore  induced.  Ktbcy 
explained  by  Johnson,  "  an  ulcerated  chilblain,  a  chap  in 
the  heel  caused  by  the  cold,"  occurs  several  times  in 

Keep-the-pot-boiling,  a  common  expression  among  j'oung 
people,  when  they  are  anxious  to  carry  on  their  gambols 
vnth  spirit. 

Kelds,  the  still  parts  of  a  river  which  have  an  oily  smooth- 
ness while  the  rest  of  the  water  is  ruffled.  I  have  only 
heard  this  word  on  the  Tyne,  and  confined  to  the  mean- 
ing here  given ;  but  I  am  informed  that  in  Westmorland 
and  Cumberland  old  wells  are  also  denominated  kelds, 
and  that  there  is  a  place  in  the  parish  of  Shap  called  Keld, 
from  a  fine  spring  in  it — also  Gunnerkeld.  Isl.  kelda,  palus. 
Since  this  was  written  I  find  keld,  a  well,  in  Crav.  Gloss. 

Kelk,  v.  to  beat  heartily. — Kelk,  Kelker,  s.  a  severe  blow. 

Kelps,  ii'on  hooks  from  which  boilers  are  hung. 

Kelter,  frame,  order,  condition.  V.  Todd's  John.  It  also 
means  money,  cash.     Germ.  geld. 

Kemp,  to  strive  against  each  other  in  reaping  corn.  Sax. 
camp'mn,  militare.  Tent,  kampen,  dimicare. — Kempers, 
the  competitors.  According  to  Verstegan,  the  word  is  of 
noble  descent.     V.  Rest.  Decayed  Intell.  8vo.  p.  233. 

KERN  111 

Kemps,  hairs  among  wool,  coarse  fibres. 

KjEn,  to  know,  to  be  acquainted  with.      Su.-Got.   kacnna. 

Sax.  cennan.      Dut.  kennen.      "  Aw  kent  him  weel" — 1 

knew  him  well. 

'Tis  he,  I  ken  the  manner  of  his  gait. 

Shak.  Trailus  and  Cixssida. 

Kennen,  Kenning,  a  measure  of  two  pecks. 

Kenspecked,Kenspacked,  Ken  speckled,  Kenspackled,  con- 
spicuous, marked  so  as  to  be  easily  recognized  or  kenned. 
V.  Skin,  and  Jam. 

Rep,  to  catch,  to  receive  any  thing  in  the  act  of  falling.  Sax. 
cepan.     Teut.  keppen,  captai'e. 

Keppy-Ball,  hand-ball.  In  former  times  it  was  customarj', 
every  year  at  Easter  and  Whitsuntide,  for  the  mayor,  al- 
dermen, and  sheriff  of  Newcastle,  attended  by  the  bur- 
gesses, to  go  in  state  to  a  place  called  the  Forth — a  sort 
of  mall — to  countenance,  if  not  to  join  in  the  play  oikeppy- 
ball,  and  other  sports.  The  Esprit  dc  corjjs  is  gone,  though 
the  diversion  is  still  in  part  kept  up  by  the  young  people 
of  the  town ;  but  it  would  of  course,  in  these  altered  times, 
be  considered  highly  indecorous  to  "  unbend  the  brow  of 
authority"  on  such  an  occasion.  Puerile,  however,  as  it 
may  seem,  there  was  a  time — if  we  may  credit  Belithus, 
an  ancient  ritualist — when  the  bishops,  and  even  arch- 
bishops, of  some  churches,  used  to  play  at  hand-ball  with 
the  inferior  clergy. — Tempora  mutantur,  et  nos  mutanuir 
in  illis. 

Kern,  v,  to  chum.     Sax.  cernan.     Teut.  kernen. 

Kern,  s.  a  churn.  Teut.  kerne.  Also  a  hand-mill  for  grind- 
ing corn,  from  Teut.  queme  ;  perhaps  the  right  mode  of 
spelling  the  word  in  this  sense. 

112  KERN 

Kern-Baby,  an  image  dressed  up  with  corn  at  a  harvest  home. 
Something  similar  to  the  maiden  described  by  Jam.  See 
Kern,  Korn,  or  Kurn-Milk,  butter-milk.  Teut.  kern-melch, 
"  Will  you  hev  onny  kern-milk," — Newcastle  cry  ;  nearly 
Rersen,  to  christen.     Dut.  kerstenen. 

Pish,  one  goodman  Caesar,  a  pump  maker, 
KerserCd  him — Beaum.  ^  Fkt.  Wit  at  sev.  Weap. 

Kersmas,  Crissenmas,  Christmas. 

Kesh,  Kex,  the  hollow  stem  of  an  umbelliferous  plant.  Kyx, 
a  hemlock,  occurs  in  Peirs  Ploughman. 

Keslip,  Reslop,  the  calPs  stomach  salted  and  dried  for  ren- 
net. Sax.  ceselib,  coagulum.  Germ,  kaselab,  rennet. 
Kase  is  cheese,  and  laben  is  to  help,  strengthen  or  quicken. 
See  Yerning.  "  Kittle  yor  keslop" — a  Newcastle  trope 
for  a  chastisement.  "  Warm  yor  kesloji^—a  metaphor  for 
a  hot-pot. 

Ket,  carrion,  any  sort  of  filth.  Su.-Got.  koett. — Kettv, 
filthy,  dirty,  worthless.     "  A  ketty  fellow." 

Kevel,  a  large  hammer  for  quarrying  stones. 

Kick,  the  top  of  the  fashion — quite  the  go.  Q.  Isl.  k(Ekr,  ges- 
tus  indecorus  ?     "  Jack-thc-kick" —  a  fellow  just  the  thing. 

Kidney,  disposition,  principles,  humour. 

A  man  of  my  kidney. 

Sliak.  Mcr.  Wives  of  Windsor. 

Talk  no  more  of  brave  Nelson,  or  gallant  Sir  Sidney, 
'Tis  granted  they're  tai's  of  a  true  British  kidney. 

Song,  Newcastle  Bellman. 

Kidney-Tatie,  a  long  kind  of  potatoe,  much  cultivated  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Newcastle. 

//  ,1 

KIRK  113 

KiLLJCOup,  a  summerset.  Probably  from  Fr.  cul-a-cap,  tail 
to  head — head  over  heels.  "  Eh  !  what  a  killicoup  the 
preest  has  getten  out  o'is  wee  bit  gig-thing  there  !" 

Kill-priest,  a  jocular  name  for  port  wine — from  which  a 
very  irreverent  inference  is  drawn.  But,  as  Shakspeare 

Come,  come,  good  wine  is  a  good  familiar  creature, 
if  it  be  well  used ;  exclaim  no  more  against  it. 


Kilt,  to  truss  up  the  clothes — to  make  them  lilie  the  Scotch 
Idlt.     Dan.  kilte-op. 

Kind,  intimate — not  kind,  at  enmity.     See  Thick. 

King's-cushion,  a  sort  of  seat  made  by  two  persons  crossing 
their  hands,  on  which  to  place  a  third. 

Kink,  v.  to  laugh  immoderately,  to  labour  for  breath  as  in  the 
hooping  cough.  Teut.  kichen,  kincken,  difiiculter  spirare, 
— Kink,  s.  a  violent  or  convulsive  fit  of  laughter  or  cough- 
ing, especially  when  the  breath  is  stopped.  See  Kin- 

Kin-cough,  Kink-cough,  Ching-congh,  or  King-cough,  thehoop- 
ing-cough.  Sax.  cincung,  cachinnatio.  Teut.  kinck-hoest, 
asthma.  The  ignorant  and  the  superstitious  have  va- 
rious fooleries,  for  cm-ing  or  alleviating  this  epidemic  dis- 
order— such  as  eating  a  mouse-pie,  or  hanging  a  roasted 
mouse  round  the  neck — dipping  the  persons  aiFected  nine 
times  in  an  ope?!  grave,  or  putting  them  nine  times  under 
a  pie-bald  horse — bread  baked  on  a  Good  Friday  before 
sun-rise — and  perhaps  others  that  may  have  escaped  my 

Kirk,  a  church.  An  old  Eng.  word  from  Sax.  c^rce,  still  re- 
tained in  Noithumberland. — Kirk-Garth,  the  church 

114  KIST 

yard. — Kirk-Master,  a   church    warden.      Teut.    Icerk- 

maester. — Kirk-folk,  the  congregation. 
KiST,  a  chest.     Common  to  Sax.  Su.-Got.  Germ.  Dut.  and 

Kisses,  small  confections  or  sugar  plums.     Perhaps  the  same 

as    Shakspeare's  kissing-comfits.      See   Merry   Wives   of 

Windsor,  Act  5,  Sc.  5, 
Kit,  properly  a  covered  milking  pail  with  two  handles,  but 

often  applied  to  a  small  pail  of  any  sort.     Also  a  wooden 

vessel  in  which  pickled  salmon  are  sent  to  London.     Like- 
wise the  stool  on  which  a  cobbler  works. 
Kit,  a  set  or  company,  generally  in  a  contemptuous  light. 

"  The  whole  kit."     Applied  sometimes  to  things  as  well 

as  to  persons. 
Kitchen  Physic,  substantial  fare — good  living — opprobrium 


Throw  physic  to  the  dogs,  I'll  none  of  it. 

Shak.  jMacbeth. 

In  jest ;  no  offence  in  the  world. 

Shak.  Hamlet. 

Kite,  the  belly.  Allied  to  Moe.-Got.  quid,  and  Su.-Got. 
qwed,  venter.  Bag-kite  and  j^od-kitc,  ai'e  ludicrously  ap- 
plied to  persons  with  larger  capacities  than  common. 
"  Running  to  kite" — becoming  corpulent. 

Kith,  acquaintance.  Sax.  cytke.  Not  obsolete  as  stated 
in  Todd's  John.     Kith  and  kin,  friends  and  relations. 

Kittle,  v.  to  tickle,  to  enliven.  Sax.  cilelaii,  titillare.  Dut. 
kittelen.     Teut.  kitzelcn. 

Kittle,  v.  to  bring  forth  kittens.  A  very  old  word,  written 
in  Palsgrave,  kytielL  V.  L'eclaircissement  de  la  Lang, 

KTZO  115 

Kittle,  a.  ticklish,  difRcult.     "  hiUle  wark" 

"  O  mony  a  time,  my  lord,"  he  said, 
I've  stown  a  kiss  f'rae  a  sleeping  wench  ; 

But  for  you  I'll  do  as  Idtih:  a  deed. 

For  I'll  steal  an  auld  lurdane  afF  the  bench. 

Christie's  Will. 
In  witty  songs  and  verses  kittle, 

Who  can  compare  with  Thomas  Whittle  ? 

Henry  Rohson. 

This  word  has  other  meanings ;  as  kittle  iveather — change- 
able weather ;  a  kittle  question — such  as  it  is  inconvenient 
or  impolitic  to  answer ;  a  kittle  horse — one  unsafe  or  not 
easily  managed. 

Kittling,  a  kitten.  An  ancient  word.  Palsgrave,  kytlynge. 
Prompt.  Parv.  Cler.  kytUnge,  catellus.  Jidiana  Barnes 
has  kendel  of  cats,  a  litter  of  cats. 

KiTT,  Kitty,  a  diminutive  of  Christopher,  as  well  as  of  Ca- 

Kitty,  the  house  of  con-ection.  Neiucastle.  Su.-Got.  kcetta, 
includere.     Germ,  ketten,  to  fetter. 

Kitty-cat,  a  puerile  game,  described  by  Moor.  V,  Suftl 
Words,  kit-cat.  Strutt  mentions  a  game,  which  used  to 
be  played  in  the  North,  called  tip  cat,  or  more  properly  cat. 
V.  Sports  and  Pastimes,  p.  86. 

Kittv-wren,  or  Jenny-wren,  the  Nvren — the  reputed  consort 
of  the  robin-red  breast. 

"  The  robin  and  the  wren 
"  Are  God's  cock  and  hen." 

Kizoned,  or  KizzENED,  parched  or  dried.  Children  are  said 
to  be  so,  when,  from  a  weakness  or  pampered  appetite, 
they  loathe  their  food.  "  Kizen'd  meat" — meat  too  much 
roasted.     Q.  Isl.  gisna,  hiascere  ? 

116  KLIC 

Klick-Hooks,  large  hooks  for  catcliing  salmon  in  the  day 

time.     V.  Crav.  Gloss. 
Knack,  to  speak  affectedly,  to  ape  a  style  beyond  the  speaker's 

education. — Knackit,    Nackit,  one  quick  at  repartee,  a 

clever  child. 
K\ACK-AND -RATTLE,  a  quick  and  noisy  mode  of  dancing  with 

the  heels. 

He  jumps,  and  his  heels  kuack  mid  rattle. 

At  turns  of  the  music  so  sweet ; 
He  makes  such  a  thundering  brattle, 

The  floor  seenis  afraid  of  hi.-^  feet. 

T/ir  Corners'  Pay  Week. 

Knack-knee'd,  in-kneed — knees  that  knnck  or  strike  ag;iinst 

each  other  in  walking. 
Kn'auG"!,  pointed  rocks,  or   rugged   tops   of  liills.      V.  Ihre, 

Knaggy,  testy,  ill-humoured,  waspish. 
Knaw,  v.  to  know.     "  Aw  knaw" — I  know.     Hee  Know. 
Kmfle,  to  steal,  to  pilfer.     Q.  Celt,  cneijiu,  to  shear. 
Knocking-trough,  a  conical  trough  in  which  the  rind  is  beat 

off  barley  with  a  mallet. 
Knoll,  Knowl,  Knowe,  the  top  of  a  hill,  a  bare  rounded 

hillock.     Sax.  cnolle.     Teut.  knolle. 
Know.     "  You  know,  you  knaw." — "  D'ye  ken — I'll  tell  you 

now" — "  what's  my   opinion   to  think — I  cannot  say — I 

dinna  ken." — "  what  does  he  say,  good  man  f — where  hez 

he  been,  good  man  ?" — Here  good  man  is  not  the  case  of 

calling,  but  is  put  in  opposition  to  he.     This  is  a  mode  of 

expression  peculiar  to  the  Nortli. 
Knaki,.  :i  luiuch-backed  or  dwiirfisli   man.     Old  khiirif, 

a  knot. 

LAD  1 1  / 

KuN,  CuK.     "  T  cun  you  no  thanks" — I  do  not  acknowledge 

myself  obliged  to  you,     Dur.     Is  it  from  Gtrni.  konueii, 

to  know,  as  savoir  grc,  in  French  ? 
Kl"ss,  to  kiss.     Welsh  cusan. 
Kye,  plural  of  cows,  kine.     Sax.  ci/,  vacca. 
Kyloe,  a  small  Scotch  breed  of  cattle,  said  to  be  fi-oni  ht/le,  a 

Graelic  word  for  a  ferry — over  which  they  ai'e  transported. 

But  may  it  not  be  from  Germ,  kuk-klein,  a  small  cow  ? 


Labbering,  struggling  in  water,  as  a  fish  when  caught.      Jo- 
cosely applied  to  a  great  legal  luminarif,  who  unlbrtunately 
slipped  into  the  watery  element  a  few  yeai's  ago. 
"  Aw  was  sctten  the  keel,  wi'  Dick  Stavers  an'  IMat, 

An'  the  Mansion-house  Stairs  we  were  just  alangside. 
When  we  aw  three  see'd  sumthing,  but  didn't  ken  what. 

That  was  splashing  and  lahbcring  aboot  ith  the  tide." 
«'  It's  a  flucker  !"  ki  Dick  ;  "  Xo,"  ki  Mat,  "  its  owre  big. 
It  luick'd  mair  like  a  skyat  when  aw  first  see'd  it  rise :" 
Kiv  aw — for  awd  getten  a  gUff  o'  the  -wig- 
Odds  mercy  !  Wye,  marrows,  becrike  it's  Lord  ^She. 

Song,  My  Lord  ^Size. 

Lace,  to  beat  or  flog.  "  I'll  lace  your  jacket." — Lacing,  a 
beating.     "  Aufl  gie  yc  a  good  ladng'ya&t  now." 

Laced,  mixed  with  spirits,  as  tea  or  coffee,  to  which  some 
"  ancient  dames"  are  partial. 

Lackits,  small  sums  of  money — any  odd  things. 

Lad,  a  boy ;  originally  a  man,  from  Sax.  leode,  people.  Lang- 
land — the  reputed  author  of  the  Visions  of  Peirs  Plough- 
man— one  of  our  earliest  writers,  uses  laddc,  in  its  primi- 
tive sense ;  from  which  no  doubt  proceeded  lasse,  lass. — 
In  Scotland,  I  have  heard  a  person  50  years  old,  called  a 
lad — but  he  was  in  a  state  of  single  blessedness. 

118  LAD 

Lad,  Laddie,  a  lover,  a  sweetheart.  "  That's  maw  lad,  izint 
he  a  bonny  fellow." 

May  aw  the  press-gang  perish. 
Each  lass  her  laddie  cherish, 
Lang  may  the  Coal  Trade  flourish. 

Upon  the  dingy  Tyne. 

Song,  Tlie  Keel  Row. 

Lafter,  Lawter,  as  many  eggs  as  a  hen  will  lay  before  she 
incubates.    Teut.  legh-tyd,  tempus  quo  gallinae  ova  pariunt. 

Laggins,  staves.    V.  Ihre.  lagg. 

Laidly,  Laidlev,  uglj',  loathsome,  foul.     Sax.  laithlk. 
"  I  will  her  liken  to  a  laidley  worm." 

Lainch,  a  long  stride.     "  What  a  lainch  he  has." 

Lair,  mire,  dirt.  To  he  laired,  to  stick  in  the  mire.  Isl.  leir. 
Su.-Got.  ler. 

Laird,  "  the  lord  of  a  manor  in  the  Scottish  dialect." — Dr. 
John.  This  is  its  old  meaning;  but  it  is  now  a  common 
name  in  Northumberland  and  Cumberland  for  a  proprietor 
of  land,  without  any  relation  to  manorial  rights.  "  He 
rides  like  a  Bambro'shii-e  laird — one  spur,  and  a  stick  in 
his  opposite  hand." 

Lake,  v.  to  play.  Sax.  lacany  ludere.  Moe.-Got.  laikan,  exul- 
tare.     Peirs  Ploughman,  layke. — La  king,  s.  a  play-thing. 

Lake-wake,  Late-wake,  the  watching  of  a  corpse  previous  to 
interment.  Sax.  lie,  a  body,  and  wacian,  to  watch.  V. 
Jam.  lyk-waik. 

Lam,  Lamb,  to  beat  soundly.     "  Aw^l  lamb yor  hide" 

"  Lamb  them,  lads;  lamb  them  !" — a  cant  phraseof  the 
time,  derived  from  the  fate  of  Dr.  Lambe,  an 
astrologer  and  quack,  who  was  knocked  on  the 
head  by  the  rabble  in  Charles  the  First's  time. 
PeverU  of  Hit  Peak,  voL  iv.  p.  152. 

LAST  119 

The  great  known  unknown  tiipx  a  little  here.  The  word 
is  used  in  two  or  three  of  the  plays  of  Beaumont  and  Flet- 
cher, ti'iitten  before  the  conjuring  Doctor's  catastrophe, 
which  did  not  happen  until  1628.  Besides,  the  derivation 
seems  obviously  from  Isl.  lem,  verberare,  or  Teut.  lompen, 

Lam-pay,  to  correct;  principally  applied  to  children. 

La>i,  or  Lamb,  and  its  diminutive  Lammie,  favourite  terms  of 
endearment.     "  Maiv  bonny  Imn,"  "  maw  canny  lammie." 

Lameter,  Lamiter,  a  cripple.     "  He'll  be  a  lameter  for  life." 

Lang,  long. — Lang,  Langsome,  tedious,  tiresome.  Sax.  lang- 
sum. — Langsowness,  tediousness. 

Lang-length>  the  whole  length.  "  He  fell  down  aw  his  lang 

Lang-saddle,  or  Settle,  a  long  wooden  seat,  with  a  back  and 
arms,  usually  placed  in  the  chimney  corner  in  country 

Langsyne,  long  since.  Sax.  longc  siththan,  din  exinde.  See 

Lant,  the  game  of  loo. — Lantered,  looed. — Lanters,  the 

Lap,  preterite  of  leap.     See  Loup. 

Lap-up,  to  give  up,  to  relinquish. 

Lapstone,  a  cobl)ler's  stone,  on  which  he  hammers  his  leather. 

Lare,  learning,  scholarship.  Pure  Saxon. — Lare-father, 

Lasche,  cold  and  moist — not  actually  rain.  V.  Moor,  lash  or 

Lashigillavery,  Lusheygilavey,  plenty  of  meat  and  drink; 
a  superfluity.     Probably  from  lavish. 

Last,  a  measure  of  corn — 80  bushels.  Sax.  hlcest.  Su.-Got. 

120  LAST 

Lastenest,  most  lasting. 

Lat,  a  lath.  Sax.  latta.  Dut.  lat.  Fr.  laite. — Lat  and 
Plaster,  an  ironical  phrase  for  a  tall  and  slender  person 
— as  thin  as  a  lat. — Lat-hiver  or  Rive-er,  a  maker  of 

Latch,  v.  to  catch,  to  lay  hold  of.     Sax.  tecca«,  prehendere. 

When  that  he  Galathe  besought 
Of  love,  which  he  might  not  lacfie. 

Gower,  de  Confess.  Amavt. 

■  But  I  have  words. 

That  would  be  howl'd  out  in  the  desert  air, 
"Where  hearing  should  not  latch  them. — Sftak.  Macbeth. 

Latch,  s.  a  fastening ;  especially  a  wooden  latch  or  snec/c — 
sometimes  lifted  with  a  cord,  at  other  times  with  the  fin- 
ger.    Ital.  laccio. 

Love  will  none  other  birde  catch, 
Though  he  sette  either  nette  or  latch. 

Chavcer,  Romaunt  of  the  Box. 

Late,  or  Leat,  to  seek,  to  summon,  to  invite.  Isl.  lei/ta,  qiias- 
rere. — Lating,  or  Leating,  a  summons  or  invitation.  Dr. 
Willan  mentions  Leating,  or  Lating-row,  a  district  from 
which  matrons  are  invited  by  special  summons  to  be  present 
at  a  child-birth,  or  at  the  death  of  any  of  the  inhabitants. 
Should  a  matron  within  the  limits  have  been,  through  in- 
advertence or  mistake,  omitted  on  such  an  occasion,  it  is 
an  affront  not  to  be  forgiven. 

Lathe,  or  Leathe,  a  place  for  storing  hay  and  corn  in  winter 
— a  barn.     Used  by  Chaucer.     V.  Skinner,  lath. 

Latherin,  a  drab,  a  trollop.     "  A  lazy  latherin." 

Latten,  Lattin,  tin.     Pistol's 

Challenge  of  the  latten  bilbo. 

Shak.  Merry  Wit'Ca  of  Windsor. 

LAVE  121 

Has  been  "  a  stumbling  block,"  not  so  much  "  to  the  gene- 
rality of  readers,"  as  Hanmer  would  express  it,  but  to  the 
commentators  themselves.  See  the  learned  remarks  of  the 
"  collective  \visdom,"  in  the  last  Varior.  Edit,  of  Shak.  vol. 
viii.  p.  23-3 ;  to  which  should  be  added  Sir  Thomas's  own 
idea — "  a  factitious  metal."  In  Todd's  John,  the  word  is 
defined  to  be,  "  a  mixed  kind  of  metal,  made  of  copper 
and  calamine :  said  by  some  to  be  the  old  orichalc ;" 
though  the  authority  quoted  from  Gower  proves  that 
"  laton"  and  "  bras"  are  two  distinct  things.  In  the  Dic- 
tionaries of  Bailey,  Dyche,  and  Ash,  latten  is  explained  to 
be  iron  tinned  over,  which  is  in  fact  what  is  called  tin  : 
Pegge  also  states  latten  to  be  tin  ;  but  on  turning  to  Nares' 
Glossary,  I  find  the  worthy  Aixhdeacon  labouring  hard  at 
its  transmutation  into  brass.  The  days  of  alchymy,  how- 
ever, are  past.  In  addition,  it  may  be  observed,  that  Eud- 
diman — an  authority  entitled  to  consideration — interprets 
lated,  iron  covered  with  fin. 

Lave,  v.  to  empty,  to  draw  or  take  out  water  or  other  liquid. 
Fr.  lever.     An  old  word  used  by  Chaucer. 

Lave,  s.  the  residue — those  who  are  left  or  omitted.  A  pure 
Saxon  word,  occurring  in  Peirs  Ploughman.  It  also 
means  a  crowd. 

Of  prelates  proud,  a  populous  lave. 

And  abbots  boldly  there  were  known ; 
With  bishop  of  St.  Andrew's  brave, 
Who  was  King  James's  bastard  son. 

Lanibe,  Battle  of  Floddon. 

In  ancient  times  the  dignitaries  of  the  church,  holding  the 
temporalities  of  their  benefices  of  the  King,  as  barons  by 
the  tenure  of  military  service,  were  bound  by  the  feudal 
law,  to  attend  him  in  his  wars. 


122  LAVE 

Laverick,  Laverock,  Lavvorick,  a  lark.     Sax.  laferc,  lawerc. 
Flocks  of  turtles,  and  of  laverockes. — Chaucer. 

Here  hear  my  Kenna  sing  a  song, 
There  see  a  blackbird  feed  her  young. 
Or  a  leverock  build  her  nest. 
Here  give  my  weary  spirits  rest. 

Walton,  Angkr''s  Wish. 

Law,  Loe,  Lowe,  a  hill  or  eminence  wliether  natural  or  arti- 
ficial. Sax.  hlcew,  hlaiv,  agger,  acervus.  McE.-Got.  hlaiw, 
monumeittum.  The  word  is  often  found  at  the  end  of  the 
names  of  vills  or  hamlets. 

Lawful  me  !  Law  me  !  a  frequent  colloquicil  exclamation, 
impljing  either  wonder  or  fear. 

Lea,  Lee,  rich  meadow  or  pasture.  Sax.  Icag.  Used  by 
Spenser,  and  several  times  by  Shakspeare. 

Lead,  Leead,  to  cwvy.    "  He's  leading  coals." 

Leagh,  a  scythe.     From  leu,  meadow,  and  ag,  to  cut. 

Leaping-the-well,  going  through  a  deep  and  noisome  pool 
an  Alnwick  Moor,  called  the  Freemen's  well — a  sine  qua 
non  to  the  freedom  of  the  borough.  On  Saint  Mark's 
day,  the  aspirants  proceed  in  great  state,  and  in  equal 
spirits,  from  the  town  to  the  moor,  where  they  draw  up 
in  a  body,  at  some  distance  from  the  water,  and  on  a  signal 
being  given,  they  scramble  through  the  mud  with  great  labour 
and  difficulty.  They  may  be  said  to  come  out  in  a  con- 
dition not  much  better  than  "  the  heroes  of  the  Dwiciad 
after  diving  in  Fleet  Ditch."  Tradition  says,  this  strange 
and  ridiculous  custom — rendered  more  ludicrous  by  being 
performed  in  white  clothing — was  imposed  by  King  John, 
who  was  bogged  in  this  very  pool.  1  witnessed  the  cere- 
mony about  four  yeai*s  ago. 

LETC  123 

Learn,  to  teach.  V.  Todd's  Jolin.  This  sense  is  not  yet 
obsolete  in  the  North. 

Leash,  to  ply  the  whip.     To  lash. 

Leather,  to  beat  soundly.  Perhaps  from  the  instrument 
originally  emplo3'ed — a  strap.  For  a  copious  vocabulary 
of  a  pugnacious  import,  see  SufF.  Words,  ainf. 

Leather-head,  Leather-heed,  a  block-head,  a  thickscull. 
Lanthorn  Leatherhead,  one  of  the  characters  in  Ben  Jon- 
son's  Bartholojiiew  Fair,  has  been  thought  to  have  been 
meant  for  Inigo  Jones ;  but  Mr.  GifFord  doubts  it. 

Leck,  to  leak.  Isl.  lek,  stillare. — Leck  on  and  off,  to  poiu* 
on,  and  drain  off,  gradually. 

Lee,  v.  to  lie,  to  tell  a  falsehood.  Sax.  leogan. — Lee,  s.  a  lie. 
This  word,  vulgar  as  it  is,  occurs  in  Chaucer. — Lee  with 
A  LATCHET,  3  monstrous  falsehood.  V.  Nares. — Leear,  a 

Leemers.     See  Brown-leemjers. 

Leet,  v.  to  meet  with,  to  alight. — Leet,  s,  &  a.  light.  "  Wheij 
thau  heart's  sad,  can  mine  be  leetf" 

Leets,  ligkis,  lungs.     Also  windows. 

Leetsobie,  light,  comfortable,  cheerful.     Lightsome. 

Leish,  Lish,  nimble,  strong  and  active. 

Leister,  a  prong  or  trident.  Su.-Got.  Hustra,  percutere.  See 

An  awfu'  scythe,  out  owre  ae  shouther, 

Clear  dangling  hang, 
A  three-tae'd  leister  on  the  ither 
Lay,  large  and  lang. 

Burns,  Death  a>id  Doctor  Honihook. 

Lktch,  a  long  narrow  swamp  in  which  water  moves  slowly 
among  rushes  and  grass. 

124  LENN 

Lennert,  ihe  linnel.     The  Greij  Lcnnert .—  The  Green  hen- 

nert. —  The  Brown  Lennert. 
Let-leet,  to  inform,  to  disclose.     To  let  in  light. 
Let  on,  to  mention.     "  He  never  let  on" — he  never  told  mc. 

Isl.  laela,  ostenderc. 
Let  wit,  to  make  known.     Dut.  laaten  lueeten. 
Leuf,   Loof,  the  palm  of  the  hand.     A  very  ancient  word. 

V.  Jam.     Ouisi/le  the  leuf,  back  of  the  hand — equivalent  to 

rejection  and  repulse. 
Lew,  mild,  calm. — Lew-warsi,  hike-warm.      Teut.  lamven, 

Lib,  to  emasculate.     Dut.  luhben.     Used  by  Massinger  and 

others. — Libber,  Qui  castrat.     Lib  is  perhaps  the  same  as 

glib  in  Shakspeare. 

They  are  coheirs, 
And  I  had  rather  gl'ih  m^'solf,  than  they 
Should  not  produce  fair  issues. 

The  JVhitrr'.';  Tnle. 

Lick,  to  beat,  to  chastise.  Su.-Got.  laegga,  to  strike, — 
Licking,  Licks,  a  beating, 

LiCKLY,  likely,  probable. — Lickliest,  the  superlative. 

Lief,  willingly,  rather,  as  soon.  Sax.  leof. — Liefer,  or  Le- 
ver, more  willingly,  sooner.  Sax.  leofre.  Both  Gower 
and  Chaucer  often  use  this  comparative.^ — Lief  is  common 
in  Shakspeai'e. 

Lift,  assistance.     To  give  a  lift,  to  lend  a  helping  hand. 

LiG,  to  lie  down.  Common  to  Sax.  and  most  Northern 
languages.  Both  Chaucer  and  Spenser  use  it. — Lig-ma- 
last,  a  loiterer,  the  last. — Lig-o-bed,  one  who  lies  long 
in  bed. 

LiGGEE,  a  carved  lignum  vitse  coit  for  playing  at  doddart. 

LIN  125 

Like,  to  please,  in  he  agrccahle  to.     Dr.  John,  i.s  )ni!staken  in 

thinking  it  disused. 
Liken'd.     "  I  had  likened" — I  was  in  danger  of. 
Liking,  delight,  pleasure.     Sax.  licung.     An  old  Scotch  word, 

occurring  in  that  beautiful  pasiiage  from  Bai'bour's  Bruce, 

quoted  by  Dr.  Jamieson. 

A  !  freedome  is  a  noble  thing ! 
Fredome  mayss  man  to  liaifF  liking  ! 
Fredome  all  solace  to  man  giffis ; 
He  levys  at  ess,  that  frel}'  levys. 

Lile,  little.     See  Lite. 

LiLL,  to  assuage  pain.     Lat.  lallare,  to  lull. 

LiLLY-wuNS  !   LiLLY-vvTNTERs  !  exclaiiiations  of  amazement. 

Lilt,  to  sing,  by  not  using  words  of  meaning,  but  tuneful  syl- 
lables only. — North.     Su.-Got.  lulla,  canere. 

Limbo,  gaol.     "  He's  gettin  into  limbo, up  the  nineteen  steps" 

LiMMER,  a  female  of  loose  manners,  or  easy  virtue. 

LiMMERS,  a  pair  of  shafts  for  a  cart  or  carriage.  Isl.  limar,  ra- 
mi arbor  um. 

Lin,  v.  to  cease,  to  stop.     Lsl.  Una,  enervare,  frangere. 

Yet  our  northern  prikkers,  the  borderers,  notwith- 
standing, with  great  enormitie,  (as  thought  me) 
and  not  unlyke  (to  be  playn)  unto  a  masterless 
hounde  hougling  in  a  hie  wey,  when  he  hath  lost 
him  he  way  ted  upon,  sum  hoopyng,  sum  wliistel- 
yng,  and  moste  with  crying  a  Berivyke  !  a  Ber- 
•wyke !  a  Fcnwyke !  a  Fancy ke  !  a  Buhner !  a 
Bulmcr  !  or  so  ootherwise  as  theyr  capteiiis 
names  wear,  never  linnde  those  troublous  and 
daungerous  noyses  all  bhe  night  long. 

Patten'' s  Ex£cdici(m  of  the  Duke  of  Somerset. 

126  LIN 

Before  whicli  time  the  wars  could  never  lin. 

Mirror  for  Magistrates. 
Set  a  beggar  on  horseback,  he'll  never  Un  till  he  be 
a  gallop. — Ben  Jon.  Staple  of  News. 

Lm,  s.  linen.     Also  the  lime  tree. 

Linn,  a  cascade,  a  precipice.  Sax.  hlynna,  a  torrent.  Isl. 
lindf  a  cascade.     Welsh,  Uyn,  a  lake. 

The  near'st  to  her  of  kin 
Is  Toothy,  rushing  down  from  Verwin's  rushy  lin. 

Drayton,  Polyolhion. 

Ling,  heath.     Isl.  ling,  spec,  erica. 

LiNGV,  active,  strong,  able  to  bear  fatigue. 

LiNiEL,  shoe-maker's  thread.  Fr.  ligneul.  The  same  as  lingel, 
described  in  Nares'  Gloss,  as  "  a  sort  oftkotig  used  by  shoe- 
makers and  cobblers ;  from  lingtda." 

Links,  sandy  barren  ground — sands  on  the  sea  shore.  V. 

Lippen,  to  expect,  to  depend  upon.  "  I  lippened  on  you  to 
join  me."     Sax.  leafeii,  credere. 

LisK,the  groin.    "  A  pain  in  the  lisk."     Dan.  and  Sw.  Uuske. 

Listen,  selvage.    Sax.  list.    Dan.  liste. 

Lite,  to  rely  on,  to  trust  to,  to  depend  upon. 

Lite,  little.  An  old  word  used  by  Chaucer,  both  as  a  substan- 
tive and  an  adjective.  Lall  and  Lile,  also  mean  little. — 
I  cannot  pretend  to  reconcile  these  dialectical  variations. 

Lithe,  to  listen.  "  Lithe  ye" — hark  you.  Lythe,  Peirs 
Ploughman.  Su.TGot.  lyda,  audire,  lyda  till,  aures  adver- 

Lithe,  to  thicken ;  as  to  lithe  the  pot. — Lithings, thickenings 
for  the  pot;  such  as  oatmeal,  flour,  &c.  V.  Wilb.  and 

LOON  127 

Littlest,  least — the  regular  superlative  of  little. 

Where  love  is  great  the  littlest  doubts  are  fear. 

Sliali.  Hamlet. 

XoAK,  OR  LoKE,  a  small  quantity ;  as  a  loke  of  hay,  a  loke  of 

meal,  a  loke  of  sand.   V.  Jaiu. 
LoAK  !    LoAK-A-DAZiE  !    LoAK-A-DAZiE-ME  !   exclaiTiations  of 

siu^prize  or  pleasure,  modidated  to  suit  the  occasion. 
Loaning,  Lonnin,  a  lane  or  bye-road ;    a  place  near  country 
villages  for  milking  cows.     "  Pelton  lonnin."    V.  Jam.  lomi. 
I  have  heard  of  a  lilting,  at  our  ewes  milking, 

Lasses  a  lilting,  before  the  break  of  day  ; 
But  now  there's  a  moaning,  on  ilka  green  loaning. 
That  our  braw  foiresters  are  a'  wede  away. 

Old  Scotch  Song,  Battle  of  Floddon. 

LoB-cocK,  a  contemptuous  epithet  for  a  stupid  or  sluggish 

I  now  must  leave  you  all  alas, 
And  live  with  some  old  lohcock  ass. 

Breton,  Works  of  a  Young  Wit. 

LoLLOCK,  a  Imnp.     "  Lollock  ivfat." 

Lollop,  to  walk  in  an  undulating  manner — to  move  heavily. 
Look,  Louk,  to  weed,  to  clear.     "  Looking  corn."      V.  Ray. 
LooNjLouNjLowNE,  an  idle  vagabond,  a  worthless  fellow,  a  ras- 
cal. The  word  is  old  ;  but  etymologists  are  not  agreed  in  the 
derivation.     Shakspeare  has  evidently  taken  the  stanzas 
in  Othello  from  the  following  ancient  version  of,  Take  thy 
old  Cloak  about  thee,  published  in  Percy's  Reliques,  vol.  i. 
King  Stephen  was  a  worthy  peere. 

His  breeclies  cost  him  but  a  crowne, 
He  held  them  sixpence  aU  too  deere  ; 
Therefore  he  call'd  the  tavlor  f^owne. 

128  LOOS  * 

LoosE-i'-TiiE-iiEFT,  a  disordcHy  person — a  loose  blade. 
LoosiNG-LEATHER,  an  injury  in  a  tender  part,  to  which  inexpe- 
rienced riders  are  subject ;  and  which  makes  them,  what  is 
elsewhere  called,  saddle  sick.  It  is  a  rustic  idea — counte- 
nanced by  some  old  authors — that  a  sprig  of  elder,  in  whicli 
there  is  a  joint,  worn  in  one  of  the  lower  pockets,  will 
operate  as  a  charm  against  this  galling  inconvenience ;  but 

To  harden  breech,  or  soften  horse, 
I  leave't  to  th'  learned  to  discourse. 

Flecknoe,  Dionium. 

Lop,  LoppE,  a  flea.     Pure  Saxon. 

LoppERED,  coagulated.     Loppered  milk — milk  that  sours  and 

curdles  without  the  application  of  an  acid.    Isl.  hlaup,  coa- 

LopsTROPOLOU^,  mischievous,  clamorous.     Obstreperous. 

We  shouted  some,  and  some  dung  doon — 
Lohstrop''lus  fellows,  we  kick'd  them  O. 

Song,  Sxvalwelt  Hopping. 

LouN,  Lown'd,  calm,  sheltered  from  the  wind.  Isl.  logn,  aeris 

LouNDER,  to  beat  with  severe  strokes.      V.  Jam. 

Loup,  v.  to  leap.  Su.-Got.  loepa,  currere.  Also  to  cover; 
from  Teut.  loojjen,  catulii'e. 

Loup,  s.  a  leap  or  spring. — Loup-the-lang-lonnin,  the  game 
of  leap  frog. 

LouPY-DYKE,  Imij}  the  di/ke,  a  term  of  contempt  conjoining 
the  ideas  of  imprudence  and  waywardness.  Sometimes  ap- 
plied to  one  of  those  expeditions  that  maidens  sigh  for, 
but  which  prudent  mati'ons  deprecate  as  shameless  and 

LTJM  129 

LoiiT,  i\  to  bow  in  the  rustic  fashion.  Su.-Got.  fitia,  incli- 
nare.  This  is  an  old  word  used  b}^  Gower,  Chaucer,  and 
other  ancient  English  writers. 

Lout,  s.  a  stupid  awkward  person.  Teut.  loef-e,  homo  insul- 
sus.     In  Shakspeare,  loivL 

LovESOME,  lovely.  Sax.  lossum,  delectabDis.  In  Peirs  Plough- 
man, Chaucer,  &c.  Indeed,  in  old  Eng.  some  and  ly  are 
used  indiiferently  as  terminations  of  adjectives. 

Low,  Lowe,  to  make  a  bright  flame,  as  well  as  the  flame  itself. 
Su.-Got.  loga,  Isl.  logi,  flamma. — Lilly-lowe,  a  comfort- 
able blaze.     "  Had  aboot  the  low." 

LowANCE,  LooANCE,  an  allowance  of  drink  to  work  people. 
"  Noo,  maister,  ye'U  sartinlif  give-us  war  looance."  V. 
Moor,  lowans. 

LowRY,  Looking,  overcast,  threatening  to  be  wet.  Spoken 
only,  I  think,  of  the  weather. 

Li'BBARD,  Lubbart,  an  awkward,  clownish  fellow,  a  calf- 
hearted  person.  Lubber  may  be  found  in  Shakspeare  and 
other  authors.  "  D'ye  ken  that  lubbard  there  ? — hoo  he 
tummiPd  his  creils  ! — he's  all  owre  darts  .'" 

For  h3'^em  an'  bairns  an'  maw  wife  Nan, 

Aw  yool'd  oot  like  a  liihbarf ; 
An'  when  aw  thowt  we  aw  shud  gan 

To  Davy  Jones's  cubbart. 

Song,  Jemmy  Joiieson^s  Whurry. 

LvG,  the  ear.     An  old  word  both  in  England  and  in  Scotland. 

Su.-Got.  lugga.     Sax.  ge-luggian,  to  pull — the  ear  being  a 

part  easily  pulled  or  lugged.     "  Aw'l  dad  yor  lug" — "  aw'l 

skslp  yor  gob." 
LuGGisH,  an  indolent,  or  idle  fellow. — Luggish-heeded,  heavy 

headed,  thick  headed. 
LuM,  a  deep  pool  of  water,  the  still  part  of  a  river. 

130  LUM 

Llm,  the  chimney  of'a  cottage.  Welsli,  lluinon.  Lover  is  in 
Lancashire,  and  also  in  some  parts  of  Yorkshire,  a  chim- 
ney— properly  (like  the  lum)  an  aperture  in  the  roof  of  old 
houses,  where  the  fire  was  in  the  centre  of  the  room.  Fr, 
I'ouverte.  I  find  love}-  in  Peirs  Ploughman,  and  also  in 
the  Faerie  Queene.  Sibbald,  however,  conjectures  that 
lum  may  be  from  Sax.  leom,  light — scarcely  any  other  light 
being  admitted,  except  through  this  hole.  Brand,  on  the 
other  hand,  asks  if  it  may  not  be  derived  from  the  lone  or 
clay  wherewith  the  wattle  work  is  daubed  over  inside  and 

LuM-sooPERS,  LuM-swEEPERS,  chuuney-sweepers.  North.  <$• 

LuRDANE,  a  drone,  a  sluggard.  Teut.  herd.  Old  Ital.  lordone. 
Fr.  lourdaud.  Some  old  writers,  however,  pretend  to  de- 
ri\'e  this  word  from  Lord  Dane — a  name  given  (more  from 
dread  than  dignity)  to  those  Danes,  who,  when  they  were 
masters  of  the  island,  were  distributed  in  private  houses  ; 
where  they  are  said  to  have  conducted  themselves,  or  if 
the  expression  be  permitted — lorded  over  the  inhabitants, 
with  outrageous  insolence  and  pride. 

In  every  liouse  Lord  Dane  did  then  rule  all ; 
Wlience  laysie  lozels  lurdancs  now  we  call. 

Mirror  for  Magistrates. 

LuRDV,  lazy,  sluggish.     Fr.  lourd,  dull,  stupid.     Ital.  lordo, 

dirty,  filthj'. 
LusTYisH,  rather  stout,  inclining  to  be  plimip. 
Lyery,  the  lean  or  muscular  flesli  of  animals.     Sax.  lira, 

Lyka  !  listen — an  exclamation  of  astonishment.     Lijlca  man  ! 

what  do  I  hcai-  jou  say. 

MAIN  131 


Mab,  v.  to  dress  cai'elessly. — Mab,  s.  a  slattern.     Perhaps  in 

derision  of  Queen  Mab. 
Mack,  to  make.     Preterite,  vii/ed.     Germ,  machen. — Mack, 

kind,  sort,  a  match  or  equal. — Mackless,  matchless. 
Macks,  snakes,  sorts,  fashions. 

MacK'BOULD,  to  venture,  or  take  the  liberty.     Make  bold. 
Mackshift,  a  substitute  or  expedient  in  a  case  of  necessity  or 

Maddle,  to  wander,  to  talk  inconsistently,  to  forget  or  con- 
found objects,  as  if  in  a  state  bordering  on  delirium. 
Madpash,  a  person  disordered  in  the  mind — a  madbrain. — 

From  mad  and  pash,  the  head. 
Maffle,  to  stammer,  to  be  puzzled — to  act  by  means  inade- 
quate to  the  attainment  of  the  object  or  end  proposed — 
like  one  in  dotage.     Tent,  maffelen,  balbutire. — Maffling, 
a  state  of  perplexity. 
Maggy,  a  magpie.     Also  called  a  Fyannet. 
Mail,  rent  or  money  exacted  by  Freebooters  on  the  borders. 

Sax.  mal,  stipendium. 
Mailin,  or  Maeylin,  a  sort  of  mop  made  of  old  rags,  \vith  a 
long  pole,  for  cleaning   out  an  oven — metaphorically,  a 
dirty  careless  wench.      V.  Todd's  John,  malk'in  and  maukin. 
Main,  might,  strength,  exertion.     Sax.  mcegn.     Shakspeare 
endeavours  to  be  superlatively  witty  on  the  wovd. 
Sal. — Then  let's  make  haste  away,  and  look 
Unto  the  main. 

Wak — Unto  the  main  !  O  father,  Maine  is  lost ; 
That  Maine  which  by  main  force  Warwick  did  win, 
And  would  have  kept  so  long  as  breath  did  last  : 
jV/aJK chance, father,  you  meant;  but  I  meant iV/ai«i-,- 
Which  I  will  win  from  France,  or  else  be  slain. 

Second  Part  of  King  Henry  VJ. 

132  MAIN 

Main  of  rocks,  a  cock-fighting  match.  Anathematized  by 
Brand ;   Pop.  Antiq.  vol.  i.  p.  480. 

Mains,  a  farm,  or  certain  fields,  attached  to  a  mansion  house. 
Old  Fr.  manse. 

Mainswear,  Manswear,  to  take  a  false  oath.  Sax.  mansive- 
rian.     "  He's  a  manswearing  fellow." 

Maist,  Mayst,  almost. — Maistly,  Maystly,  mostly.  Sax. 
viaest,  most,  greatest. 

Maister,  master.  Sax.  master.  Used  by  Spenser. —  Mais- 
ter-man,  a  husbancL 

Maistry,  power,  superiority,  mastery.     Fr.  maistrie. 

Make,  a  companion,  or  equal.  An  old  word.  Sax.  maca. — 
Makeless,  matchless,  without  an  equal.  Su.-Got.  maka- 
locs.  This  latter  word,  in  the  gai'b  of  MAKE  Ai22 — adopt- 
ed by  the  learned  Christina  of  Sweden,  on  one  of  her 
numerous  medals — sadly  perplexed  the  antiquaries  at 

Make-count,  to  calculate  on,  to  mean  or  intend  to  do  any 

Male,  or  Mail,  a  travelling  trunk.     V.  Nares'  Gloss. 

Mall,  Maul,  Mally,  Mailly,  Polly,  Mary, 

A  bold  virago  stout  and  tall. 

As  Joan  of  France,  or  EngUsh  Mall. 

Butler,  Hudilmts. 

Mawmer,  to  hesitate,  to  be  in  doubt,  to  mutter. 

I  wonder  in  my  soul 
What  you  could  ask  me,  that  I  should  deny, 
Or  stand  so  mammcTwg  on.  SJiak,  Oilwllo. 

Hanmer  most  unfortunately  refers  to  Fr.  m\imour,  which, 
he  says,  "  men  were  apt  often  to  repeat  when  they  were 
not  prepai'ed  to  give  a  direct  answer  !" 

MARR  133 

Mammy,  a  childish  name  for  mother.     Teut.  nmmme, 

INIanadge,  Manaudge,  a  box  or  ckib  instituted  by  inferior  shop- 
keepers— generally  linen-tlrapers — for  supplying  goods 
to  poor  or  improvident  people,  who  agi'ee  to  pay  for  them 
by  instalments — ^a  mode  of  dealing  extremely  lucrative  to 
one  party,  but  sadly  the  contrary  to  the  other.  Of  late,  much 
of  this  deservedly  disreputable  trade  has  been  in  the  hands 
of  manadge-ivomen,  who  become  responsible  to  the  dra- 
pers for  what  they  impose  on  their  deluded  customers. 

Mang,  s.  barley  or  oats  ground  with  the  husks ;  given  to 
dogs  and  swine.     Perhaps  from  Sax.  mengean,  to  mingle. 

Maxg,  preposition,  among,  amongst. 

Manner,  manure,  dung,  or  compost.  "  Aw've  manner''d  the 

Mannie,  a  man.     "  A  tight  little  mannie  but  low." 

Mappen,  perhaps.     It  may  happen. 

Marches,  the  northern  borders.     Sax.  inearc.     Fr.  marche. 
They  of  those  marches,  gracious  sovereign, 
Shall  be  a  wall  sufficient  to  defend 
Our  inland  from  the  pillering  borderers. 

Shal;.  Hen.  V. 

Mare,  more.     Pure  Saxon.     Germ.  mehr. 

Margit,  Meg,  Meggy,  Peg,  Peggy,  Margaret. 
Marrow,  Marra,  v.  to  match,  to  equal. 

'Bout  Lunnun  then  divent  ye  myek  sic  a  rout. 
There's  nowse  there  maw  winkers  to  dazzle ; 
For  aw  the  fine  things  ye  are  gobbin  about, 
We  can  marra  iv  Canny  Newcassel. 

Song,  Canny  Newcassel, 
Marrow,  s.  a  fellow,  companion,  or  associate;  an  equal,  a 

Yet  chopping  and  changing  T  cannot  commend 
With  thief  or  his  marrow,  tor  fear  of  ill  end Tiisscr. 

134  MARK 

Marrows,  fellows ;  two  alike,  or  corresponding  to  each 
other ;  as  a  paii'  of  gloves,  a  pair  of  stockings,  a  pair  of  shoes. 

Marrow-bones,  the  knees.  "  I'll  bring  him  down  on  his 
marrow-bones" — I'll  make  him  bend  his  knees  as  he  does 
to  the  Virgin  Mary.  Brand's  Pop.  Antiq.  vol.  i.  p.  43. 
But  see  Grose's  Class.  Diet. 

Marrowless,  without  a  match,  incomparable. 

Marrv  !   Marry -COME-OUT  !  Marry -on-us  !   common  inter- 
jections— purposed  disguises  in  favour  of  pious  ears. 
Marn/-gip,  goody  she-justice,  mistress  French  hood. 

Ben  Jon. 

Marry  and  shall,  that  I  will.     Often  used  by  old  people. 

Marsycree,  to  ill-treat,  to  butcher.     Corruption  of  massacre. 

Mart,  Mayrt,  a  cow  or  ox  slaughtered  at  Martinmas,  and 
salted  for  the  winter.  It  is  customary  in  Newcastle  and 
the  neighbourhood,  for  a  few  families  to  join  in  the  pur- 
chase of  a  mart,  which  is  obtained  at  the  Stones  fail',  held 
on  old  Martinmas  day,  and  divided  among  them. 
And  MartUmass  Berfc  doth  beare  good  tacke, 
When  countrey  folke  do  dainties  lacke. — Tusscr. 

Mash,  v.  to  bruise.     "  Mash'd  up." — Mash,  s.  confusion. 

Mask,  to  infuse.     "  Mask  the  tea."     V.  Jam. 

Mason-due,  the  vulgar  name  for  an  ancient  hospital,  on  the 
Sandhill,  Newcastle,  lately  taken  down.  Evidently  a 
corruption  of  Fr.  maison  Dieu. 

Masselgem,  a  mixture  of  wheat  and  rye — maslin.  Teut.  mas- 
teluyn,  farrago. 

Maten-corn,  corn  damped  and  beginning  to  germinate. — 
North.     V.  Ihre,  mall. 

Matters.  "  Naa  girt  matters,"  nothing  extraordinar}'  or  to 
boast  of.     Crav.  Gloss, 

MAY  135 

Maugh,  Meaugii,  brother-in-law.      V.  Lye,  maeg. 

Maul,  to  beat  soundl} ,  to  hurt  severely.     Mce.-Got.  maul-jan. 

Upon  the  childe,  but  somewhat  short  did  fall, 
And  lighting  on  his  horse's  head,  him  quite  did  nmU. 

Sjieiiser,  Faerie  Quccne. 

Maumy,  mellow,  soft.  Su.-Got.  mogna,  to  become  mellow. 
To  maum  a  crust  of  bread,  is  to  soften  it  in  water. 

Maunder,  to  wander  about  in  a  thoughtful  manner ;  to  be 
tedious  in  talking ;  to  say  a  great  deal,  but  irregularly  and 
confusedly ;  to  lose  the  thread  of  a  discourse.  Q.  Gael. 
mandagh,  a  stutterer  ? 

Maunt,  Mt'N'CLE,  contractions  of  my  aunt,  my  uncle.  Bor- 
ders of  North.    Nuncle  and  Naunt  occur  in  Beaimi.  &  Flet. 

Maw,  v.  to  mow.  Preterite,  mew.  Sax.  mawan.  Germ. 
mahen. — Mawers,  the  mowers. 

Maw,  s.  the  human  stomach,  as  well  as  that  of  an  animal. 
Sax.  maga.     V.  Todd's  John. 

Maw,  p)-onoun,  my,  mine,  belonging  to  me. 

Mawd,  a  plaid  worn  by  the  Cheviot  shepherds.  Su.-Got. 
mudd,  a  garment  made  of  rein-deer  skins. 

Maw'K,  a  maggot,  a  gentle.  Su.-Got.  77iatk,  madk. — Mawky, 
IVIawkish,  maggotty,  whimsical,  proud,  capricious. 

May,  the  sweet  scented  flower  of  the  white  thorn.  See  May- 
Day  Customs,  Brand's  Pop.  Antiq.  vol.  i.  p.  179  &  seq. 

Itise  up,  maidens,  fie  for  shame. 
For  I've  been  four  lang  miles  from  hame  : 
I've  been  gathering  mj  garlands  gay ; 
Rise  up,  fair  maids,  and  take  in  your  May. 

Old  Newcastle  S&ng. 

Moor  gives  an  inaccurate  version  of  this  homely  canticle. 
V.  Suff.  Words,  p.  225. 

136  MAZE 

MazeDj  astonished,  amazed.  Also  stupified — rendered  in- 
sensible by  a  blow.     "  Aw  stood  qnite  mazed." 

Me,  for  I.  A  common  grammatical  error.  Not  without  ex- 
amples in  our  old  language. 

Meal,  the  appointed  time  when  a  cow  is  milked,  as  well  as 
the  quantity  of  milk  she  gives  at  once.  Sax.  ma;l,  portio, 
spatium  temporis. 

Mealy-mouthed,  "  using  soft  words,  concealing  the  real  in- 
tention; speaking  hypocritically."  Todd's  John.  I 
should  prefer  Skinner's  construction — mild-mouthed  or 
mellow-mouthed — but  derive  the  word  from  Fr.  miele, 
honied,  as  we  say  honied  words. 
Clavton  Avas  false,  mcaUc-moutWd,  and  poore  spirited. 
Life  of  Ant.  a  Wood,  p.  165. 

Meank,  to  complain,  to  lament.     Sax.  maenan,  dolere. 
And  thus  she  means Sltak.  Mid.  NighCs  Dream. 

Meaning,  shrinking  or  feeling  sore,  indicative  of  pain  or  lame- 

Mebby,  Mebbys,  Ma  bees,  Maebbies,  peihaps,  probably.  // 
may  be. 

Meddle  nor  make.  "  He'll  neither  meddle  nor  make" — 
he'll  not  interfere. 

Meer,  a  mare.  Also  an  abusive  term  among  the  lower  order 
oi  ladies  in  Newcastle.     "  Aw  me  Peg,  yah  vieer.^'' 

Meet,  fit,  proper.  Stated  in  Todd's  John,  to  be  rarely  used. 
It  is  quite  common  in  North,  and  Dur. 

Meldek,  a  making  of  meal.  In  some  places  the  farmers  hire 
the  miller,  and  in  turns  have  a  winter  stock  of  meal  made. 
The  meldering  day  used  to  be,  and  perhaps  still  is,  a  kind 
of  feast  among  the  yeomanr} .  Fr.  moudre,  to  grind  ;  or, 
according  to  Dr.  Jam.  Isl.  iiudldr,  molitura,  from  mala,  to 

MELL  137 

Mell,  v.  to  intermeddle,  to  engage  in,  to  interfere  with.  Fr. 
vieler.  "  I  shall  not  mell  with  your  affairs."  The  com- 
mentators are  not  agreed  on  the  expression, 

Men  are  to  mell  with. 

Shak.  All's  Well  that  Ends  Well. 

It  means  men  are  to  meddle  with ;  without  the  least  al- 
lusion to  the  indecent  idea  surmised  by  Theobald. 

Mell,  v.  to  pound  or  bruise,  to  crush. 

Mell,  s,  a  wooden  mallet,  or  hammer.     Lat.  malleus. 

Mell-doll,  an  image  of  corn,  dressed  like  a  doll,  carried  in 
triumph — amidst  the  most  frantic  screaming  of  the  women 
— on  the  last  day  of  reaping.  In  some  places  they  call  it 
a  KERN  (perhaps,  properly,  corn)  baby.  There  is  also  oc- 
casionally a  harvest  queen — thought  to  be  a  representation 
of  the  Roman  Ceres — apparelled  in  great  finery,  and 
crowned  with  flowers ;  with  a  scythe  in  one  hand,  and  a 
portion  of  corn  in  the  other. 

Mell-supper,  a  supper  and  merry-making  on  the  evening  of 
the  conclusive  reaping  day — harvest-home.  Besides  a 
grand  display  of  excellent  old  English  cheer,  with  a  mix- 
tm'e  of  modern  gout,  to  enlarge  the  sphere  of  epicurean 
enjoyment,  there  is  dancing,  masking  and  disguising,  and 
every  other  sort  of  mirth  to  expand  a  rustic  heart  to  gaiety. 
According  to  Hutchinson,the  Historian  of  Northumberland, 
the  name  of  this  supper  is  derived  from  the  rites  of  Ceres, 
when  an  offering  of  the  first  fruits  was  made ;  the  word 
melle  being  a  provincial  word,  equivalent  to  mingle :  imply- 
ing that  the  cakes  used  at  this  festival  are  mingled  or  made 
of  new  corn,  and  that  it  is  the  feast  of  the  first  mingling  of 
flour  of  the  new  reaped  wheat.  I  am,  however,  strongly  in- 
clined to  think,  that  we  may  safely  refer  to  Teut.  macl. 

138  MELL 

convivium  refectio,  pastus.     Various  other  etymologies 
have  been  conjectured,  which  are  noticed  in  Brand's  Pop. 
Ant.  vol.  i.,  Chap.  Harvest- Home ;    where  much  curious 
matter  relative  to  this  subject  is  collected. 
Mell-doors,  the  space  between  the  heck  and  outward  door — 

the  entry. 
Mell-drop,  the  least  offensive  species  of  mucus  from  the  nose. 

"  Mell-drop  Tommy." 
Mends,  recompense,  atonement.     Amends. 

If  she  be  fair,  'tis  the  better  for  her ;  an  she  be  not, 
she  has  the  mends  in  her  own  hand. 

Shak.  Troilus  and  Cnssida. 

Mennam,  the  minnow.     Gael,  meanan. 

Mense,  v.  to  grace,  to  ornament,  to  decorate.     "  The  pictures 

mense  the  room." 
Mense,  .?.  decency,  propriety  of  conduct,  good  manners,  kind- 
ness, hosjutality.     Sax.  menncsc,  humanus.     It  also  means 
an  ornament,  or  credit ;  as  he  is  "  a  mense  to  his  family." 
The  last  of  a  dish  of  meat  untaken  is  said  to  be  left  for 
mense's  stdce,  perhaps  pro  mensa.     See  Tailor's  mense. 
Menseful,  decent,  graceful,  mannerly,  hospitable,  creditable. 
Menseless,  indccorus,  graceless,  inhospitable. 
Mense-pennv,  liberality  conducted  by  prudence. 
Would  have  their  menseful  penny  spent 
With  gossips  at  a  merriment. 

The  Collier's  Wedding. 

Mere,  a  lake.     Pure  Saxon.     Buttermere,  Windermere. 
Merry-begotten,  filius  nuUius — rather  waggishly  alluded  to 
by  old  Brunne. 

Knoute  of  his  body  gate  sonnes  thre, 
Tuo  bi  tuo  wifes,  the  thrid  injolifte. 

Langtoffs  Chronicle. 

MIDD  139 

Merry-dancers,  the  glancings  of  the  Aurora  BoreaUa,  or 
northern  lights;  when  first  seen,  called  burning  spears, 
and  which  to  persons  of  a  vivid  imagination  still  seem  to 
represent  the  clashing  of  arms,  in  a  military  engage- 
ment : — called  also  the  Pyrrhj-duncers — a  name  that  may 
have  been  adopted  from  the  Pyrrhica  saltat'w,  or  military 
dance  of  the  ancients ;  from  which,  no  doubt,  the  sivord- 
dance  of  the  Northumbrian  youths,  in  theii"  white  plow,  at 
Christmas,  has  had  its  origin. 
Merry-nights,  rustic  balls — nights  (generally  about  Christ- 
mas) appropriated  to  mirth  and  festivity.  These  homely 
pastimes,  besides  the  eating  and  drinking,  consist  of  danc- 
ing, in  all  the  lower  modes  of  the  art ;  of  masked  inter- 
ludes ;  and  occasionally  of  the  ancient  sword  dance ;  with 
an  indispensable  admixture  of  kissing  and  romping,  and 
other  "  gallantry  robust." 
Messit,  a  little  dog,  a  cur.  V.  Jam.  viessan. 
Meterly,    Meeterly,    tolerably    well,    moderately,    within 

MiCKLE,  MucKLE,  much.     Sax.  micel,  miclc.     Isl.  mikill. 

An  oath  o^mickle  might Shak.  Hen.  V. 

O,  mickle  is  the  powerful  grace  that  lies 

In  plants,  herbs,  stones,  and  their  true  qualities. 

Shak.  Rom.  and  Jitl. 
He  had  in  arms  abroad  won  viuckd  fame. 

Sfcuscr,  Pacric  Qiieene. 

Midden,  Muck-midden,  a  dunghill.     Sax.  middlng,  sterquili- 

nium  — Midden-stead,  a  place  for  dung. 
Midden,  a  contemptuous  term  for  a  female — conjoining  the 

ideas  of  insipidity,  inactivity,  and  dirt. 
Middens,  or  Black-middens,  dangerous  rocks  on  the  north 

side  of  the  entrance  into  Shields  harbour. 

140  MIDG 

Midge,  a  small  gnat.  Sax.  micge.  A  diminutive  mischiev- 
ous boy  is  often  called  a  midge. — Midge's-ee,  any  thing 
very  small.     As  a  comparison — very  common. 

MiDLLV,  MiDLiNG,  tolerably  well,  indifferent.    "  Weel,  Tom- 
my y  hoo  are  yah  ?     Midlin,  thenk  yah  !     Hoo  are  ycc  ? 
Wey,  gayly,  Joan .'" 
,  Mighty,  very.     "  Mighty  great" — "  mighty  high" — "  a  m^hty 
fine  fellow." 

Milker,  a  cow  that  gives  milk ;  not  the  person  who  milks. 
"  She's  a  top  milker." 

MiLKUS,  MiLKHOUSE,  a  dairy.     Sax.  melce-hus. 

Mind,  to  remember,  to  be  steady  and  attentive.  Dan.  miiide, 
to  remind. 

Mint,  to  aim  at,  to  shew  a  mind  to  do  something,  to  endea- 
vour, to  make  a  fei[;,ied  attempt.  Sax.  ge-myndian,  in- 

Minxy,  a  fondling  term  for  mother.     Sc.  minnie. 

Mire-druw,  the  Bittern  or  Bog-bumper.  Ardea  Stellaris, 
Linnaeus.  There  is  a  beautiful  figure  of  this  stately  bird 
in  Bewick's  History. 

Mirk,  Mirky,  dark.  Sax.  mirce.  Isl.  viyrkr,  tenebrosus. 
Old  Eng.  mirke. 

Gane  is  the  day,  and  mlrk^s  the  night, 

But  we'll  ne'er  stay  for  faute  o'  light. — Burns. 

Mirth,  Morth,  or  Murth,  abundance ;  as  a  murth  of  corn, 

a  murth  of  cold. 
Miscall,  to  abuse,  to  call  names  to.     "  Yah  cannot  miscall  me 

past  me  nyem." 
Mis-kex,  tp  be  ignorant  of,  not  to  know. 
Mislippen,  to  suspect,  to  neglect. 
Misses,  the  matron  or  mistress  of  the  house.     "  What  will 

me  ynisses  say?" 

MOOR  141 

MiSTETCH,  an  ill  habit,  property  or  custom ;  perhaps  from  viis- 
teach.     Chaucer  uses  tetch,  for  a  spot  or  blemish. 

Mitt  AN,  a  glove ;  generally  made  of  thick  leather  or  coarse 
yarn.     Fr.  mitainc. 

He  that  his  hand  wol  put  in  his  mitaiite 
Heshal  have  multiplying  of  his  graine. 

Chaucer,  Pardonercs  Tale. 

MiXTY-MAXTV,  MixY-MAXY,  any  thing  confusedly  mixed,  an  ir- 
regular medley.     Su.-Got.  m'lshnask. 
Mizzle,  small  rain.     The  substantive  is  neither  in  Ash's  Diet. 

nor  in  Todd's  John,  though  the  verb  is  admitted  in  both. 
MoiDER,  to  puzzle,  to  perplex. — Moidered,  bewildered,  con- 
fused, distracted. 
MoLTER,  Mooter,  Mouter,  a  portion  of  meal  abstracted  by 
the  miller  as  a  compensation  fo.  grinding ;  the  toll,  as  it 
were,  of  the  mill.     Fr.  viouture.     It  is  also  used  as  a  verb. 
It  is  good  to  be  merry  and  wise, 
Quoth  the  miller,  when  he  mouter\l  twice. 

Sc.  Prov. 

MojiE,  soft,  smooth,  conjoining  the  idea  of  sweetness.  Hence 
the  liquor  mun — ale  brewed  with  wheat. 

MoNNY,  many. — Monny  a  time  axd  oft,  a  common  expres- 
sion for  frequently. 

Moo,  to  low  as  a  cow.  Germ,  mu,  vox  vaccae  naturalis. — 

MooN-LiGHT,  MooN-sHiNE,  a  mere  pretence,  an  illusive  shadow. 
Also  smuggled  whiskey.  Thanks  to  the  malt  and  other 
taxes  for  this  neologism. 

Moor,  a  heath,  a  common  or  waste  land.  Sax.  mor,  ericetum. 
Isl.  vior,  terra  arida  inculta  et  inutilis.  Dr.  Jamieson  er- 
roneously supposes  that  this  word  alwnyx  implies  the  idea 

142  ,         MOOT 

of  water  or  marshiness.  The  same  mistake  occms  in 
Todd's  Johnson. 

Moot-hall,  the  ancient  hall  of  the  castle  of  Newcastle — the 
place  of  holding  the  assizes  for  the  county  of  Northumber- 
land.    Sax.  moth-heal,  conventus  aula,  comitium. 

Mop,  "  to  make  wry  mouths  or  grin  in  contempt." — Todd's 
John.  In  the  North  it  means  to  prim  or  look  affectedly. 
— Moppet,  a  child  so  acting.  Also  a  term  of  endeannent. 
Moppe,  is  an  old  word  in  the  latter  sense. 

Moral,  model.    "  The  moral  of  a  man."     An  archaism. 

More,  a  hill.     Sax.  mor.  mons. 

Morn,  morrow. — The  morn,  to-morrow.  Sax.  morghen,  mor- 

Mortal,  very,  exceeding,  excessive,  abounding.  Perhaps  from 
mo7-t,  a  great  quantity. 

So  is  all  nature  in  love,  mortal  in  folly. 

S/tak.  As  You  Like  It. 

Moss-TROOPERS,  banditti,  who  inhabited  the  marshy  borders  of 
the  two  kingdoms,  and  subsisted  chiefly  by  rapine.  So 
called  from  living  in  mosses,  and  riding  in  troops  to- 

Most.  It  is  not  unusual  to  prefix  this  superlative  degree  to 
the  regular  superlative  form  of  another  word — as  "  the  most 
wickedest  wretch  that  ever  lived."  "  The  most  pleasantest 
fellow  I  ever  knew."  There  are  examples  for  it  in  Shaks- 
peare  and  some  of  his  cotemporaries. 

MoUDY-RAT,  MouDY-WARp,  MouLEY-RAT,  a  molc.  Sax.  mold, 
mould,  and  weorpan,  to  cast  up.  Dan.  mulvarp,  a  mole. 
Spenser  and  other  old  writers  use  mouldwarp.  Shakspeare 
— in  allusion  to  the  old  prophecy  which  is  said  to  have  in- 
duced Owen  Glendower  to  rebel  against  King  Henry — 

MUCK  143 

causes  Hotspur,  when  taxed  by  Mortimer  with  crossing  his 

father,  thus  to  exclaim — 

I  cannot  choose :  sometimes  he  angers  me 
With  telling  me  of  tlie  moldwarp  and  the  ant,  &c. 
First  Part  of  King  Henry  IV. 

MouDY-HiLL,  MouLEY-RAT-HiLL,  a  mole-hiU. 
MouNGE,  to  grumble  lowly,  to  whine  or  complain.  "  What  are 
ye  mounging  about." 

About  him  they  aw  throng'd,  and  ax'd  what  news  trae 

under  ground, 
Each  tell'd  about  their  blarin,  when  they  ken'd  that 

he  was  drown'd. 
Hoots !"  Archy  moung'd,  "  its  nowt  but  lees — to  the 

Barley  ]Mow  let's  e'en  be  joggin, 
Awl  tyek  my  oath  it  wassent  me,  because  aw  hear  its 

Archy  Loggan," 

Song,  Bold  Archy  Droxvndcd. 

Mount,  a  large  stone  hewn  into  the  shape  of  steps — placed  at 
the  doors  of  public  houses,  to  assist  persons  in  mounting 
their  horses. 

Mow,  to  converse  unlawfully.  I  believe  an  old  word.  See  the 
ancient  ballad  of  Bonny  Dundee. 

Mow,  a  distorted  mouth.     Fr.  moue,  a  wry  face. 

Mow,  a  stack.     "  The  barley  mow."     Sax.  mowe,  acerviis. 

Muck,  dung  for  manure.  Sax.  meox,  fimus — Muck-jiidden,  a 
heap  of  maniu'e,  a  dunghill. — Mucky,  dirty,  filthy.  The 
Crav.  Gloss,  has  7nuck  cheap,  cheap  as  dirt :  muck-heap,  a 
very  dirty  person,  "  a  girt  muck  heap  :"  muck-midden- 
hreward,  upstarts. — Muck,  however  offensive  to  those 
whose  affected  gentility  recoils  at  a  vulgar  phrase,  is  not 
without  example  in  several  of  our  best  and  most  accom- 
plished writers. 

144  MUCK 

MuCKiNGER,  MucKiNDER,  a  pocket-handkerchicf. 
Be  of  good  comfort,  take  my  muckiuder. 
And  dry  thine  eyes. — Ben  Jon. 

Muddle,  to  confuse,  to  perplex.  V.  SufF.  Words,  muddle  and 

Muds,  small  nails  used  by  cobblers. 

MuFFETTEE,  a  worsted  covering  or  small  muffiov  the  wrist.  Ap- 
parently a  recent  innovation.  The  Scotch  have  a  kind  of 
gloves  worn  by  old  men,  called  muffities,  from  which  the 
term  may  have  been  borrowed. 

Mug,  a  low  word  for  the  mouth.     "  Shut  your  ugly  mug." 

Mugger,  a  hawker  of  pots,  a  dealer  in  earthen  ware.  This 
trade  is  carried  on  to  a  great  extent  among  the  gipsy  tribes 
in  the  Northern  counties. 

Muggy,  the  white-throat.     Motacilla  Sijlva. — Linnaeus. 

Mull,  dirt,  rubbish,  crumbs.  Su.-Got.  mull.  Chaucer  uses 
mullok.  The  fragments  and  dust  of  a  stack  of  peats  are 
called  peat-?HM//,  and  oaten  bread  broken  into  a'umbs,  is 
called  mulled  bread. 

Mulligrubs,  bad  temper,  ill  humour — an  indescribable  com- 

What's  the  matter  ? 
Whither  go  all  these  men-menders,  these  physicians  ? 
Whose  dog  lies  sick  o'  th'  mulUgrvhs. 

Bcaum.  and  Flet.  Monsmir  Thomas. 

Mummer,  a  person  disguised  under  a  mask,  a  sort  of  morris 
dancer.  Dut.  wowjnew,  to  mask.  Dan.  7«z«ra?«e,mum.  See 
as  to  the  old  custom  of  mumming,  in  Brand's  Pop.  Antiq. 
vol.  i.  p.  354. 

Mump,  to  hit  or  slap — ^to  beat  about  the  mouth.  "  I'll  juump 
yor  gob."     A  very  low  word. 

Mun,  an  expletive  used  on  all  occasions.     Man. 

-    NAG  145 

MuN,  MuNS,  the  mouth.     Germ,  viund. 

MuN,  Mown,  must.    "  I  mun  gan."     "  You  mun  come."     Isl. 

vnm.  Chaucer  uses  vioun  and  mowen. 
MuNNiT,  must  not. — Mussent,  the  same. 
MuRDERiNQ-PiE,  the  great  ash-coloured  shrike.     Laniiis  excu- 

bitor.     Linnaeus. 
MuRL,  to  fall  in  pieces,  to  crumble.    Welsh,  imvrl,  crumbling. 

Dut.  7nullen,  to  crumble. 
Musii,  the  dust,  or  dusty  refuse  of  any  dry  substance,  any  thing 

decay^  or  soft,     "  Dried  to  mush." 
Mutton,  a  term  for  a  courtezan. 

The  duke,  I  say  to  thee  again,  would  eat  mutton  on 

Fridays. — Shak.  Meas.for  Meas. 
Mutton's  mutton  now. —  Welster"!!  Appms  (|-  V\rg. 

Muzzy,  half  stupified,  bewildered— /a/fg«e^  with  liquor,  as  I 

once  heard  &  friend  express  it. 
Mv-EYE,  a  vulgar  interjectional  expression  of  exultation,  in 

frequent  use. 
Mysell,  myself.     An  universal  corruption  among  the  vulgar. 


Na,  no. — Nat,  not.  Both  pure  Saxon.  Chaucer  has  given 
his  Northern  Clerks  a  northern  dialect.  V.  Tyrwhitt's 
note  on  verse  4021. 

Nab,  Nabb,  a  protuberance,  an  elevated  point,  the  rocky  sum- 
mit of  a  hill.  A  steep  and  high  precipice  at  the  confluence 
of  the  Baulder  and  the  Tees,  is  called  the  Nabb.  Sax. 
cncep^  vertex  montis.  Isl.  gnup,  prominentia.  Su.-Got. 
kncBpp,  summitas  montis. 

Nag,  to  gnaw  nt  any  thin^  hard. 

146  NAGG 

Naggy,  ii-ritable.     See  KInaggy. 

Naky-bed,  Nakit-bed,  in  puns  naturalibus — stark-naked. — 

Nares  observes,  that,  down  to  a  certain  period,  those  who 

were  in   bed  were  literally  naked,  no  night  linen  being 

worn.     Many  of  the  Scotch — thrifty  souls — and  some  of 

the  English,  still  continue  the  custom. 
Nanny-house,  Nanny-shop,  a  brothel.     Newcastle. 
Napkin,  a  pocket  handkercliief.     Borders  of  North.     Used 

by  Shakspeare   in   several  of  his  plays ;   and  by  other 

Nappern,  an  apron.     This  pronunciation  is  conformable  to 

the  old  orthography.     Fr.  na2)eron,  a  large  cloth. 
Nappy,  fine  ale — a  little  intoxicated  with  it.     Sax.  naj)pe, 

cyathus.     Ital.  nappo,  a  bowl. 

Nappy  ale,  good  and  stale. 

BaWad,  Khig  and  Miller  of  3 fimxjidd.     ■ 

Narrate,  to  relate,  to  tell.     Not  confined  to  Scotland  as 

stated  by  Dr.  Johnson. 
Nash,  Nesh,  tender,  weak,  fragile.     Sax.  nesc. 
Nasty,  ill-natured,  impatient,  saucy.     Its  other  meaning  is 

Nation,  very,  exceedingly.     "  Nation  great" — "  naiion  wise" 

— "  nation  foolish." 
Nattle,  or  Knattle,  to  hit  one  hard  substance  against  another 

gently  and  quick,  to  make  a  noise  like  that  of  a  mouse 

gnawing  a  board. 
Nattry,  ill  natured,  petulant.     "  Nattry  faced." 
Natty,  neat,  tidy.     "  How  very  iiatfij  he  is." 
Naup,  to  beat,  to  strike.     Isl.  kncfu.     See  Nevel. 
Nay-say,  a  refusal,  a  denial.    Holinshed  uses  nay,  v.  to  refuse. 
Nay  then  !  an  exclamation  implying  great  doubt,  or  wonder. 

NEED  147 

Ne,  no. — Nebodv,  nobody.    "  Whe  was  there  ?"    "  Nebody  P' 
Neagre,  a  term  of  reproach,  equivalent  to  a  base  wretch ; 
though  often  confined  to  a  mean,  niggardly  person.     Pro- 
bably from  Fr.  negre,  a  negro. 
Near-sighted,  short-sighted.     Su.-Got.  naarsynt. 
Neb,  a  point,  a  beak — also  the  nose,  the  mouth.     Sax.  nebb. 
Isl.  nebbi,  nef. 

How  she  holds  up  the  neh,  the  bill  to  him  ! 

Shak.  Winter's  Tale. 
Give  her  a  bus — see  how  she  cods  her  neh — Newc. 

Neck-about,  a  woman's  neck-handkerchief.     Neckatee. 
Neck  and  Heels,  topsy-turvy.     Origin  obvious. 
Neck-verse,  a  cant  term  formerly  used  by  marauders  on  the 
borders — adopted  from  the  verse  (generally  thought  to  be 
the  beginning  of  the  51st  psalm)  read  by  criminals  claim- 
ing the  benefit  of  clergy,  so  as  to  save  their  lives. 
Letter  nor  line  know  I  never  a  one, 
Wer't  my  neck-verse  at  Hairibee. 

Scott,  Lay  of  the  Last  Minstrel- 

Ned,  Neddv,  Edward.     "  Neddy,  maw  dear." 

Neddy,  a  certain  place  that  will  not  bear  a  written  explana- 
tion ;  but  which  is  depicted  to  the  life  in  the  first  edition 
of  Bewick's  Land  Birds,  p.  285.  This  A>-oa(/ piece  of  na- 
tive humour  is  somewhat  refined  in  the  subsequent  im- 

Need-fire,  an  ignition  produced  by  the  friction  of  two  pieces 
of  dried  wood.  The  vidgar  opinion  is  that  an  Angel 
strikes  a  tree,  and  that  the  fire  is  thereby  obtained.  Need- 
fire,  I  am  told,  is  still  employed  in  the  case  of  cattle  in- 
fected with  the  murrain.  They  were  formerly  driven 
through  the  smoke  of  a  fire  made  of  straw,  &c.     It  was 

148  NEER 

then  thought  wicked  to  neglect  smoking  them.  Sax.  nyd, 
force,  andifyr,  fire  ;  that  i?.,  forced  fire. 

Neer-dee-weel,  a  graceless  person — one  who  seems  never  to 
do  luell. 

Neese,  Neeze,  to  sneese.     Sax.  ncsse,  the  nose. 

Neest,  Niest,  Nest,  next. 

Neet,  night.  "  Good  met,  hinny." 

Neif,  the  fist.  Isl.  kneji.  Su.-Got.  kncefve.  Dan.  rucve.  A 
good  old  Shakspearian  word.  Nai'es'  display  of  authorities 
was  unnecessary.  The  word  is  still  in  general  use  in  all 
the  northern  counties. — Double-neif,  the  clenched  fist. 

Neif-full,  a  handful. 

Nclson's  Bullets,  small  confections  in  the  shape  of  balls.  In 
commemoration  of  the  naval  hero. 

Nents,  against,  towards. 

Nerled,  ill-treated  :  often  applied  to  the  conduct  of  a  step- 

Nestling,  the  smallest  bird  in  the  nest,  the  weakest  of  the 
brood.     Sax.  nestling.     Something  like  the  Dowpy.  . 

Nether-stocks,  stockings.  Used  by  Shak.  in  King  Lear, 
and  in  Henry  IV.  Nether  is  an  old  word  for  lower,  from 
Sax.  neother. 

Nether.lip,  the  under  lip. 

That  thou  art  my  son,  I  have  partly  thy  mother's 
word,  partly  m^'  own  opinion  ;  but  chiefly  a  vil- 
lainous trick  of  thine  eye,  and  a  foolish  hanging 
of  the  nether  lij),  that  doth  waiTant  me. 

Slutk.  First  Part  of  Henry  IF. 

Nettled,  provoked,  irritated — as  if  stung  by  a  7icitlc.  To 
water  a  nettle,  in  a  certain  way,  has  been  said  proverbially 
to  cause  peevish  and  fretful,  humour.  See.  the  proverb  in 

NIFF  149 

^EUCK,  NuiK,  Nook,  a  corner.    "  The  chimlay  neucV — the 

fire  side.     Gael.  nine. 
Nevel,  to  beat  violently  with  the  fists,  or  neives.     See  Nkii'. 

She'l  nawpe  and  nnd  them  M'ithout  a  cause, 
She'l  macke  them  late  their  teeth  naunt  in  their  hawse. 
Yorkshire  Dialogue,  p.  08. 

Ni !  Ni  !  a  common  exclamation  in  Newcastle. 

VVaes  !  Archy  lang  was  hale  an'  rank,  the  kiiig  o'  lad- 

.  dies  braAv — 
His  wrist  Avas  like  an  anchor  shank,  his  fist  was  like 

the  claw — 
His  yellow  waistcoat  flowered  se  fine,  myed  tailors 

lang  for  cabbage  cuttins — 
It  myed  the  bairns  to  glower  amain,  and  cry,  '■^  Ni  ! 
Ni  !  what  bonny  buttons  !" 

Song,  Bold  Arch)/  Drownded. 

Nice,  good, pleasant,  agreeable,  handsome.  "  A  nice  man" — "  a 
very  nice  woman." — Nicely,  in  good  health. 

Nick,  to  delude  by  stratagem,  to  deceive. 

Nick-stick,  a  tally,  or  notched  stick,  by  which  accounts  are 
kept.  This  simple  mode  of  reckoning  seems  to  have  been 
the  only  one  known  to  the  Northern  nations.  V.  Jam. 
When  a  woman,  in  a  certain  state,  goes  longer  than  her 
calculation,  she  is  said  among  the  vulgar  to  have  lost  her 

Nicker,  to  neigh,  to  laugh  in  a  loud  ridiculous  manner.  Sax. 
gneegan.     "  What  are  you  nickering  at." 

Nicker  and  Sneer,  a  loud  vulgar  laugh — apparently  boi-i-ow- 
ed  from  the  neighing  and  snorting  of  a  horse. 

Niddered,  starved  with  cold,  hungered.     V.  Jam. 

NiFF-NAFFS,  trifles,  things  of  little  value.     Fr.  nippes. 

150  NIFF 

NiFFV-NAFFY,  3  term  for  an  insignificant  or  conceited  person 
— one  whose  attention  is  devoted  to  trifles. 

NiFFLE,  to  steal,  to  plunder.  Perhaps  by  a  metathesis  from 

Nigh,  to  approach,  to  touch.  Sax.  nehwan,  appropinquare. 
— Nigh-hand,  hard  by, — Nighest-about,  the  nearest 

Night-courtship,  a  Cumbrian  mode  of  wooing;  fully  de- 
scribed in  note  3,  Anderson's  Ballads. 

NiM,  to  walk  with  short  quick  steps,  to  take  up  hastily. 

Nine-trades,  nine  trading  companies  in  Newcastle — three 
of  wood — three  of  thread — and  three  of  leather.  "  The 
meeting  of  the  nine  trades." 

Ninnyhammer,  a  fooHsh,  stupid  person.  Shak.  frequently 
uses  ninny. 

Nip-cheese,  a  contemptuous  designation  for  a  parsimonious, 
covetous  person. 

Nip-up,  to  wipe  up,  to  move  quickly,  to  pilfer. 

Nipping,  pinching ;  as  by  frost  or  cold. 

It  is  a  nipping  and  an  eager  air. — SJiaJc.  Hamlet. 

Nithing,  much  valuing,  sparing  of;  as  nith'mg  of  his  pmns : 
i.  e.  sparing  of  his  pains.     Ray. 

NiTTLE,  handy,  neat,  handsome.     Sax.  nj/tlic,  utilis. 

NivvER,  never.  "  To-morrow  come  nivver — when  two  Sun- 
days meet  together." 

Nob,  the  head.     Used  ludicrously. 

NoBBiT,  Nobbut,  only.  No7ie  but.  "  Who's  that  ?" — "  Nob- 
bit  I." 

Noddle,  a  burlesque  name  for  the  nose. 

No-FAR,  near.     Not  far,     A  common  North  country  phrase. 

Noodle,  a  fool.  A  term  often  used  in  Newcastle — sometimes 

NOUS  151 

NooLED,  checked,  curbed,  broken  spirited. 

Nor,  than.  Very  common  among  the  vidgai" ;  and  occa- 
sionally used  by  people  in  Newcastle,  in  a  sphere  beyond 
the  "  mere  ignoble."     Gael.  na. 

Nose  on  the  grindstone,  asimile  for  the  fate  of  an  improvident 
person.  See  an  illustration  in  a  tail  piece  to  Bewick's 
iEsop,  p.  128. 

Nose-wise,  acute,  quick  of  perception.  Germ,  nase-weis,  self- 
witted,  presumptuous. 

Note,  to  push  or  strike  with  the  horns ;  as  a  bull  or  nun. 
Isl.  hntota,  ferire. 

N0TT.AJMY,  OTToaiy,  a  skeleton. — Nottamised,  Ottomised, 

Nought,  Nowt,  nothing.  "  Cheese  for  half-nought,  here  !" 
Newcastle  cry. 

NouT,  OR  Nolt,  neat,  or  horned  cattle  of  the  ox  species. 
Isl.  naut,  bos.  Old  Eng.  nowt.  The  nolt  market,  the 
ancient  name  of  a  street  in  Newcastle — now  the  Bigg- 

NouT-GELD,  Neat-geld,  cornage  rent,  originally  paid  in  cattle 
— horn  tax.  Cornage  seems  to  have  been  peculiar  to  the 
border  service  against  the  Scots.  The  tenants  holding 
under  it  were  bound  to  be  ready  to  serve,  on  horseback 
or  on  foot,  at  their  own  costs  and  charges ;  and,  being  best 
acquainted  with  the  passes  and  defiles,  had  the  honour  of 
marching  in  the  vanguard,  when  the  king's  araiy  passed 
into  Scotland. 

NouTH,  the  north. — Noutherly,  northerly.  "  Past  two 
o'clock,  and  a  frosty  mornin — winds  noutherly." — Norrid, 
northward.     "  Several  Greenlandmen  passed  norrid" 

NouTHER,  Nowther,  neither.     Pure  Saxon. 

NoL'SE,  judgment,  understanding,  sense.     Lat.  noscere. 

152  NOW'S 

NowsE,  notliing ;  contrary  to  oiose. 

Wi'  huz,  mun,  three  hundred  ships  sail  iv  a  tide. 

We  think  nowse  on't  aw'l  myek  accydavy  ; 
Ye're  a  gowk  if  ye  din't  knaw  that  the  lads  o'  Tyne-side, 
Are  the  Jacks  that  myek  famish  wor  navy. 

Song,  Canny  Newcasscl. 
As  to  that  pedant  Mr.  Hall, 
By  Jove — I'll  give  him  noivse  at  all. 

The  Vicar's  Will. 

Nudge,  to  push,  to  jog.  "  What  aie  ye  midging  at." 
NuM,  Numb,  clumsy,  benumbed.  Sax.  benum,  stupefactus. 
NuT-CRACK-NiGHT,  All  Hallows  Evc ;  on  which  it  is  customary 
to  crack  nuts  in  large  quantities.  They  are  also  thrown 
in  pairs  into  the  fire,  as  a  love  divination,  by  young  people 
in  Northumberland,  anxious  to  know  their  future  lot  in 
the  connubial  state.  If  the  nuts  lie  still  and  burn  toge- 
ther, it  prognosticates  a  happy  marriage,  or  at  least  a  hope- 
ful love ;  if,  on  the  contrary,  they  bounce  and  fly  asunder, 
the  sign  is  unpropitious  to  matrimony.  Bm'ning  the  nuts 
is  also  a  famous  charm  in  Scotland. 

The  auld  guidwife's  weel  hoordet  nits 

Are  round  an'  round  divided. 
An'  monie  lads'  and  lasses'  fates 

Are  there  that  night  decided  : 
Some  kindle  couthie,  side  by  side. 

An'  bum  thegither  trimly  ; 
Some  start  awa  wi'  saucy  pride, 

And  jump  out-owre  the  chimlie. 

Burns,  Halloween. 

See  some  curious  notes,  explanatory  of  the  charms  and 
sjjrfs  of  this  evening,  appended  to  the  poem  here  quoted. 
Nyem,  name.    "  Aw  diwent  ken  his  nyeni." — Broad  Neivcastle. 


Oaf,  a  fool,  a  blockhead,  an  idiot.     "  Oh !  yah  oaf,  i/ah  /" 

V.  Todd's  John,  and  WUb, 
Obstropolous,  vociferous,  turbulent,  obstreperous. 
Then  rough-hewn  tar, 
Who  sail'd  had  far, 
"  Cries  out,  my  lads  !  give  o're  ; 
"  Since,  body  of  me  ! 
"  You  can't  agree, 
"  Cease  such  obstroj/lous  roar." 

BenweU  Village. 

Oddments,  Odds  and  Ends,  scraps,  tilings  of  little  value, 

odd  trifles. 
Odds-bobs,  a  vulgar  exclamation  of  surprize. — Odd  rot  it, 

tlie  same. 
Odds-deeth  !  Odds-life  !  Odds-heart  !  Odds-heft  !  Odds- 
wowKs !    Odds-zooks  !     frequent    palliative   adjm-ations. 
As  are  also,  Odds-dat-it,  Odds-drab-it. 
Oddsheft !  we  all  know  Skipper  Clark, 
Has  got  a  stomach  like  a  shark. 
And  can — if  he's  a  mind  to  try, 
Devour  a  bullock  in  a  pie. 

Willy  Wood,  and  Greedy  Grizzle. 

Odds-fish  !  an  interjection — a  moderated  diminutive  of  God's 

Oftens,  Offens,  the  plural  of  often.  Quite  common. — 0ft- 
iSH,  Oftenish,  very  often. 

OiL-oF-HAZEL,  a  souud  di'ubbiug.  A  piece  of  waggery  is  some- 
times practised  by  mischievous  mxhins  in  Newcastle,  on 
raw  inexperienced  lads  from  the  country — in  sending  them 


154  OLD 

to  a  chymist's  shop  for  a  '■^  i^erCorth  of  oihof-hazeW  An 
eai'nest  application  of  a  good  thick  hazel  stick  is  often  the 
result.  Sending  for  pigeoi^s  milk  is  a  similar  joke  of  old 

Old,  great ;  such  as  was  practised  in  the  "  olden  time." — Oijj- 
DOiNGS,  great  sport,  great  feasting — an  uncommon  displa3' 
of  hospitaHty. 

Oldish,  rather  old.     Very  common. 

Old-nick,  one  of  the  most  common  of  all  the  ludicrous  names 
given  to  the  devil ;  or,  as  it  is  pronounced,  the  deevil. — 
The  Danes  and  Germans,  according  to  the  northern  my- 
thology of  elder  times,  worshipped  Kocka  or  Nicken,  a 
deity  of  the  waters,  represented  a'^  of  a  hideous  shape,  and 
of  diabolical  principles  ;  from  which,  no  doubt,  the  popular 
name  oi  old-nick  has  been  derived. — Old-Harry,  and  Old- 
scratch,  are  also  designations  appropriated  to  the  same 
evil  being  by  the  vulgar  in  the  North. 

Old-peg,  Aud-peg,  an  inferior  sort  of  cheese,  made  of  skim- 
med milk.  It  is  also  called,  not  inaptly,  leather  huvgry. 
V.  Moor,  bang. 

Old-shoe.  The  ancient  custom  of  throwing  an  old  shoe  af- 
ter a  person  for  luck,  is  not  yet  disused  in  the  North.  In 
the  case  of  marriages,  it  is  often  practised ;  even  among 
some  of  the  great.  See  on  this  subject.  Brand's  Pop. 
Antiq.  vol.  ii.  p.  4S0  ;  and  Nares'  Gloss.  "  As  easy  as  an 
old  shoe" — a  common  comparison. 

Omy,  mellow  ;  spoken  of  land.     V.  Jam.  oam. 

One-day,  a  favourite  retrospection.  "  I  remember  it  well — 
it  happened  one-day  when  from  home." 

Ongoings,  conduct,  doings,  merriment. 

Onset,  a  dwelling-house  and  out-buildings.  Something  ad- 
ded or  set  on. 

OUT  155 

Onsetten,  dwarfish,  curbed  in  growth.  "  An  onsetten  f/ihig" 
— a  common  term  of  derision. 

Onstead,  Onstid,  the  buildings  on  a  farm — a  station  or  siai/ 
near  the  house  for  cattle  or  stacks.  Sax  on,  and  sled, 

Ony,  Onny,  any. — Oxny-bit-like,  tolerable,  decent,  likely. 

Oo,  often  pronounced  ui ;  as  book,  buik  ;  look,  luik  ;  took, 

OoL,  Owl,  wool.  Had  the  learned  author  of  the  Commen- 
taries on  the  Laws  of  England  known  tliis,  he  need  not 
have  gone  so  far  to  seek  the  meaning  of  what  he  calls 
owl'mg.     V.  Blackstone,  vol.  iv.  p.  154. 

Oppen,  to  open. — Oppent,  opened. 

Orndorns,  "afternoon's  drinkings,  corrupted  from  onederinsV 
Ray,  who  gives  it  as  a  Cumb.  word.  Ownder  is  used  in 
some  parts  of  the  North,  for  the  afternoon  ;  which  may  be 
the  same  as  Chaucer's  undern;  and  in  a  list  of  words 
communicated  to  me  by  a  friend,  a  native  of  Cumberland, 
I  find  orndinner,  afternoon's  luncheon — omsupper,  after- 
supper's  refection. 

OsKEN,  an  oxgang  of  land — varying  in  quantity. 

Othergaits,  Othergets,  otherwise,  different. 

If  Sir  Toby  had  not  been  in  di-ink,  lie  would  have 
tickled  you  othergates  than  he  did. 

SJwk.  Tzctlfih  NigJd. 

Ousen,  Owsen",  oxen.     Moe.-Got.  mtlisne. 

He  has  gowd  in  his  coffers,  he  has  oix'seti  and  kine. 
And  ae  bonie  lassie,  his  darling  and  mine. — Burns, 

Olt-at-the-elbows,  in  declining  circumstances. 
Olt-by,  a  short  way  from  home,  not  far  distant. 
Out-fall,  a  quarrel,  a  misunderstanding.     1o  fall  out.     Sw. 
id/all,  a  hostile  excursion. 

156  OUTG 

Outgoings,  synonymous  with  Outlay,  which  see. 

Outing,  an  airing,  going  from  home.  Sw.  uttaeg,  an  expedi- 
tion abroad.  Also  an  entertainment  or  supper  given  by 
an  apprentice  to  his  shopmates,  on  the  expiration  of  his 

Outlay,  expenditure.  Dr.  Jam.  refers  to  Sw.  tU/agga,  to  ex- 
pend ;  whence  iitlaga,  tax  ;  idlagor,  expenditure. 

Outoponner,  or  Oot-upon-her  !  an  interjectional  term  of 
reproach,  or  abhorrence. 

But  Old  upon  this  half-fac'd  fellowship. 

Shak.  First  Part  of  King.  Henry  IV. 

Out  o'  the  way,  uncommon,  exorbitant,  wayward. 

OuTRAKE,  a  free  passage  for  sheep  from  inclosed  pastures 
into  open  grounds  or  common  lands.  Sax.  ut-rcBcan,  ex- 
tendere.  Dr.  Willan,  however,  thinks  that,  in  wrifijig  the 
word  out-track,  we  should  perhaps  exhibit  the  right  mode 
of  spelling,  as  well  as  the  derivation  of  it. 

OuTSHOTS,  projections  of  the  upper  stories  of  old  houses,  in 
Newcastle ;  of  which  there  used  to  be  several.  A  few 
still  remain.  #    . 

Oft  in  a  house  decay'd  with  age, 
^Aliich  scarce  will  bear  the  winter's  rage  ; 
AVhose  crazy  outshots  threat'ning  hing 
About  their  ears,  a  peal  to  ring. 

Description  of  Sand  gate. 

Outwale,  refuse.     See  Wale. 

Over  it,  to  recover  from  an  illness.     "  I'm  sadly  afraid  she'll 

never  over  it." 
OvERGET,  to  overtake — ower-take.    "  He  is  but  a  little  before, 

you  will  soon  over-get  him." 
Otermickle,  OwERMiCKLE,  overmuch.     Sax.  ofer-micel. 

.  PACK  1-57 

Owe,  to  belong  to.     An  old  sense  of  the  word. 

Thou  dost  here  usurp 
The  name  thou  ow'st  not. 

SM^.  Tempest. 
OwER,  over. — Out-ower,  across. — Ower-by,  over  the  way. 
OwsE,  any  thing ;  contrary  to  nowse. 
OwT,  Ought,  any  thing.     Sax.  ow/iit. 
OwTHER,  OwETHER,  Oatiier,  either.     An  old  word.     "  Oiu- 

ther  on  us" — either  of  us. 
Ox-eye,  the  greater  titmouse.     Parus  majo7-,  Linnaeus, 
OxLiP,  the  greater  cowslip.     Sax.  oxan-sHppa. 

I  know  a  bank  Avhere  the  wild  thyme  blows, 
Where  oxlips  and  the  nodding  violets  grows. 

Shak.  Mid.  Nighfs  Dream. 
OxTAR,  Oxter,  the  aim  pit.     Sax.  oxtan.     Pegge,  however, 
thinks  it  should  perhaps  be  written  Hockster,  quasi  the 
hock  of  the  arm,  or  the  lesser  hock. 
Oye,  a  grandchild.     V.  Jamieson,  oe. 

Oysters.  Ee-shee-ke-le-kaul-er-Oysteers,  the  famous  cry 
of  the  elder  oyster-wenches,  in  Newcastle  ;  but  now  rarely 
carried  to  this  musical  extent.  Bewick  has  figured  two 
of  these  dames  in  a  tail  piece  to  his  Land  Birds,  edit.  1821, 
p.  20. 


Pack,  the  warehouse  of  a  pedlar.     "  Perish  the  Pack"  was  a 

well  known  character  in  Newcastle,  a  few  years  ago.     Sec 

Packman,  and  Pedder. 
Packing-penny-day,  the  last  day  of  the  fair ;  when  all  the 

cheap  bargauis  are  to  be  had.     Newc. 
Pac  kman,  a  pedlar — a  man  who  carries  a  pack  on  his  back. 

— Many  persons  in  Newcastle,  now  enjoying  otmm  cum 

158  PADD 

dignitate,  ai"e  lineally  descended  from  pack  men — through  no 
very  remote  genealogy. 

Honour  and  shame  from  no  condition  rise  ; 

Act  well  your  part — there  all  the  honour  lies Pope. 

Paddick,  or  Paddock,  a  frog.  Sax.  pad,  pada.  Never  a 

Paddockes,  todes,  and  water-snakes. 

CJiapynan,  Ccesar  and  Pompey. 

Paddock  calls — Shak.  Macbeth. 

Paddle,  an  iron  instrument  for  clearing  away  diit,  a  scraper. 

Paddock,  a  small  field  or  park  adjoining  to,  or  surrounding  a 
house.  Sax.  pearroc,  parruc.  In  Westmorland,  parruck, 
evidently  the  proper  word,  is  a  common  name  for  an  in- 
closure  near  a  farm  house. 

Paddock-stool,  or  stuvl,  a  fungus  often  mistaken  for  a 
mushroom.     Teut.  padden-stocl. 

P.VD-THE-H00F5  to  walk.  "  As  aw  cuddent  get  a  ride,  aw  was 
'bliged  to  pad  the  hoof.'" 

Paffling,  silly,  trifling.     "  A  paffing  fellow." 

Paik,  to  beat,  to  chastise.  Germ,  pauken. — Paiks,  Paikes,  a 
beating,  a  drubbing.     V.  Jam. 

Painches,  tripe.  From  paunch. — Painch-wives,  Paincher- 
AVIVES,  tripe  women.     Ncwc. 

Palaver,  v.  to  use  a  great  many  unnecessary  words. — Pala- 
ver, s.  needless  talk.  Span,  palabra,  a  word ;  palabrern, 
talkative,  full  of  prate,  loquacious. 

Palterley,  Palterev,  paltry. 

Pax,  to  match,  to  agree,  to  assimilate.  Dr.  Willan  seems  to 
think  this  must  be  borrowed  from  cookeri/ : — the  author  of 
the  Crav.  Gloss,  from  Sax.  jmn,  a  piece  of  cloth  inserted 
or  agreeing  with  another.     But  see  Ray. 

PARR  lo9 

Pancake-Tuesday,  Shrove  Tuesday ;  on  v.'hich  it  is  a  general 
custom  in  the  North  to  have  pancalvcs.  Formerly,  in 
Newcastle,  the  great  bell  of  St.  Nicholas  was  tolled  at 
twelve  o'clock  at  noon ;  when  the  shops  and  offices  were 
immediately  closed,  and  a  little  carnival  ensued  for  the 
remainder  of  the  day.  It  is  still  a  sort  of  half  holiday. 
Pang,  to  fill,  to  stuff. — Pang-full,  crammed  with  food.  Teut. 
banghen,  premere. 

Next,  to  the  tents  we  hied,  te  get 
Sum  stuffin  for  wor  bags,  man  ; 
Wi'  flesh  we  gaily  pang'd  wor  hides— 
Smok'd  anowse  but  patten  shag,  man. 

Song,  X.  V.  Z. 

Pant,  a  pubKc  fountain.  In  Newcastle  they  are  of  a  particu- 
lar construction,  having  a  reservoir  before  them  for  retain- 
ing the  water.  According  to  Skinner,  pond  was  anciently 
pronounced  pand,  which  may  be  derived  from  Sax.  pyndan, 
to  inclose  or  shut  up,  and  which  might  easily  get  changed 
to  pant.  See  a  representation  of  a  North  country  pant, 
in  Bewick's  ^sop,  p.  334. 

Parcy-and,  the  sign  or  contraction  4-. 

Parfit,  perfect,  entire.     Fr.  parfait.     Used  by  Chaucer. 

Parget,  to  plaster  chimnies  with  a  mixture  of  cow  dung,  &c  ; 
formerly  the  common  term  for  plastering  the  roofs  of  rooms. 
V.  Nares. 

Parlous,  perilous,  dangerous,  wonderful — also  acute,  clever, 
shrewd.     An  old  word. — Parlish,  a  variation  in  dialect. 

A  parhus  boy  ! — go  to,  you  are  too  shrewd. 

Sliuk.  King  Richard  III. 

Parrished,  perished,  starved,  much  affected  by  cold. — Par- 
RiSHMEXT,  a  state  of  starvation.  "  He's  gettin  a  jjarrish- 
ment  a'  caud.^' 

160  PASE 

Pase,  v.  to  raise,  to  lift  up,  to  open  ^vith  violence.  Fr.  peser, 
to  weigh. — Pase,  s.  a  lever. 

Pash,  v.  to  bruise,  to  crush,  to  dash  in  pieces. —  Pash,  ,s-.  any 
thing  decayed.     "  As  rotten  as  pasK'' — "  As  soft  as  pash." 

Pash,  a  fall  of  rain  or  snow.     Dut.  plus. 

Paste-eggs,  eggs  boiled  hard,  and  dyed  or  stained  various 
colours — given  to  children  to  amuse  themselves  with  about 
the  time  of  Easter.  The  custom  of  presenting  eggs  at  this 
season  of  the  year  is  of  great  antiquity,  and  pervaded  va- 
rious nations.  Su.-  Got.  pask-egg.  V.  Ihre.  vol.  i.  p.  390. 
Dan.  paaske-cEg,  coloured  eggs.  See  nuich  cm'ious  matter 
relative  to  this  subject,  in  Brand's  Pop.  Antiq.  vol.  i.  easier 


Pate,  a  brock  or  badger.     V.  Ray. 

Pauky,  saucy,  squeamish,  scrupulously  nice — also  proud,  in- 
solent, artful.     Q.  Sax.  pcecan,  mentiri  ? 

Paul,  to  puzzle.     Poze  is  used  in  the  same  sense. 

Paut,  v.  to  paw,  to  walk  heavily  or  awkwardly,  to  kick. — 
Paut,  s.  a  stroke  on  the  ground  with  the  foot.  Teut. 
pad,  planta  pedis. 

Pawp,  the  foot — particulai-ly  a  clumsy  one. — Pal  pin,  Pavp- 
iNG,  walking  awkwardly. 

Paws,  the  hands.     "  Keep  yor  paws  off." 

Pay,  to  beat,  to  drub.  "  The  rascal  pays  his  wife." — Pays, 
a  beating,  a  drubbing.     Welsh,  pwyaw,  to  beat,  to  batter. 

Two,  I  am  sure,  I  have  paid. 

Sliak.  First  Part  of  King  Henrij  IV. 

Pea,  or  Pee-jacket,  a  loose  rough  jacket  or  short  covering ; 
much  used  in  severe  weather  by  mariners,  and  by  watermen 
on  the  Tyne.  It  was  formerly  the  ludlckni  outer-dress  of 
the  keelmen. 

PEEN  ini 

Peas-straw,  a  rustic  love  charm.     A  Cumbrian  girl,  when 
her  lover  proves  unfaithful  to  her,  is  by  way  of  consola- 
tion, rubbed  with  pefn-xt)-aw  b}'  the  neighbouring  lads; 
and  when  a  Cumbrian  youth  loses  his  sweetheart,  by  her 
marriiige  with  a  rival,  the  same  sort  of  comfort  is  adminis- 
tered to  him  by  the  lasses  of  the  village. — Kote,  in  Andcr- 
soiis  Ballads. 
Pea-swad,  or  Swad,  the  husk  that  contains  peas. 
PunDER,  Petuer,  or  Pethir,  a  pedlar — a  travelling  merchant. 
Pee,  to  squint,  to  spy  with  one  eye — to  look  through  con- 
tracted eye-lids. — Peed,  blind  of  an  eye. 
Pee-dee,  a  young  lad  in  a  keel,  who  has  charge  of  the  rudder. 
In  other  respects,  something  similar  to  the  cabin-boy  of  a 
ship.     Often  called  by  a  name  too  coarse  for  insertion. 
Peel,  a  place  of  strengtli — a  fortified  building.      Sax.  pil, 

Within  my  own  recollection  almost  every  old  house 
in  the  dales  of  Rede  and  Tyne  was  what  is  called 
a  Peel  house,  built  for  securing  its  inhabitants 
and  theii-  cattle  in  the  moss-trooping  times. 
Iledlcij,  Archoeologia  jElkiria,  vol.  I.  p.  243. 

The  Northumberland  Peel  houses  were  of  two  stories — 
the  first  arched  over,  into  which  the  cattle  were  driven ; 
but  a  Feel,  according  to  the  proper  sense  of  the  term,  sig- 
nifies a  Gothic  strong-hold,  the  defences  of  which  are  of 
earth  mixed  with  timber,  strengthened  with  j)iles  or  'pali- 
sades, such  as  was  connnon  on  the  Continent  at  a  very 
early  period. 
Peelings,  parings.  "  Apple  peelings" — "  Potatoe  peelings." 
Peenging,  Pinging,  uttering  feeble,  frequent,  and  somewhat 
peevish  complaints.  "  A  peenging  bairn" — a  whining 
child.     Teut.  jji/iiig/icn,  affligere. 

162  PEEZ 

Peez-weep,  Pee-wit,  the  lapwing,  or  bastard  plover.  Tihign 
vanellns,  Lin,     V.  Wilb.  appendix. 

Peg,  v.  to  beat  with  sharp  knuckles.  Isl,  piaha,  tundere.— 
Peg,  s.  a  blow  or  thump. 

Pelch,  faint,  indisposed,  exhausted. 

Pell-mell,  quick.     See  its  other  meanings  in  Todd's  John, 

Pet,  a  domesticated  lamb — a  spoiled,  pampered  child — a  fond- 
ling designation  for  a  female  favourite.  Old  play  writers 
use  j)eat,  in  the  latter  sense. 

Petted,  fondled,  indulged.     "  What  a  petted  child." 

Pick,  to  pitch,  to  throw.     Su.-Got.  jncka,  minutis  ictibus 


I'd  make  a  quarry 

"With  thousands  of  these  quarter'd  slaves,  as  higii 

As  I  could  picli  my  lance — Shak.  Corlolaniis. 

Pick-fork,  a  hay  fork,  a  sort  of  grape.     See  Grape, 
Pick-night,  dismal,  dark  as  pitch.      Shakspeare  and  later 
writers  use  pitchy,  in  the  same  sense. 
Then  aw  met  yor  Ben,  an'  we  were  like  to  fight; 
An'  when  we  cam  to  Sandgate  it  was  pick-nig/it. 

Song,  Matv  Canny  Hinny. 

Pickle,  a  small  quantity,  a  little. 

PiCKLET,  or  Pikelet,  a  small  round  light  cake — a  sort  of 

Picks,  the  suit  of  diamonds  at  cards.  Grose  erroneously  says 
spades.  Brand  pretends  to  seek  a  derivation  in  the  re- 
semblance which  the  diamond  bears  to  a  mill-picJi,  as 
fusils  are  sometimes  called  in  Heraldry. 

Picktree,  Pigcree,  or  Pigery,  a  pig-sty. 

Piece,  a  little  while.     "  Stay  a  piece  and  then  aw  will." 

Pifle,  to  filch,  to  steal.     From  pilfer. 

Pike,  v.  to  pick,  to  select,  to  chuse.     Dut.  picken. 

PIPE  163 

Pike,  or  IIay-pike,  s.     See  IIav-imaking. 

PiN-(  ODD,  or  Prin-codd,  a  pin-cushion.     See  Codd. 

Pinch-gut,  a  penurious  person — a  covetous,  miserable 

Pink,  small.     "  Aw  never  saw  sic  a  Pink-eed  bod}." 

PiNKEY,    very    sjnall.      Dut.    pinkje. — Pinkey-wixkey,     the 
smallest  imaginable. 

Pm-PAXNiEBLY-FELLow,  a  miserable,  covetous,  suspicious  fel- 
low, one  who  pins  up  or  fastens  his  paniers  and  baskets. 
— Grose. 

Piper,  a  minstrel.  Northumberland.  Sax.  pipere.  The 
noble  house  of  Percy  still  retain  pipers  in  their  service. 
They  wear,  on  the  right  arm,  a  silver  crescent,  granted  as 
a  badge  to  the  family,  for  ha^ang  taken  the  Turkish  stand- 
ard, in  an  expedition  against  the  Saracens,  in  the  Holy 
Land  : — attend  the  couits-leet  and  fairs  held  for  the  Lord : 
— and  pay  suit  and  service  at  Alnwick  castle.  Their  in- 
strument is  the  ancient  Northumbrian  bag-pipe,  different 
in  form  and  execution  from  the  Scotch  ;  it  being  much 
smaller,  and  blown,  not  with  the  breath,  but  by  a  pair  of 
bellows  fixed  under  the  left  arm, 

"With  wassail,  mirth,  and  revelry 

The  castle  rung  around : 
Lord  Percy  call'd  for  song  and  harp, 
And  pipes  of  martial  sound. 

The  minstrels  of  thy  noble  house, 

All  clad  in  robes  of  blue, 
With  silver  crescents  on  their  arms, 

Attend  in  order  due. 

Tfte  Tfrr?uit  of  Warkworth. 

PiP^STOPPEL,  a  fragment  of  the  shank  of  a  tobacco-pipe. 

164  PIPI 

Piping-hot,  extremely  hot.     "  Pie;<,  piping-hot. 
The  honour  thou  hast  got 
To  spick  and  span  nQ\\\  pipiug-hot. 

Butler,  Hudibras. 

Pipkin,  or  Pidkin,  a  small  earthen  vessel  with  a  handle  from 
one  side. 

P*****G  ON  A  Grave.  Women  transported  with  rage  and 
wickedness  sometimes  threaten  their  deadly  enemies  in  tliis 
manner.  A  clergyman,  in  Northumherland,  informed  me 
that  he  had  heard  of  a  person  who  was  actually  guilty  of 
such  a  revenge.  Many  old  customs  are  harmless  ;  but  this 
is  composed  of  nothing  but  horrible  materials. 

PiTaiAN,  a  collier  — a  man  who  works  in  a  coal  ^>j7. 

Pitter-patter,  to  beat  incessantly,  like  rain. 

PiTTV-PATTY,  palpitation,  a  quick  movement  of  the  heart. 
Pitapat  is  classical. 

Plash,  v.  to  splash.  Su.-Got.  jL»/rt.?/i(7. — Plash,  s.  a  small  pool 
of  water. — Plash  of  raits,  a  heavy  fall  or  severe  shower. 
Dut.  plasregen. 

Pleach,  to  bind  a  hedge.     V.  SufF.  Words,  plash. 

Plean,  to  complain.     An  old  word. 

Pleak,  or  Pleany-pye,  a  tell-tale,  or  prating  gossip.  Pleig- 
nen  occurs  in  Gower. 

Plenish,  or  PleiNnish,  to  furnish  a  house. 
,  Plenishing,  or  Plennishing,  household  furniture.     Q.  Lat. 
pk'Jius  ? 

Plodge,  to  wade  through  water,  to  plunge. 

Plooky,  Plooky-faced,  pimpled.     Gael./j/z^caw,  a  pimple. 

Plooky,  plookij,  are  jour  cheeks, 
And  plooky  is  3'our  chin. 

Ballad,  Sir  Hugli,  le  Blond. 

POOM  1()5 

Plote,  to  pluck,  to  chide  vehemently.     "  Sec  how  she  ploles 

Plouter,  Plowteu,  to   winle  through   water  or  mire,  to  be 
engaged  in  any  dirty  work.     Teut.  plotsen.     Germ,  ^j/a- 
Plowding,  wading  through  thick  and  thin.     Dut.  j^^ucgen. — 

See  Pi-ouTER. 
Ploy,  a  harmless  frolic  in  which  a  party  is  engaged ;  a  merry 
meeting.  Dr.  Jam.  is  inclined  to  view  this  word  as  formed 
from  Sax.  jjlegan,  to  play. 
Pluff,  Pleugh,  a  plough.  Su.-Got.  plog.  Germ,  pflug. — 
This  gives  me  an  opportunity  of  presenting  to  the  reader 
a  genuine  Norihumbrian  specimen  of  an  agricidtural  re- 
proof; comnmnicated  to  me  by  a  friend. 

"  Ye  ill  t'ar'd  i)i)ily  ye  !  ye  pretend  to  guide  the  phiffl 
to  leeve  a  saet  a  baaks  in  aa  the  faf  quarter.  I'll 
ha  ne  mair  o'  thee  !  Se  ye  may  gang  at  the  Fair, 
honest  man  !  Thou  mun  de't  better  nor  that, 
else  thou  may  gang  heame." 

PocK-ARREU,  OR  PocK-ARRD,  pitted  with  the  small-pox.  It 
might  be  thought  puckered,  but  the  a  is  distinctly  pro- 
nounced and  accented.     Germ,  pockentiarbig.     See  Arr. 

PoCK-FRETTEN,  marked  with  the  small-pox. 

Po-HEAD,  Po-HEED,  Pow-HEAD,  a  tad-polc,  or  young  toad. 

Poke,  to  stoop.     "To poke  the  head." 

Poke,  a  bag,  a  sack.  "  A  pig  in  a  poke" — an  old  Northern 
idiom.  Sax.  pocca,  a  pouch.  Isl.  ^joA-j,  saccus.  Teut. 

Poked,  offended,  piqued.    "  Aiu've  poked  him,  sareJ" 

Poker  and  Tongs,  when  a  horse  strikes  the  hind  against  the 
fore  shoe. 

PooMER,  any  thing  very  large.    "  Ee  !  what  a  jmomer." 

166  POOR 

Poor  Body  !  poor  creature.  A  common  colloquial  expres- 
sion of  sympathy. 

Poorly,  indifferent  in  health, — Very  poorly,  very  unwell. 

PoR,  Pore,  a  poker  for  stiiTing  the  fire.  Teut.  jyorren,  ur- 
gere,  compellere. 

PoRRAGE,  Porridge,  hasty-pudding — oatmeal  mLxed  in  boil- 
ing water,  and  stirred  on  the  fire  till  it  be  considerably 


Porridge  after  meat ! 

Shak.  Troilus  and  Crcssida. 

PoRTMANTLE,  a  portmanteau.     Originally  a  bag  for  a  cloak  or 

PosEV,  PosiE,  a  bunch  of  flowers,  a  nosegay.     A  genuine 

North  country  word. 

Now  all  prepared  and  ready  stand, 
AVith  fans  and  posies  in  their  hand. 

The  Collier'' s  Wedding. 

Poss,  to   dash  violently  in  the  water.     "  To  poss  clothes" — 

"  A  poss  tub."     "  Aw  passed  him  ower  heed." 
PoT-CLEPs,  pot-hooks.     Ray  says,  from  clip  or  clap,  because 

they  clap  or  catch  hold  of  the  pot. 
PoTTiCAR,  PoTECARY,  PoTiiECARY,  an  apothecary.     In   the 
ancient  mode  of  writing  this  word,  the  A  was  omitted.  See 
Bewick's  iEsop.  p.  36. 
Pottinger,  a  coarse  earthen-ware  pot,  with   a  handle.     Por- 
Pou,  Poo,  PoOGH,  to  pull.     "  Poo  away  vie  lads." 
PouK,  to  strike ;  or  rather  to  push. 

He's  grown  sae  weel  acquaint  wi'  Buchan, 

An'  ither  chaps, 
The  weans  baud  out  their  fingers  laughiu, 
And  pouk  my  hips. 
Burns,  Death  and  Doctor  Iloruhook. 

PUCK  167 

Pow,  the  pate,  the  head.     "  Aw^l  rattle  yor  pow." 

Albeit  my  pow  was  bald  and  bare Rawscnj, 

PowsoDDY,  suet  pudding  placed  under  a  roast. 

Prentice,  an  apprentice.  An  ancient  mode  of  contracting  the 
word.     Ileywood's  play  of  the  Four  Prentices  of  London. 

Prickle,  a  basket  or  measure  of  wicker  work  among  fruiterers. 
Formerly  made  of  briers ;  hence,  perhaps,  the  name. 

Prickt,  decayed  ;  said  of  wine  having  a  tendency  to  soiu'. 

Prig,  to  plead  hard  in  a  bargain,  to  higgle  in  price.  Dut. 
prachen,  to  beg. 

Priggish,  vain,  conceited,  affected,  coxcomical. 

Prime,  a  little  intoxicated,  ready  for  action  or  business.  Both 
in  a  metaphorical  sense. 

Prin,  a  pin.  Isl.  prion,  acus  capitata.  Dan.  preen.  Dr. 
Jam.  has  satisfactorily  proved  that  this  is  no  corruption. 

Princox,  a  pert  or  forward  fellow.     V.  Todd's  John, 

Prith  Enow  !  a  frequent  supplication.     Pray  thee  noiu. 
Away  !  I  prilhcc,  leave  me — Ro-u-e,  Jane  Shore. 

Prod,  a  prick,  a  skewer.     Su.-Got.  brodd,  aculeus. 

Prog,  Proggle,  v.  to  prick,  to  prickle.     Isl.  brydda,  pungere. 

Prog,  s.  a  prick. — Progly,  a.  prickly. 

pROss,  talk,  conversation — rather  of  the  gossiping  kind.  "  Let 
us  have  a  bit  oipross." 

Proud,  luxuriant.    "  Corn's  varra  proud."     Crav.  Gloss. 

P's  AND  Q's,  a  nicety  of  beha\aour ;  an  observance  of  all  due 
formalities.  Perhaps  from  a  French  injunction  to  make 
proper  obeisances, "  Soyez  attentifs  a  vos  pies  et  vos  cues  ; 
in  other  words,  mind  your  P's  and  Q's." 

PuBBLE,  full,  plump  ;  usually  spoken  of  corn  or  fruit  in  oppo- 
sition to  fantome — any  thing  fat,  or  distended. 

Pucker,  flutter,  agitation,  "  What  a  pucker  he's  in."  A  fi- 
gurative application  of  the  word. 

1G8  PUGG 

PuGGY,  moist;    arising  from  gentle  perspiration.     "  ^^  Itugc^y 

PuLK,  a  hole  of  standing  water — a  puddle. 
PuLLEN,  poultry.     An  old  word.    V.  Todd's  John.     The  Piil- 

len  market  in  Newcastle. 
PiTMMEL,  OR  PoMsiEL,  to  beat  Severely,  to  chastise  with  the  fist. 

For  your  pate  I  would  pummel. 

Bcaiim.  (|-  Flci.  Four  Plays  in  One. 

Punch,  to  strike  with  the  feet.    "  Don't  jnmch  so." 
PuND,  a  pound.     Welsh,  punt.    "  One  pund  two." 
PuN-FAUD,  or  PiN-FAUD,  a  pinfold.     Sax.  pi/ndan,  to  inclose. 
Puny,  small,  weak,  sickly.     "  A  jmny  hmi'w."     Vr. puisne; 

hence  V^g.  puisne,  inferior,  lower  in  rank. 
PuoY,  PuY,  or  PouiE,  a  long  pole,  with  an  iron  spike,  or  spikes, 
at  the  end,  used  in  propelling  keeln  in  shallow  water,  or 
when  it  is  inconvenient  to  use  sails  or  oars.  Span,  apoyo. 
PuRDY,  a  little  thick-set  fellow.  I  owe  this  word  to  the  com- 
munication of  a  friend  in  the  County  of  Durham,  who  first 
heard  it  at  Barnard-Castle.  On  ascertaining  the  meaning 
the  following  dialogue  took  place. 

Q.  What  does  purdij  mean  ? 

A.  A  little  thrusimi  up  thing  like  a  Jack  at  Warts. 

Q.  What's  that  ? 

A.  Something  like  a  lime  hiiritrr. 

Q.  What  is  a  lime  burner  ? 

A.  Oh  nobbit  a  Kendal  sto'-lccncr. 

Q.  ^Vhat  is  that  ? 

A.  A  Utile  thkk-sct  fclluxo. 

Moor  has  purdy,  proud,  ostentatious ;  and  I  have  been 
told,  since  this  article  was  written,  that  powsey  is  used  in 
near!}'  the  same  sense  as  purdy. 
PuRET.y,  quite  well.     "  How  is  lah  .^" — Purely,  tlienk  yc." 

QUER  1(!9 

PuRLicuE,  a  flourish  in  writing.     "  A  spang  and  purlicue." 

Fr.  pour  le  queue.     V.  Jam. 
Puss,  PussEY,  PtissEY-CAT,  a  cat,  a  hare.  "  Poor  little  piissei/." 
Put,  to  push,  to  propel.     Welsh,  pwtiaw.     "  He  puts  weeW 
PuzzEN,  poison.     "  That  rum's  sartinly  puzzen." 
Pyannet,  Pynet,  a  magpie.     Welsh,  pioden.     See  Maggy. 
Pyrrhy-dancers.     See  Merry-dancers. 


Quail,  to  fail,  to  fall  sick,  to  faint.  Teut.  quelen,  to  languish. 
V.  Nares,  for  examples  of  its  ancient  use. 

Quandary,  a  dilemma,  an  unpleasant  predicament,  a  state  of 
perplexity.  Skinner's  derivation  from  Fr.  qu'en  diraije, 
is  adopted  in  Todd's  John.  But  the  pronoun  (nominative) 
was  often  left  out  by  old  French  writers,  which  would  here 
make  the  derivation  more  accurate — qu'en  dirai  ? 

Quean,  a  term  of  abuse  to  a  female — sometimes  unplying  the 
most  disgraceful  name  that  can  be  applied  to  the  sex. 
Moe.-Got.  queins,  quens.  Sax.  civen,  a  wench — though 
not  primarily  used  in  a  reproachful  sense. 

A  witch,  a  quran,  an  old  cozening  quean. 

Shak.  Mer.  Wives  of  Windsor. 

Queer,  a  quire  of  paper.     Old  Eng.  quaire.     Old  Fr.  quayer. 
Quern,  a  hand  mill.     One  of  our  oldest  words.     Su.-Got. 
quern.     Teut.  querne.     See  Kern. 

Wlieras  they  made  him  at  the  querne  grind. 

Cltauccr,  Monkes  Tale. 

Skim  milk ;  and  sometimes  labour  in  the  quern. 
And  bootless  make  the  breathless  housewife  chum. 
Shak.  Mid.  Nlghfs  Dream. 

Capell  ridiculously  supposed  that  quern  here  meant  churn. 

170  QUIS 

QuisEY,  confounded,  dejected. 

QuORN,  QuoAPV,  corn.  "  The  quorn's  now  getiin  up, — varry 


Rabble,  to  speak  in  a  confused  manner.     Teut.  rabbelen, 

Rabblement,  a  crowd,  the  mob.     A  very  old  word. 
Rack,   v.  to   care.     "  Never  rack" — never  care.       V.   Ray. 

Cornish,  rach,  care. 
Rack,  s.  a  trace.  Our  great  di-amatic  poet,  in  a  well-known 
passage  in  the  Tempest,  says,  "  leave  not  a  rach  behind"  ; 
that  is,  not  a  trace — whatever  the  commentators  may  be 
pleased  to  say  to  the  contrary. 
Rack,  s.  the  clouds ;  or  rather  the  track  in  which  they  move. 
Sax.  rec,  vapour.  Archdeacon  Nares  is  mistaken  in  think- 
ing the  word  not  now  in  use. 

But,  as  we  often  see,  against  some  storm, 
A  silence  in  the  heavens,  the  rack  stand  still. 
The  bold  winds  speechless,  and  the  orb  below 
As  hush  as  death.  Shak.  Hamlet. 

Rackless,  thoughtless,  cai'eless,  improvident.  Old  Eng. 
retchless,  reckeless.     Sax,  recce-leas. 

Raff,  a  low  fellow. — Riff-raff,  an  alliterate  term  of  reproach 
— the  rabble.     Dan  ripsraps,  the  dregs  of  the  people. 

Raff-merchant,  a  timber-merchant.     i?a//-merchant. 

Raffling,  idle,  worthless.     "  A  raffling  chap." 

Rag,  to  rate,  to  reproach.  Isl.  raega,  to  accuse. — Bully- 
Rag,  the  same. 

Ragabash,  low,  idle  people — such  as  are  generally  in  rags. 
Rubbish  is  used  in  the  same  sense.  B»th  may  be  said  to 
be  synonjinous  with  ragamuffins. 

RAPE  171 

Rageous,  in  a  rage,  in  excessive  pain,  violent. 

Rake,  to  cover,  to  gather  together.     To  rake  the  Jin  _  is  to 

supply  it  with  coals,  or  to  put  it  in  such  a  condition  that 

it  may  continue  burning  all  night,  so  as  to  be  ready  in  the 

morning — a  common  practice  in  many  kitchens  in  the 

North,  where  coals  are  plentiful.     Shakspeare  uses  the 

word  in  this  sense,  when,  in  King  Lear,  he  makes  Edgar 


Here,  in  the  sands 

Thee  I'll  rake  up Act.  IV.  Sc.  6. 

Ram,  foetid,  acrid,  pungent.  Isl.  rammr,  amarus.  "  A  ram 
smell" — "  A  ram  taste." 

Rame,  to  cry,  to  ask  over  and  over  again  in  a  teazing  man- 
ner. Sax.  hream,  clamor.  Su.-Got.  raama,  clamare. — 
Raming,  crjing  ;  especially  as  denoting  reiteration  of  the 
same  sound."  "  What  arc  yah  raming  at  yah  little  dirty 
baggage  ?" 

Rame,  or  Rawm,  to  reach  any  thing  awkwardly  or  greedilj',  to 
stretch  after.     Teut.  racmcn,  extendere,  distendere. 

Ramlin-lad,  a  tall  fast  growing  youth,  a  hobhlety-hoy . 

Rampadge,  to  prance  about  furiously,  to  make  a  great  noise 
or  disturbance. 

Ramshackle,  Ramsheckle,  to  search  narrowly,  to  ransack. — 
Ranshackle  is  an  old  word  for  plunder. 

Randy,  s.  a  vulgar,  brawling  woman,  a  termagant. 

Randy,  a.  boisterous,  obstreperous,  disorderly. 

Rank,  thick,  or  many  things  or  people  together.     Sax.  ranc. 

Rannel-balk,  a  beam  or  bar  across  a  chimney  on  which 
boilers  are  hung. 

Ranty,  riotous,  in  high  spirits,  disorderly. — Rantv-tantv, 
in  gi'eat  wrath,  in  a  violent  passion. 

Rape,  a  rope.     Moe.-Got.  ra'ip.     Sax.  rnp. 

172  RAPI 

Rapier-dance,  nearly  the  same  as  the  sword-dance  of  the 
ancient  Scandinavians,  or  as  that  described  by  Tacitus 
among  the  Germans.  See  a  full  account  of  it,  in  Archaeo- 
logia,  vol.  xvii.  p.  1.55. 

Rash,  dry  ;  as  rash-corn — corn  so  dr}'  in  the  straw  that  it  falls 
out  without  handling. 

Rasher,  a  rush.  Sax.  resce. — A  rasher-caj),  a  rasher-ducket, 
a  rasher-ivhip  ;  articles  made  of  rushes. 

Rasps,  both  the  bush  and  the  fruit. 

Ratch,  a  straight  line  of  a  navigable  river ;  as  the  Long  Ratch, 
in  the  Tyne.  This  word  is  politely,  but  impurely,  pro- 
nounced Reach,  The  keelmen  generally  say  Rack.  It  is, 
perhaps,  properly  Rack. 

Rather  To  have  rather  is  a  conunon  North  coiuitry  expres- 
sion, when  a  preference  is  desired.  See  Dr.  Johnson's  6th 
sense  of  rather.  The  corruption  may  be  thus  traced.  It 
is  customary  to  contract  both  /  would  and  /  had  into  Vd, 
I  had  rather  was  probably  first  used  as  a  false  translation 
for  Fd  rather,  written  for  I  would  rather  ;  and  when  I  had 
rather  was  once  received,  to  have  rather  followed  of  course. 

Ratler,  a  great  lie,  an  abominable  falsehood.  "  That's  a 

Ratten,  Ratton,  a  rat.     Span,  raton. 

Rattle,  to  strike  or  chastise.  "  Aw'll  rattle  yor  cannister." 
Mere  cant. 

Rattlepate,  Rattlescap,  Rattlescaup,  a  giddy,  thought- 
less, volatile  person. 

Rauk,  to  mark  with  lines,  to  scratch.  "  Dont  rank  the  table?" 
I  am  told  ratch  is  also  used  in  the  same  sense.  Q.  Isl. 
raska,  frangere  ? 

Raav,  a  row  of  buildings,  a  sort  of  street.  "  Fether-Raw" — 
"  Shiney-Raw.^''     Sax.  rcewa.     Old  Eng.  rew. 

REEK  I7:i 

Rax,  to  stretch  out,  to  enlarge,  to  reach.     To  rax  oneself,  is 
to  extend  the  limbs,  after  sleep  or  long  sitting.     Sax. 
r<Bcean,  porrigere.     As  applied  to  the  weather,  to  rax  out, 
means  to  clear  up. 
Read,  Rede,  counsel,  advice.     Sax.  reed. 
Reap,  a  bundle  of  corn,  parcels  of  which  are  laid  by  the  rea- 
pers to  be  gathered  into  sheaves,  by  the  binders  in  harvest 
time.     Sax.  ripa,  ripe. 
Reast,  restiveness. — Reasty,  restive,  stubborn.     Old  Eng. 

restie.     "  A  reasty  horse." 
Reasty,  rancid.     Sax.  rustian,  to  contract  rust. 
And  then  came  haltyng  Jone, 
And  brought  a  ganibone 
Of  bakon  that  was  reasty. — Skdtou. 

Reave,  to  take  away,  to  bereave.     Sax.  renfian,  to  rob. 

Reavel,  or  Raffle,  to  entangle,  to  knot  confusedly  together, 
to  ravel.     "  A  reaveled  hank" — a  twisted  skain. 

Reckning,  the  score  at  a  pubhc  house.     Reckoning. 

Reckon,  to  suppose,  to  conjecture,  to  conclude.  "  I  reckon 
he'll  come" — "  I  reckon  I  shall." 

Red,  to  put  in  order,  to  clear,  to  disentangle.  "  To  red  up 
the  house."     Su.-Got.  reda,  explicare. 

Redding-comb,  a  comb  for  the  haii\ 

Reade,  a  calf's  stomach,  used  for  rennet.     Teut.  roode. 

Reed,  a.  red.     Sax.  read.     Reeder,  redder. 

Reek,  v.  to  smoke.  Sax.  recan. — Reek,  s.  smoke.  Sax. 
rec. — Reek-penny,  a  modus  paid  to  the  clergy  in  many 
parts  of  Northumberland  and  Durham  for  fire  wood.  Cal- 
led also  smoke-penny,  and  hearth-penny.  See  Tomlins' 
Law  Diet,  smoke-silver.     Reek  is  also  a  term  for  money. 

Reeking-crook,  a  sort  of  crane  or  crook  over  the  fire  to  sup- 
port boilers  exposed  to  the  smoke. 

174  REET 

Reet,  right.     Both  as  substantive  and  adjective. 

Reet,  s.  a  Wright,  or  carpenter.    "  A  cart-reet" — "  a  mill-reet" 

Sax.  wryhta. 
Reet,  sane  in  mind.     Ris,ht. — Not  reet,  not  in  the  exercise 

of  sound  reason.     Not  right.     Germ,  nickt  reckt. 
Reins,  balks  or  portions  of  grass  land  in  arable  fields. 
Rench,  to  rinse.     Isl.  hreinsa,  to  make  clean. 
Render,  to  separate,  to  melt  down,  to  dissolve  any  thing  fat 

by  the  heat  of  the  fire.     V.  Jam.  rind  ;  and  Wilb.  render. 
Renegate,  a  reprobate,  a  runagate ;  applied  to  any  unsteady 

character.     The  old  way  of  writing  renegado. 

A  false  knight,  and  a  renegate. 

Gower,  de  Confess.  Amant. 

Renty,  well  shaped ;  spoken  of  horses  or  horned  cattle. 

Respectively,  for  respectfully.  I  had  a  correspondent — by 
no  means  deficient  in  learning — who  invariably  subscribed 
himself  "  yours  respectively."  He,  perhaps,  relied  on  the 
authority  of  Shak.  and  Beaum.  and  Flet. 

Rheumatiz,  the  rheumatism.     Moor  has  rimmittis. 

Rice,  brushwood  for  the  purpose  of  hedging.  Isl.  hrys.  Su.- 
Got.  ris.  Germ,  reis,  a  twig. — Stake  and  rice,  a  sort  of 
wattled  fence.  "  Eh  !  what  a  dike  !  what  a  stake  and 
rice  he  loupt." 

Riddle,  a  coarse  sieve  with  large  interstices;  much  used 
about  farm-houses.  Sax.  hriddel.  Welsh  rhidyll.  The 
vulgar,  in  many  parts,  have  an  abominable  practice  of 
using  a  riddle  and  a  pair  of  shears  m  ^iviwAt\on.  If  they 
have  had  any  thing  stolen  from  them,  the  riddle  and  shears 
are  sure  to  be  resorted  to.  A  similar  mode  of  discovering 
thieves,  or  others  suspected  of  any  crime,  prevailed  among 
the  Greeks.     V.  Potter,  Gr.  Antiq.  vol.  i.  p.  352. 

RIM  175 

Rife,  abounding,  common,  prevalent.  Sax.  ryf.  Dr.  John- 
son is  mistaken  in  confining  the  use  of  this  word  to  epi- 
demical distempers  ;  and  Archdeacon  Nares  (who  points 
out  Ml-.  Dibdin's  very  erroneous  explanation)  is  equally  in 
error  in  thinking  it  obsolete. 

There  is  a  brief,  how  many  sports  are  r\fe. 

S/wk.  Mid.  Nigfifs  Dream. 

This  reading  occurs  in  most  of  the  old  editions — I  be- 
lieve in  all  but  one.  The  modern  editors,  however, 
without  any  sufficient  reason,  read  ripe. 

Rift,  v.  to  belch.  Dan.  raever. — Rift,  s.  an  eructation. 
Dan.  raeven. 

Rift,  v.  to  plough  out  grass  land.     Su.-Got.  rifwa. 

Rig,  a  wanton. — To  run  the  big,  to  teize,  to  banter,  to  ridi- 

Rig,  a  ridge,  an  eminence.  Sax.  hricg.  Isl.  hriggr.  Su.- 
Got.  ri/gg. 

Rig  and  Fur,  ribbed ;  as  rig  and  fur'' d  stockings.  Ridge  and 

RiGGELT,  RiGGOT,  an  imperfect  ram,  or  any  other  animal  half 
castrated.  "  A  riggot-ram" — "  a  riggot-horse" — "  a  riggot- 

RiGGiN,  the  ridge  of  a  house.  Sax.  firicg,  fastigium. — Rig- 
GiN-TKEE,  the  beam  along  the  roof.  "  See,  he^s  gettin  Aim- 
sel  seated  across  the  riggin  tree^ 

Rile,  to  render  turbid,  to  vex,  to  disturb. 

Rim,  Belly-rim,  the  membrane  inclosing  the  intestines. 
"  Mind  dinna  brmt  yor  belly-rim" — a  caution  among  the 
vulgar  in  Northumberland. 

For  I  will  fetch  thy  rim  out  at  thy  throat. 

In  drops  of  crimson  blood.  Shak.  Hen.  V. 

176  RINE 

The  original  reading,  says  Nares,  is  tymme,  which  Capell, 
judging  from  the  main  object  of  the  speaker,  boldly  pro- 
nounced to  signify  money ;  others  have  wished  to  read 
ri/no,  but  that  term  is  probably  not  of  such  antiquity  :  and 
the  conjecture  supposes  the  original  word  to  be  printed 
ryni,  which  it  is  not.  Pistol,  with  a  very  vague  notion  of 
the  anatomical  meaning  of  rt/mme,  seems  to  use  it  in  a 
general  way  for  any  part  of  the  intestines ;  his  object  be- 
ing to  terrify  his  prisoner. 

RiNE,  Frost-rixe,  frozen  dew,  hoar  frost.     Sax.  ren,  rain. 

Rip,  a  profligate — any  thing  base  or  worthless.  "  A  riji  of 
a  fellow" — "  A  rip  of  a  horse." 

Ripe,  to  search,  to  steal  privately,  to  plunder.  "  She  liped 
my  pockets" — "  He  riped  the  nest."  Sax,  hrypan,  dis- 

Ripple,  to  clean ;  applied  to  flax.  Su.-Got.  repa  lin,  linuui 
vellere.     Teut.  repen,  stringere  semen  lini. 

Rive,  v.  to  devour.  "  What  are  you  riving  and  eating  in  that 
manner  for?" 

Rive,  s.  a  rent  or  tear.  Isl.  ryf.  The  verb  rive,  to  split,  has 
long  been  used  in  our  language. 

Robin,  the  popular  name  of  the  ruddock  or  red-breast.  The 
innocence,  tameness,  and  its  approach  in  a  season  when 
its  sustenance  is  precarious,  may  be  the  reason  that  this 
bird  is  so  much  pitied  and  respected.  The  author  of  the 
old  ballad  of  The  Children  in  the  Wood,  selected  the  red 
breast  as  an  object  of  sympathy,  no  doubt  for  the  causes 
here  cited ;  but  I  am  informed  that  about  Heworth,  near 
Newcastle,  it  is  considered  as  a  bii'd  of  bad  omen. 

RoGGLE,  to  shake,  to  jumble. 

Roister,  to  behave  turbulently,  to  make  a  great  toise,  to  in- 
dulge in  jollity. 

ROUN  177 

Roisterer,  a  turbulent,  swaggering,  and  uncontroulable  per- 
son. Junius  refers  to  Isl.  hrisfer,  a  violent  man  ;  but 
I  am  inclined,  with  Dr.  Jamieson,  to  look  to  Barb.  Lat. 
Rustarii,  the  same  with  Rutarii  (old  Fr.  Routiers) — free- 
booters who  committed  great  devastation  in  France,  in  the 
eleventh  century.  This  name  was  given  to  the  stipendi- 
ary troops  (perhaps  some  of  the  same  sort  of  brigands) 
employed  by  King  John  in  his  exterminating  expedition 
into  the  North — where  the  castles,  towns,  and  villages 
were  given  to  the  flames  by  that  wicked  and  pusillanunous 
monarch,  and  the  miserable  inhabitants  abandoned  to  the 
murderous  cruelty  of  his  rapacious  followers,  without  re- 
spect of  age  or  sex,  rank  or  profession. 

Rook,  Rouk,  a  mist,  or  fog.  Teut.  roock,  vapor. — Rooky, 
misty,  damp. 

Roop,  or  Roup,  a  hoarseness.  Isl.  hroop,  vociferatio.  Roopy, 

Rooty,  Rowty,  coarse,  or  over  rank  ;  said  of  grass  or  corn 
when  in  that  state.     Old.  Eng.  rot/tlsh,  wild,  irregular. 

RosEL,  to  heat,  to  roast,  to  bask  over  a  fire.  "  To  rosel 
one's  shins."  "  To  i-osel  the  nose." — Roselled,  decayed ; 
as  a  roselled  apple. 

RossEL,  rosin.    "  Rosxel  and  Pick." 

Roux-TREE,  or  Rowan-tree,  the  mountain  ash,  or  ivitch-ivood 
— a  tree  of  high  consideration  in  the  North,  and  considered 
by  the  superstitious  peasantry  of  wonderful  efficacy  in  de- 
priving witches  of  their  infernal  power.  This  notion  has 
been  handed  down  from  early  antiquity — perhaps  from  the 
Druids.  Skinner  is  uncertain  whether  the  tree  may  not 
have  received  its  name  from  the  colour  called  roan  ;  but, 
as  observed  by  Dr.  Jamieson,  the  term  is  Gothic — Su.- 
Got.  ronii,  runn,  sorbus  aucuparia.     Dan.   ronne.     Ihrc 

178  ROUT 

conjectui-es,  with  great  probability,  that  the  etymon  may 
be  from  rima,  incantation,  because  of  the  use  made  of  it 
in  magical  arts. 

In  my  plinne  is  seen  the  holly  green. 

With  the  leaves  of  rowan  tree. 
And  my  casque  of  sand,  by  a  mermaid's  hand. 

Was  formed  beneath  the  sea — The  Court  of  Kecldar. 

Rout,  or  Rowt,  to  make  a  bellowing  noise.  Isl.  rauta. — 
Routing,  or  Rowting,  the  bellowing  of  an  ox.  V.  Wilb. 

RowLEY-PowLEY,  a  game  at  fairs  and  races. 

RoYAL-OAK-DAY  (the  2t)th  of  May),  the  restoration  of  King 
Charles  II. ;  in  coannemoration  of  which  it  is  customary  for 
the  common  people,  in  many  parts  of  the  North,  to  wear  oak 
leaves  in  theh  hats,  and  to  place  them  on  their  horses' 
heads.     Formerly,  in  Newcastle, 

When  civil  dudgeon  first  grew  high. 

And  men  fell  out  they  knew  not  why — Hudihras. 

the  boys  had  a  taunting  rhyme,  with  which  they  used  to 
insult  such  persons  as  were  not  decorated  with  this  remem- 
brance of  the  facetious  monarch  ; 

"  Royal  oak, 

"  The  whigs  to  provoke." 
It  was  not,  however,  to  be  expected  that  this  sarcastic 
ebullition  of  party-spu'it  should  escape  the  retort  courteous. 
The  contemptuous  reply  was, 

"  Plane-tree  leaves ; 

"  The  church-tblk  are  thieves." 

Ruck,  a  fold,  or  crease  in  cloth.     V.  Tooke, 

RuD,  ruddle  for  marking  sheep.   Sax.  rudu,  rubor.    Set  Keel. 

RuDDiLY,  readily.     "  He  cam  varry  ruddilyP 

RUTT  179 

Ri'E,  or  Rew,  to  repent.  Sax.  fireowian. — Rve-bargain,  a 
bargain  repented  of,  something  given  to  be  off  an  agree- 

Rug,  to  pull  ronghly.  Tent,  rnckcn,  dctrahere. — Rugging  and 
Riving,  pulling  and  tearing. 

Rum,  a  common  North  country  word  for  any  thing  odd  or 
queer — a  comical  person,  for  instance,  being  called  a  mm 
stick.  May  not  Dr.  Johnson's  ruvi  jyarsonhe  what  is  called 
a  hackney  parson,  and  come  from  Germ,  rum,  which  is 
from  herum,  about,  as  herum  laiifer  is  a  vagabond  ?  Henim 
parson  or  rum  parson  may,  therefore,  be  a  vagabond  parson. 

Rum-gumptious,  forward  and  pompous.     T.  Crav.  Gloss. 

RuMBUSTiCAL,  fudc,  noisy,  overbearing. 

Ruinated,  reduced  to  ruin,  ruinous.  Pegge  erroneously  con- 
sidered this  word  as  peculiar  to  Londoners. 

RuLE-o'-THUMB,  no  rulc  at  all — guess  work. 

Rung,  a  spoke,  the  step  or  round  of  a  ladder.  Moe.-Got, 
hrung,  virga.     It  is  also  a  name  for  a  cudgel. 

Runnel,  pollard  wood.     Perhaps  from  running  up  apace. 

Runt,  a  Scotcli  ox — also  a  jocular  designation  for  a  person  of 
a  strong  though  low  stature.  "  A  runt  of  a  fellow." — 
Germ,  rind,  an  ox  or  cow  ;  hut  fgurativcli/,  a  dull-pated, 
stupid  fellow. 

Rush-bearing,  a  riu'al  feast  or  wake,  now  become  nearly  ob- 
solete. Sec  Crav.  Gloss,  and  Brand's  Pop.  Antiq.  vol.  i. 
p.  436. 

Ruttling,  a  noise  occasioned  by  a  difficulty  in  breathing. — 
Teat,  rotelen,  murmm-are.  The  dead  rutllc,  a  particular 
kind  of  noise  made  in  respiring  by  a  person  in  the  extre- 
mity of  sickness,  is  still  considered  in  the  North  as  an  omen 
of  death.  Levinus  Lemnius  (Occult  Miracles  of  Nature, 
lib.  ii.  ch.  15.)  is  ver}-  learned  on  this  subject. 

180  RUZE 

RuzE,  to  extol,  to  boast,  to  magnify  in  niirration.  Isl.  rmisa, 
multa  efFutire.  Cornish,  ros,  bragging.  Hence,  perhaps, 
roozcr  a  great  untruth. 


Sackless,  simple,  weak,  helpless,  innocent.  Dr.  Willan  con- 
siders that  this  epithet  must  have  originated  after  the  in- 
troduction of  the  favourite  beverage,  sack  and  sugar ;  but 
the  word  may  evidently  be  traced  to  Sax.  saclcas,  quietus. 
Isl.  saklaus,  innocens. 

Sad,  heavy  ;  particularly  applied  to  bread  when  the  yeast  has 
had  no  effect. 

Safe,  a.  sure,  certain.     "  He's  safe  to  be  hanged." 

Safe,  s.  a  place  of  security.     "  An  iron  safe." 

Saim,  Same,  hog's-fat,  goose-grease.  Welsh,  suim,  grease. — 
Fr.  sa'm-doiuv,  lard.  Shakspeare  and  other  writers  use 

Saint  Cuthbert's  Duck,  the  eider  duck ;  or  great  black 
and  white  duck.  Anas  mollusima. — Linnaeus.  These  birds 
are  found  on  the  largest  of  the  Fern  Islands  on  the 
Northumberland  coast,  which  is  the  only  place  in  Eng- 
land where  they  are  known  to  breed.  The  feathers  are 
remarkably  soft  and  of  great  value.  The  popular  name  is 
obviously  connected  with  the  celebrated  Saint  Cuthbert  j 
who,  regardless  of  all  earthly  pomp  and  vanity,  resigned 
an  episcopal,  for  an  hermitical  life — retiring  to  this  desert 
isle,  where  he  died. 

Saint  Swithin's  Day  (the  15th  of  July).  The  old  superstition 
that  if  it  rain  on  this  day,  not  one  of  the  next  forty 
will  be  wholly  without,  is  not  yet  eradicated.  V.  Brand's 
Pop.  Antiq.  vol.  i.  p.  2/1,  and  Nares'  Gloss. 

Sairv,  poor,  pitiable,  helpless.     Sax.  sari,  sarig. 

SAUC  181 

Sally,  to  move  or  run  from  side  to  side ;  as  is  customary  with 

the  persons  on  board  of  a  ship  after  she  is  launched. 
Samcast,  two  ridges  ploughed  together.     Diu:     Referrible 

to  Germ,  sammeln,  to  gather,  ziisammcn,  together. 
Sabipleth,  a  sampler.     V.  Suff.  Words.     The  author  is  mis- 
taken in  thinking  them  not  still  worked. 
Saxdgate-City,  a  burlesque  name  for  Sandgate,  Newcastle  ; 
a  place  of  great  antiquity,  but  described  by  a  local  poet  as 

The  devil's  besom  sure, 

"With  which  ofl  times  he  sweeps  the  floor ; 
The  air's  with  glass-house  smoke  infected, 
Coniusion  of  all  kinds  collected. 

Sandgate-rattle,  a  peculiar  step  in  vulgar  dancing,  consist- 
ing of  a  violent  and  very  quick  beating  of  the  toes  on  the 

Sandgate-ring,  a  particular  mode  of  lighting  a  tobacco  pipe. 

Sang,  a  song.     Pure  Saxon. 

Sang  !  My  Sangs  !  frequent  exclamations,  sometimes  equiva- 
lent to  indeed,  but  generally  implying  a  threat.  "  My 
sa7igs  I  but  aw  tvill  gee  i/ it." 

Sapscull,  a  foolish  fellow,  a  blockhead. 

Sare,  sore,  painful.     Sax.  sar.     Su.-Got.  saar. 

Sare,  very  much,  greatly.  Germ.  sehr.  "  It's  sare  worn." 
"  He's  sare  afflicted." 

Sark,  a  shirt.     Sax.  syrc.     Su.-Got.  stsi-k.     V.  Jam. 

Sarjient,  a  sermon.     "  We^d  a  good  sarment  the  day" 

Sartin,  sure,  positive. — Sartinly,  certainly. 

Sattle,  to  settle.  This  vulgar  pronunciation  is  conformable 
to  the  Saxon  origin  of  the  word.  Peirs  Ploughman  uses 

Sauce,  insolence  of  speech,  impertinence.  Sauciness.  "  Don't 
set  up  yor  sauce  to  me  " 

182  SALC 

Saucer-eyed,  having  a  large,  full  eye. 

Saugh,  Saff,  the  sallow ;  a  species  of"  willow.     Fr.  saule. 

Saul,  the  soul.  Pure  Saxon  ;  and  the  ancient  mode  of  writ- 
ing the  word. 

Saul,  the  solid  substance  in  the  inside  of  a  covered  button. 
Fr.  saoul,  soiil,a  filhng. 

Saut,  Sote,  salt.  Sax.  sentt.  In  the  pronunciation  of  many 
of  the  provincial  dialects  of  the  North,  the  sound  of  the  I 
is  omitted. 

Savelick,  an  excrescence  from  the  brier,  placed  by  boys  in 
their  coat  cuffs,  as  a  charm,  to  prevent  a  flogging. 

Saw,  to  sow.  Moe.-Got.  saian.  Sax.  saivan.  Su.-Got.  saa. 
Germ,  s'deii. 

Say,  authority,  influence,  sway.     "  She  has  all  the  5m/." 

ScABY,  ScAiJiE,  shabb}',  mean.     "  A  scahy  fellow." 

Scad,  to  scald. — Scadding  of  Peas,  a  custom  in  the  North 
of  boiling  the  common  grey  peas  in  the  pods,  in  a  green 
state,  and  eating  them  with  butter  and  salt.  The  company 
often  pelt  each  other  with  the  siuads.  It  is  sometimes 
called,  in  consequence,  peas  and  sport. 

Scale,  to  spread,  to  disperse.     V.  Jam.  skaU. 

I  shall  tell  you 

A  pretty  tale  ;  it  may  be,  you  have  heard  it ; 

But,  since  it  serves  my  purpose,  I  will  venture 

To  scaled  a  little  more. 

Shale.  Coriolanus. 

Nearly  all  the  commentators  have  mistaken  the  meaning 
of  to  icalet.  I  am  quite  satisfied  that  it  was  the  author's 
intention  to  have  the  tale  spread  or  diffused  a  little  more, 
though  some  of  the  hearers  might  have  heard  it.  If  Arch- 
deacon Nares  will  "  weigh  as  in  scales,  to  estimate  aright," 
Ml-.   Lambe's  observations  on  this  passage,  and  on  the 

scow  183 

means  of  acquiring  a  competent  knowledge  of  tlie  old  En- 
glish tongue  (Notes  on  the  Battle  of  Floddon),  I  enter- 
tain a  hope  that  the  learned  author  of  the  elaborate  and 
valuable  Glossary  may  not  be  indisposed  to  alter,  in  more 
respects  than  one,  the  article  To  Scale,  in  a  future 

Scale-land,  to  lircak   up  clots  of  manure,  and  to  spread  them 
and  other  loose  materials  about  the  field. 

Scale-dish,  a  thin  dish  for  skunming  milk. 

ScALLioNS,  a  punishment  among  boys.  To  catch  the  scallion 
tails,  is  to  get  a  good  drubbing. 

ScAMr,  a  mean  rascal,  a  fellow  devoid  of  honour  or  principle. 

Scamper,  to  run  off.  Fr.  cscanijjcr,  Ital.  scamjyare.  Teut. 
schampen,  to  slip  aside. 

ScANTisH,  scarce. —  Scan  tly,  scarcely. 

Scape-grace,  a  term  of  reproach — a  graceless  fellow. 

Scar,  a  bare  and  broken  place  on  the  side  of  a  mountain,  or 
in  the  high  bank  of  a  river.     Su.-Got.  skcer,  rupes. 

ScARN,  Sharn,  cow-dung.     See  Cow-sharen. 

Scathe,  loss,  spoil,  damage.  Pure  Saxon.  Used  by  Chau- 
cer, Spenser,  and  Shakspeare. 

Scatter-brained,  light-headed.     "  A  Scatter-brain^  d  body" 

Sconce,  a  seat  at  one  side  of  the  fire-place  in  the  old  large 
open  chunney — a  short  partition  near  the  fire  upon  which 
all  the  bright  utensils  in  a  cottage  are  suspended. 

Sconce,  a  beating  about  the  head — sometimes  the  head  itself. 

Scooter,  a  sj'ringe.     See  Swirt. 

Scotch  Mist,  a  small  soaking  rain — such,  however,  as  wUl 
wet  an  Englishvian  to  the  skin. 

Scout,  a  high  rock.     V.  Todd's  John. 

ScowDER,  to  mismanage  any  thing  in  cooking,  to  scorch  it. 
Grose  has  scourder^d,  overheated  with  working ;  perhaps 
only  a  figurative  sense  of  the  word.     V.  Jam. 

184  SCRA 

ScRAB,  a  crab  apple, — Scrab-tree,  the  crab-tree. 
ScRAFFLE,   V.   to   scramble,   to    climb   up. — Scraffle,   .?.   a 
Wey  hinny,  says  aw,  weVs  a  Shot-Tower  see  hee, 

That  biv  it  ye  might  scraffle  to  Heaven ; 
And  if  on  Saint  Nicholas  ye  once  cus  an  ee, 
Ye'd  crack  on't  as  lang  as  ye're  livin. 

Song,  Canny  Newcasscl. 

Scraffle,  to  be  industrious,  to  struggle. — Scraffling,  work- 
ing hard  to  obtain  a  livelihood. 

ScRANCH,  to  grind  any  hard  or  crackling  substance  between 
the  teeth.  Dr.  John,  says,  the  Scotch  retain  it ;  so  do 
the  people  in  the  north  of  England. 

ScRANCHUM,  thin  squares  of  brittle  spice,  or  gingerbread. 

ScRAT,  ScRAUT,  V.  to  scratch.  An  old  word. —  Scrat,  s.  the 

Scrat,  an  hermapin-odite.     V.  Todd's  John. 

Scribe,  to  write.  Lat.  sciibere. — Scribe  of  a  pen,  a  line  by 
way  of  letter. 

Scrimp,  v.  to  spare,  to  scant.  Teut.  kiimjicn,  contrahere.— 
Scrimp,  a.  short,  scanty,  little. 

ScROG,  a  stunted  bush  or  shrub.  Sax.  scrob,  frutex. — Scrog- 
GY,  full  of  stunted  bushes,  thorns,  &c. 

Scrudge,  v.  to  crowd  thickly  together,  to  squeeze. — Scrudge, 
s.  a  crowd,  a  squeeze.  On  the  laying  of  the  foundation- 
stone  of  the  new  library  of  the  Literary  and  Philosophical 
Society,  by  the  Duke  of  Sussex,  in  1822,  there  was  the 
greatest  scrudge  ever  remembered  in  Newcastle. 

ScRUNTy,  short,  meagre,  stunted.  Su.-Got.  skriu,  dried. 
Dan.  skranten,  infirm. 

ScL'DDiCK,  the  lowest  measure  oi"  value.  "  Not  wortli  a  scud- 
d'lcky     Probably  from  scudo. 

SEGG  18a 

Scuff,  OR  Cuff,  the  hinder  part  of  the  neck.  F.  Wilb.  Al- 
so a  thump.  "  A  cuffo'  the  neck." 
ScuMFisH,  to  smother,  to  suffocate.  Wood  embers,  the  snuf- 
fing of  a  candle,  sulphur,  &c.  have  scumjishing  effluvia  in 
close  rooms.  Ital.  sconfiggere,  to  discomfit. 
Sear,  s.  autumn — the  tune  of  the  drying  and  withering  of 
leaves.  Sax.  searian,  to  nip,  or  dry. — Sear,  a.  dry ;  op- 
posed to  green. 

I  have  liv'd  long  enough  :  ray  -,vaij  of  life 
Is  fall'n  into  the  sear,  the  yellow  leaf. 

Shalt.  Macbeth. 

Dr.  Johnson  and  some  other  of  the  commentators  on 
Shakspeare  object  to  way  of  life,  and  wish  to  substitue 
May ;  but  I  must  confess  that  I  am  not  convinced  by 
their  arguments. 

Seaves,  rushes. —  Seavy-ground,  such  as  is  overgrown  with 

Seck,  a  sack.     "  A  seek  of  flour."     "  A  seek  of  saw-dust." 

Secket,  a  term  of  contempt  to  a  child. 

See-saw,  the  same  as  hikey-hoard.     See  Hjicey. 

Seea,  so. — Seeabetide,  if  so  be. 

Seed,  saw.     Universal  among  the  vulgai*.     "  Aiv  seed  it." 

Seeing-glass,  a  mirror,  a  /oo/tiHg-glass. 

Seek,  Seak,  sick.     Sax.  seoc.     Chaucer  uses  seke. 

Seer,  several,  divers.     Su.-Got.  saer,  an  adverb  denoting  se- 

Seer,  sure.     "  Aw  seer  aw  was  smart." 

Seestah,  Sisto,  seest  thou.     "  Seestah  what  thoiCs  diiin." 

Segg,  a  bull  castrated  when  full  grown. 

Segging,  the  heavy  laborious  walking  of  a  corpulent  man. 
"  Wliat  a  segging  gait  he  has." 
a  a 

186  SELL 

Sell,  self,  in  compounds  of  wysell,  hksell^yo^irseU.  Plural 
sells,  selves. 

They  dig  out  fro'  the  dells, 
For  their  bairn's  bread,  wives,  and  sells. 

*'  Ben.  Jan. 

Semant,  Semmant,  slender,  weak. 

Semple,  a  person  of  low  birth  ;  opposed  to  gentle.  "  Both 
gentle  and  semple  were  there." 

Sen,  Syne,  since. — Sen-sYxVe,  since  then.  "  Its  lang  st/nr, 
sen  he  left  us."  , 

Seng,  shelter.    "  Under  the  seng  of  a  hedge," 

Sess-pool,  an  excavation  in  the  ground  for  receiving  foul 
water. — Diir.  I  do  not  find  this  word  in  any  Dictionary. 
Sus~pool  is  used  in  this  sense,  by  Forster  on  Atmospheric 
Phcenomena.  Perhaps  from  sous-pool,  or  pool  below  the 

Set,  to  propel,  to  push  forward ;  as  setting  a  keel. 

Set,  to  accompany.  Used  in  a  common  expression — "  Set 
me  a  bit  on  the  road."  Bit,  however,  is  not  more  misap- 
plied in  the  North  than  it  is  in  some  parts  of  the  South. 

Set-too,  an  argument,  a  contest,  a  warm  debate.  "  A  fair 

Setten-on,  short  in  growth,  ill  thriven ;  also  applied  to 
milk  burnt  in  the  pan. 

Seugh,  a  wet  ditch  ;  such  as  that  out  of  which  the  contents 
of  a  sod  dike  have  been  cut — any  watery  or  boggy  place. 
V.  Jam.  seuch. 

SiiAB-OFF,  Shab-away,  to  sueak  away.  Dur.  Germ,  schaben, 
to  scrape  oiF;  and  by  some  gradations  of  meaning  used 
with  the  preposition  and  in  the  imperative  mood,  schab  ab, 
sneak  awaj'. 

SHAP  187 

Shab-rag,  a  mean  person. — Shag-rag,  is  the  same. 

Shack,  to  shake  out  or  shedj    as  corn  at  harvest. — Shak- 

FORF,  a  hay  fork. 
Shackle,  an  iron  loop  moving  on  a  bolt.     Teut.  schacchel. 
Shackle,  the  wrist.     Sc.  shacJcle-ViWE, 

Shaffle,  to  move  with  an  awkward  or  irregular  gait ;  to  hob- 
ble.    "  A  shnffling  body." 
Shag-hat,  a  hat  made  very  long  in  the  down ;  nmch  worn  by 
pitmen  and  keelmen. 

JVIaw  good  shag  hat  ne  mairawl  wave  his  canny 
feyce  to  see. 

Song,  Lament,  on  the  Death  of  Capt.  Starklq. 

Shale,  alum  ore — any  other  black  slaty  substance. 
Shally-wally,  a  sign  of  contempt. 

Sham-a-sterxe,  a  vulgar  phrase,  equivalent  to  not  one.  This 
may  serve  to  explain  an  obsciu-e  passage  in  the  fine  old 
heroic  ballad  of  Chevy  Chase,  Fit.  2.  -  ' 

Thorowe  ryche  male,  and  myne-ye-ple 
Maliy  stcrnc  the  stroke  down  streght. 

Which  may  be  read — they  struck  down  straight  many  a  one, 

through  rich  coat  of  mail,  and  many  folds. 
Shandy,  wild,  frolicksome.     V.  Suff.  Words,  .s^«wrt?/. 
Shangie,  or  Culley-Shangy,  a  row,  a  tumult,  a  riot. 
Shank,  the  projecting  point  of  a  hill. 
Shanks,  the  legs. — Shankey's  Naegie,  on  foot. 

And  ay  until  the  day  he  died, 

*  He  rade  on  good  shanks  vagij. 

*  Jtitson,  ScotcJi  Songs. 

Shanty,  gay,  showy.     Perhaps,  as  suggested  by  Oil'.  Todd,  a 

corruption  oijanty. 
Shap,  Shape,  to  begin,  to  set  about  any  thing.      V.  Wilis. 

"  He  shaps  well." 

188  SHAR 

Shard,  a  broken  piece  of  any  brittle  or  fragile  substance. 
Sax.  sceard,  fragmen.  Within  my  recollection,  many  of 
the  common  people,  in  the  lower  parts  of  Newcastle,  used 
to  resort  to  the  Quayside  and  other  places,  where  they 
gathered  up  coals  with  the  half  of  a  wooden  dish,  called  a 
shard,  I  have  been  told  that  it  was  not  unusual  for  two 
of  them  to  purchase  a  new  dish,  and  split  it  for  the  pur- 
pose of  making  these  shards.  Shard  is  also  a  North 
country  word  for  the  shell  or  hard  outward  covering  of 
the  tribe  of  insects  denominated  Coleoptera. 

Oflen,  to  our  comfort,  shall  we  find 
The  sharded  beetle  in  a  safer  hold 
Than  is  the  fuU-wing'd  eagle. 

Shak.  Cynibcline. 

Ere,  to  black  Hecate's  summons, 
The  shard-borne  beetle,  with  his  drowsy  hums, 
Hath  rung  night's  yawning  peal,  there  shall  be  done 
A  deed  of  dreadful  note.  Shak.  Macbeth. 

These  expressions  of  our  dramatist — sharded  beetle,  and 
shard-borne  beetle — are  as  correct  as  they  are  poetical. 
Dr.  Johnson's  ignorance  of  the  latter  meaning  of  the  word 
completely  misled  him  in  his  interpretation.  His  error, 
however,  is  not  overlooked  by  the  learned  and  indefati- 
gable Mr.  Todd. 

Sharp,  quick,  active,     "  Be  sharp" — make  all  haste. 

Sharps,  coarse  ground  flour  with  a  portion  of  bran. 

Shaw,  a  small  shady  wood  in  a  vallej'.  Sax.  scua.  Teut. 
schawe,  umbra.  Used  by  Gower  and  Chaucer ;  and  still 
common  in  many  parts  of  England. 

Shay,  or  Po-shay,  a  post  chaise. — Shay-drivers,  the  post 

SHIN  189 

Shear,  to  reap,  or  cut  corn  with  tlie  sickle.  Su.-Got.  skaera. 
Shear  is  not,  provincially,  applied  to  sheep.  A  sheep 
shearing  is  a  clipping. — Shearers,  the  harvest  reapers. 

Shed,  to  put  aside,  to  disperse,  to  make  way. 

Sheeley,  Sheel-apple,  or  Shell-apple,  the  chaffinch. — 
FringiUa  ccelebs.     Linnaeus. 

Sheeting,  applied  to  the  slope  or  waterfall  of  a  mill-dani. 

Sheld,  party  coloured,  flecked  or  speckled. 

Shem,  shame. — Shem-fu,  shameful.  "  Its  a  shem,  and  a  holy 
bizon."     See  BizoN. 

Sheth,  a  portion  of  a  field,  which  is  generally  divided  so  as 
to  di-ain  oft"  the  water  by  the  direction  of  the  ploughings, 
called  sheths. 

Shiel,  Shieling,  originally  a  temporary  hut  or  cabin  for 
those  who  had  the  care  of  sheep  on  the  moors,  in  which 
they  resided  diuing  the  summer  months  ;  but  afterwards 
applied  to  fixed  habitations.     Isl.  skiul.     Su.-Got.  skale. 

No  more  shall  ruthless  flames  devour 
The  trembling  shepherd's  lowly  skid. 

Nor  fiei"ce  moss-ti-oopers  burst  the  door 
That  strongly  bars  the  shelt'ring  peel. 

Roxhy,  Rcedu-ater  Mhistrel. 

Shift,  to  remove  from  one  dwelling  to  another. — Shifting, 
the  removal  of  the  furniture. 

Shill,  to  separate,  to  shell.  "  Shilling  oats  or  barleij" — tak- 
ing oft' the  hulls.  "  Shilling  jieas'^ — cleaning  them  of  their 

Shilly-shally,  hesitating,  irresolute.  Probably  a  corrupt 
reduplication  of  shall  I. 

SniMWER  or  Skimmer,  to  shine,  to  glitter.  Germ,  schimmer,  a 
dim  or  faint  glare. 

Shine,  a  row,  a  disturbance,  mischief.    "  To  Idck  up  a  shine." 

190  SHIN 

SiiiNNEY,  a  stick  crooked  or  rounded  at  the  end,  with  which 
to  strike  a  small  wooden  ball  or  coit,  in  the  game  called 
Shbiney,  or  Shinney-haw,  played  in  the  Northern  counties. 


Shippen,  a  cow-house ;  originally,  perhaps,  a  sheep-pen.  Sax. 
scypcn,  stabulum. 

Shirl,  Snum-,  to  slide ;  as  on  the  ice. 

Shittletidee,  a  vulgar  expression  of  disbelief  or  disapproba- 

Shive,  a  slice  ;  as  of  bread  or  cheese.  Old  Eng.  sheeve. — 
Dut.  schi/f. 

SiiOE-THE-cOBBLER,  a  qiiick  and  peculiar  movement  with  the 
fore  foot  when  sliding  on  the  ice. 

SiiOGGLE,  to  shake,  to  joggle.     Shog  is  an  old  word. 

Shoo,  Shue,  to  scare  birds,  to  drive  away  fowls.  Germ. 
scheiichen,  to  frighten. 

Shoox,  Shun,  the  plural  of  shoe.     Sax.  sceon.     Teut.  schoen. 

Spare  none  but  such  as  go  in  clouted  sJwon, 

For  they  are  thrifty  honest  men — Sliak.  Hen.  VI. 

Shot,  the  score  or  reckoning  at  a  public-house.  V.  Nares' 
Gloss,  shot-clog. 

Shot-of,  freed  from.  To  get  shot  of  a  person — to  get  rid  of 

Shrew,  a  field  mouse.  A  vulgar  superstition  once  prevailed 
that  this  poor  creature  was  of  so  baneful  and  venomous  a 
nature  that  whenever  it  crept  over  a  horse,  cow,  or  sheep, 
the  animal  so  touched  became  afflicted  with  cruel  anguish, 
and  threatened  with  the  loss  of  the  use  of  its  limbs.  To 
repel  this  imaginary  evil,  it  was  customary  to  close  up  the 
shrew  alive  in  a  hole  bored  in  an  ash  tree.  Since  this 
was  written,  an  intelligent  friend  has  reminded  me  of  an 

SIKE  191 

old  notion,  that  the  supposed  malignity  of  this  mouse  is 
the  origin  o? shrew,  a  vixen;  in  regard  to  which  much  dif- 
ference of  opinion  exists  among  etymologists.  But  whether 
it  be  so  or  not,  I  feel  myself  incompetent  to  decide ; 
though,  from  what  is  stated  in  Todd's  Johnson,  I  strongl} 
incline  to  the  opinion  entertained  by  the  learned  editor. — 
The  matter,  however,  is  becoming  less  important ;  as,  to 
the  honoui"  of  the  females  of  the  present  day,  we  seldom 
encounter  "  a  peevish,  malignant,  clamorous,  spiteful, 
vexatious,  turbulent  woman,"  the  characteristicks  of  a 

Shuffle  and  Cut,  a  superior  step  in  vulgar  dancing. 

Shuggy-shew,  a  swing — a  long  rope  fastened  at  each  end, 
and  thrown  over  a  beam ;  on  which  young  persons  seat 
themselves,  and  are  swung  backwards  and  forwards  in  the 
manner  of  a  pendulum.  See  Bewick's  ^sop,  p.  4.  where 
his  Satanic  Majesty  is  amusing  himself  in  this  manner. 

Shull,  or  Shuil,  a  spade  or  shovel.  Dut.  school.  V.  SufF. 
Words,  shawl. 

Shull-bone,  the  shovdder  bone. 

Side,  to  decide,  to  settle ;  as  well  as  to  coincide,  to  agree. 

SiDJE,  a.  long,  wide,  large.     Pure  Saxon. 

Cloth  of  gold,  and  cuts,  and  laced  with  silver ;  set 
with  pearls,  down  sleeves,  «if?t' sleeves,  and  skirts 
'  round.  ShaJi-.  Much  Ado  about  Nothing. 

Side-up,  to  put  in  order.     "  Side  up  the  house." 

Sidle,  to  saunter,  to  take  an  oblique  direction. 

SiK,  SiKE,  such. — SiK-LiKE,  SiKE-LiKE,  such  like.     Spenser 

uses  sike. 
SiKERLY,  or  SiCKERLY,  surely.    Sicker  \s  used  by  Chaucer  and 


192  SIKE 

SiKE,  Syke,  a  streamlet  of  water,  the  smallest  kind  of  natural 

runner.     Sux.  sic,  lacuna. 
Su.E,  V.  to  stiain,  to  purify  milk  through  a  straining  dish. — 

Su.-Got.  sila,  colare. — Silf,  .v.  a  fine  sieve  or  milk  strainer. 

Su.-Got.  id,  colum. 
Sills,  strata  of  minerals.     It  also  means,  in  some  places,  the 

shafts  of  a  waggon ;  the  same  as  thills. 
SiND,  to  wash  out,  to  rince — also  to  dilute ;  io  sind  it  down, 

being  to  take  a  drink  after  meat. 
Sine,  to  percolate.     Dur.     Fr.  saigner,  to  bleed,  to  drain  or 

let  out  water. 
SiNGiN,  or  SiNGiNG-HiNNY,  a  kneaded  spice  cake,  baked  on  the 

girdle  ;  indispensable  in  a  pitman's  family. 

Ah  hinnies  !  about  us  the  lasses  did  lowp, 
Thick  as  cur'ns  in  a  spice  shigiu  hhtnle. 

Song,  Cavny  Newcnssel. 

Crosshi  the  road,  aw  met  wi'  Bobby  Swinney. — 
Hing  on  the  girdle,  let's  hev  a  slnghi  hinny. 

Song,  Man;  Canny  Hhwy. 

j\Iy  Grandy  lik'd  spice  siiigln  himiks. 
Maw  comely :  aw  like  thou  as  week 

Song,  The  Pitmati's  Courtship. 

SiNGLiN,  a  handful  of  gleaned  corn — a  single  gleaning.  This 
word  is  doubtless  the  same  as  the  Cheshire  songoiv,  songal, 
so  ably  illustrated  by  Mr.  Wilbraham  in  his  Glossary.  In 
a  MS.  addition  to  a  copy  of  that  interesting  work,  presented 
to  me  by  the  author,  reference  is  made  to  Hyde,  dc  Reli- 
gionc  Persarum,  for  the  ancient  use  of  songall. 

SiPF,  to  leak,  to  ooze  or  drain  out  slowly  through  a  small  cre- 
vice. Teut.  sijpeti. — Sipinus,  oozingsi,  the  diaiuings  of  a 

SKIP  193 

SiRPLE,  to  sip  often ;  nearly  allied  to  tippling.     Sw.  sorpla. 
Site,  Seet,  a  great  deal,  many.     V.  Suft".  Words,  sight. 
SiXES-AND-SEVENS,  in  a  state  of  confusion,  in  disorder.     V. 

Todd's  John,  and  Nares'  Gloss,  six  and  seven. 
Skeel,  a  cylindrical  wooden  vessel  for  carrying  milk  or  water, 

with  an  upright  handle  in  place  of  a  bow.     Isl.  skiola,  a 

Skelly,  v.  to  squint.     Isl.  skaela.     Germ,  schielen. — Skelly, 

s.  a  squinting  look.     Sax.  sceoleage. 
Skelp,  v.  to  slap  or  beat  with  the  open  hand ;  particularly  on 

the  breech  or  the   cheek.     Isl.  skelfa,  to  strike.     Skelp 

also  means  to  move  rapidly. 
Skelp,  Skelper,  s.  a  smart  blow,  or  stroke. — Skelping,  a 

hearty  beating. 
Skelper,  any  thing  very  large.     Poomer  is  the  same. 
Skep,  a  basket  made  of  rushes.     A  bee-skcp,  a  bee-hive  of 

straw.     Gael,  sgeip. 
Sker,  to  slide  swiftly,  to  skate.     Su.-Got.  skiuta. 
Skew,  to  go  aside,  to  walk  obliquely — to  throw  violently — 

to  squint. 
Skew-the-dew,  Shaw-the-dew,  a  splayfooted  person. 
Skill,  to  know.      Isl.  skilia,  intelligere.     Not  obsolete  as 

stated  in  Todd's  John. 
Skime,  to  look  asquint.     Sken  has  the  same  meaning.     See 

Skin-flint,  a  niggardly  close-fisted  person — one  so  parsimo- 
niously mean  that  he  would  perform  that  operation,  were 

it  possible. 
Skip-jack,  the  merry-thought  bone   of  a  goose.     V.   Suff. 

Skipper,  the  captain  of  a  keel  or  coal  barge.  Sax.  sciper,  nau- 

ta.     Dut.  schippcr,  a  shipmaster. 

194  SKIR 

Skirl,  to  cry  excessively,  to  pierce  tiie  aii-  with  a  shrill  voice. 
Isl.  skralla. — Skirl,  a  loud  and  incessant  shriek — a  con- 
tinuation of  childish  rage  and  grief.  Isl.  skrall.  Dan. 
skraal,  an  outcry. 

Skit,  to  throw  reflections  on,  to  banter.  Sax.  scitan,  to  cast 

Skitter,  liquidum  excrementum  jaculare.  Hence  this  vulgar 
name  for  a  dituThoea.     Isl.  skvctta. 

Skogger,  the  leg  of  an  old  stocking,  applied  to  keep  snow 
out  of  shoes.     See  Hoggers. 

Skreenge,  or  Skringe,  to  squeeze  violently. 

Skrike,  to  shriek.     Dan,  skrige.     Su.-Got.  skrika,  vociferari. 

Skug,  v.  to  hide,  to  screen.  Su.-Got.  skyggn,  obumbrare. — 
Skug,  s.  a  sheltered  place.     Isl.  skuggi,  umbra. 

Skurrv,  haste,  impetuosity.  "  What  a  hiirry-skurry."  Fr. 
escurer,  to  scom\ 

Slab,  or  Slap-dash,  a  cheap  mode  of  colouring  rooms,  in 
imitation  of  paper. 

Slabby,  diity  and  damp.     Teut.  slabberen,  to  slabber. 

Slack,  an  opening  between  two  hills,  a  valley  or  small  shallow 
dell.     Su.-Got.  slak. 

Slack,  a  long  pool  in  a  streamy  river. 

Slade,  a  breadth  of  green  sward  in  ploughed  land,  or  in  plan- 

Sladdery,  wet  and  diity.  "  Sladdery  walking."  Isl.  sladda, 
squalide  grassai'i. 

Slain,  blighted ;  as  slain  corn. 

Slaistering,  doing  any  thing  in  an  awkward,  untidy  manner. 
V.  Hire,  slask. 

Slake,  v.  to  smeai',  to  wet,  to  bedaub.     Isl.  sloka,  delutare. 

Slake,  s.  an  accumulation  of  mud  or  slime  in  a  river.  Jarroiv 
Slake,  on  the  Tyne.  Su.-Got.  slak,  laxus ;  as  being  soft 
and  flaccid  ;  or  Teut.  dijck,  coenimi,  lutum. 

SLEU  195 

Slam,  to  beat,  to  cufF,  to  push  violently. 

Slants,  slj-  jokes,  or  petty  lies.  "  He  slants  a  good  deal" — 
he  is  given  to  lying.     V.  Nares'  Gloss,  slent. 

Slape,  slippery,  smooth. 

Slasiiy,  wet  and  dirty.     Sw.  slask,  wet. 

Slatter,  to  pour  awkwardly,  to  slop,  to  spill.     Hence  slattern. 

Sla\t:ring,  Slavvering,  foaming,  talking  fast,  or  unintel- 

Sleck,  to  cool  in  water.  Hence  sleek-trough,  the  trough 
containing  the  water  in  which  smiths  cool  their  iron  and 
temper  steel. 

Sleck,  or  Slocken,  to  quench  thu-st.     Isl.  slaecla. 

Slee,  sly,  cunning.     Chaucer  uses  slie,  sUgh. 

Sleeveless,  unsuccessful,  unprofitable.  See  Dr.  Johnson's 
2d  sense.  It  is  often  pronounced  in  Northumberland 
Threeveless,  probably  from  f/irivcless  or  thriftless. 

Sleuth,  or  Sleuth-hound,  the  northern  name  for  the  blood- 
hound. These  animals  were  held  in  great  estimation  by 
oiu-  ancestors ;  pai'ticulai'ly  on  the  borders,  where  a  tax 
was  levied  for  maintaining  them.  Their  scent  was  so  re- 
markably fine,  that  they  could  follow,  with  great  certainty, 
the  human  footsteps  to  a  considerable  distance.  Many 
of  them  were,  in  consequence,  kept  in  certain  districts  for 
the  purpose  of  tracing  thieves  and  murderers  through  their 

secret  recesses. 

Upon  the  banks 

Of  Tweed,  slow  winding  through  the  vale,  the  seat 
Of  war  and  rapine  once,  ere  Britons  knew 

The  sweets  of  peace 

s  »  •  »  »  « 

There  dwelt  a  pilfering  race;  well  train'd  and  skill'd 
In  all  the  mysteries  of  theft,  the  spoil 
Their  only  substance,  feuds  and  war  their  sport. 

SomcrvUc,  Chasr,  Book  I. 

196  SLID 

The  poet  afterwards  beautifully  describes  the  mode  of  [lur- 
suing  these  arch  felons  by  this  sagacious  dog;  but  the 
passage  is  too  long  for  quotation  here,  and  ought  not  to  be 
abridged.  See  more,  relative  to  the  blood-hound,  in  Scot/, 
Lai/  of  the  Last  Minstrel,  note  1 6,  Canto  L 

Sliddering,  sliding,  slipping. — Sliddery,  slippery. 

SuNGE,  to  go  creepingly  away  as  if  ashamed,  to  sneak.  Sax. 
slincan,  to  creep.  Hence  slink,  a  sneak — applied  to  any 
disreputable  person. 

Slip,  a  child's  ^ji««/b/c — also  a  quantity  of  yarn. 

Slippy,  slippery.  Not  an  abbreviation,  as  Mr.  WUbraham 
supposes,  but  a  pure  Saxon  word  ;  and,  as  shewn  by  Mr, 
Todd,  of  old  English  usage ;  notwithstanding  which  the 
great  lexicographer  chai'acterized  it  as  a  barbarous  jnovin- 
cial  term,  from  sli}}  ! 

Slir,  Sllr,  to  slip,  to  slide.  Slither  is  also  to  slide.  Chau- 
cer uses  slider. 

Sliver,  v.  to  cut  off  a  slice,  to  tear  away  a  part. 

She  that  herself  will  stiver  and  disbranch. 

Shalv.  King  Lear. 

Pope  altered  this  to  shiver,  for  which  the  Monthly  Re- 
viewers wished  to  substitute  sever. 
Sliver,  s.  a  slice.      The  word,  in  the  sense  of  a  branch  torn 

off,  occurs  in  Hamlet. 
Slocken,  to  slake,  to  quench.     Su.-Got.  slaclcna,  extinguere. 
Slogan,  the  war  cry  or  gathering  word  of  a  border  clan.    Still, 
traditionally,  remembered  in  Northumberland, 

But  ah,  the  slogaii's  fatal  bray. 

The  plundering  raid,  the  war's  alarms, 

Compell'd  him  fi'om  his  love  away. 
And  tore  him  from  his  Mary's  arms. 

Roxhy,  Rcedieatcr  Minstrel. 

SMAS  197 

Sloggering,  loose,  untidy.     "  His  stockings  are  shsgei^hig 

Sloppy,  loose,  wide.     Sax.  slopcn,  laxus. 
Slorp,  to  make  a  noise  when  supping  with  a  spoon,  to  swal- 
low ungracefully.     Teut.  s/ot-jje,  a  glutton. 
Slot,  v.  to  fasten  by  a  bolt.     "  Slni  the  door." 
Slot,  s.  a  small  bolt  or  sliding  bar.     Teut.  slot,  sera. 
Sludderment,  or  Sli  therment,  wet,  dirt,  mire. 
Slump,  to  slip  or  fall  into  a  wet  or  dirty  place. 
Slush,  any  thing  plashy ;  but  most  commonly  applied  to  snow 
in  a  state  of  liquefaction.     Su.-Got.  slask,  humor  quicun- 
que  sordidus. 
Slush,  a  reproachful  term  for  a  du"ty  person. 
Smack,  v.  to  kiss  with  a  noise. — Smack,  *.  a  loud  kiss. 

He  took 
The  bride  about  the  neck,  and  kiss'd  her  lips 
With  such  a  clamorous  smack,  that  at  the  parting 
All  the  church  echo'd — Shak.  Taming  of  the  Shrcxv. 

Smally,  little,  puny.     "  A  smally  bairn." 

Smartle,  to  waste  or  melt  away.     Su.-Got.  smaelta,  to  melt. 

Smash,  v.  to  break  in  pieces,  to  shiver. — Smash,  s.  a  crush, 
the  state  of  being  shivered,  atoms.  Gael,  smuais,  broken 
in  shivers. 

Smash,  a  kind  of  oath  among  the  pitmen  near  Newcastle. — 
Nothing  energetic  can  be  said  without  it.  "  Smash,  mar- 
row, luhere  are  yah  gaiin  tee." — "  Smash  maw  pit  sark,but 
I  ken  ivhat  aid' I  dee  .'" — "  Smash  yor  brains,  lohat  hae  yah 
won  noiv?" — "  Smash,  Geordy  man,hoiv  is't!  Eh  !  but  aw 
is  pleased  to  see  thee  J  Moo's  Kan  ?" 

Smasher,  a  small  standing  pie,  or  raised  tartlet  ;  generally 
made  of  gooseberries. — Xewcastle.  This  word  also  means 
any  thing  larger  than  another  of  the  same  sort.     It  is  like- 

198  SMEL 

wise  a  cant  name  for  a  pitman  ;  in  vvliich  I  am  told  by  an 

ingenious  friend,  we  are  to  seek  for  the  etymology  of  the 

word ;    a  smasher  being  originally  such  a  tart  as  a  pitman 

could  smash  or  eat  up  at  a  mouthful  ! 
Smelts,  the  fry  of  the  salmon;  generall}'  called  salmon-smelts 

— different  from  Sparlings. 
Smiddy,  a  blacksmitii's  shop.     Sax.  smiththa,  fabri  officina. 

Sw.  smedia. 
Smirk,  to  smile  pleasantly,  to  laugh  in  the  sleeve  or  secretly, 

but  not  satyrically.     Sax.  smcrcian,  subridere. 
SwiTTLE,  V.  to  infect.     Sax.  smittan. — Smittle,  s.  infection. 

— Smittle,  Smittlish,  a.  infectious,  contagious. 
Smock,  the  under  linen  of  a  female.     Sax.  smoc.     There  used 

to  be  frequently,  in  my  recollection,  smock  trices  among  the 

young  country  wenches  in  the  North.     The  prize,  a  fine 

Holland  chemise,  was  usually  decorated  with  ribbons.  The 

sport  is  still  continued  at  Newburn,  near  Newcastle,  on 

Ascension  Day. 
Smoke-the-Cobbler,  a  mischievous  pastime  among  children. 
Smoor,   to    smother,    to    suffocate.      Sax.    smoran.      Teut. 

Smouch,  to  salute.     An  old  word. 
Smudge,  v.  to  laugh  in  a  concealed  manner.     Germ,  schmun- 

zeln,  to  laugh  in  one's  sleeve. 
Smudge,  v.  to  burn  without  a  flame,  or  any  appearance  of  fire, 

except  smoke.     Smudge,  or  Smush,  s.  a  sulphureous  smell 

occasioned  by  smoke  and  dust,  close    suffocating   air. — 

Germ,  schmutz,  smut,  dirt. 
Snag,  to  hew  or  cut  roughly  with  an  axe.     V.  Todd's  John. 
Snail's-gallop,  a  very  slow  pace;  resembling  the  motion  of 

a  snail. 
Snap,  a  small  round  cake  of  gingerbread.  "  Nice  brandy  snaps, 

sixteen  a  penny." 

SNOT  199 

Snap,  or  Sxack-aim'Le,  a  kiiitl  of  play.     iSce  Halle  E'en. 
Snathe,  to  prune,  to  lop.     Sax.  snithaiiy  to  cut. 
Snaw,  snow.     Pure  Saxon. —  Snaw-broth,  melted  snow. 
Sneck.  s.  the  latch  or  fastening  of  a  door  or  gate.     It  is  also 

used  as  a  verb — to  sneck  the  door,  being  to  fit  it  by  a  latch. 

Tent,  snacken,  captare. 
Snock-snurled,  entangled,  much  twisteii,  curled  up  like  hard 

twined  worsted.     Snarl  is  an  old  word  for  entangle. 
Sneck-drawn,  narrow  minded,  covetous,  niggardly.     V.  Jam. 

Sned,  the  long  shank  or  handle  of  a  scythe.     Sax.  snced. 
Snell,  sharp,  keen,  piercing ;    as  a  snell  air.     Sax.  snithan, 

secare ;  or  Teut.  snel,  acer. 
Snew,  snowed.     The  old  preterite ;    used  by  Chaucer  and 

Sneeze -HORN,  or  Sneesh-horn,  a  comUiOn  sort  of  snuff-box 

made  of  a  cow's  horn.     In  Scotland  this  term  is  apphed  to 

any  snuff-box. 
Snifter,  to  snuff  up  the  nose,  to  sniff.     Su.-Got.  snyfsta. 
Snippy,  covetous.     Teut.  snipjje^i,  resecai-e. 
Snivel,  Sneavel,  to  speak  through  the  nose,  to  sniff.      Su.- 
Got.  snyfsta. 
Snob,  a  common  name  for  a  cobbler. 
Snod,  smooth,  neat,  even,  trimmed.     Sax.  snidan,  to   cut. — 

Applied  to  persons,  it  means  sly,  cunning,  demure. 
Snoke,  to  smell,  to  pry  about  cm-iously,  to  look  closely  at  any 

Snort,  to  laugh  outright. — Snorting,  laughing  out. 
Snot,  a  contemptuous  epithet  for  a  useless,  insignificant  fel- 
Snotter,  v.  to  snivel,  to  sob  or  cry.     Sax.  snytan. — Snot, 

Snotter,  s.  mucus  nasi.     Sax.  snole. 

200  SNUB 

Snub,  to  check,  to  rebuke.     Sw.  snvbba. 
SoA  !  be  quiet ! 

SoBELE,  to  thrash,  to  beat.  A  very  common  word  among  the 

Sae,  Geordy,  od  smash  my  pit  sarik  ! 
Thou'd  best  hand  thee  whisht  about  warik. 
Or  aw'll  sohUc  thee  body, 
And  myek  thee  nose  bloody, 
If  thou  sets  up  thee  gob  to  Bob  Cranky. 

Song,  Boh  Cranky'' s  ^Si:ie  Sunday 

Sock,  a  plough-share.     Fr.  soc. 

SoDDY,  SoDDENT,  heavy,  sad.     Perhaps  from  sod,  a  turf. 

Soft,  silly,  simple,  foolish. 

He  made  soft  fellows,  stark  noddies. 

Burton,  Aiiat.  of  Melancholy. 

SoNCY,  or  SoNSY,  pleasant,  agreeable,  engaging  ;  as  applied  to 
a  person's  looks.  Is  it  a  corruption  of  Fr.  sans  souci,  free 
from  care  ? 

Sonsy,  plump,  fat,  thriving — also  lucky. 

Sooty-dog,  an  opprobrious  epithet  for  a  dirty  fellow. 

Sop,  a  piece  of  bread  soaked  in  dripping  under  the  roast. 

SoKT,  a  lot,  a  parcel,  a  number.  Nares  is  mistaken  in  think- 
ing the  word  out  of  use. 

But  like  a  sort  of  sheep  dispersed  farre. 

Spenser,  Faerie  Queene. 

They  can  see  a  sort  of  traitors  here. 

S/iak,  King  Richard  II. 

Soss,  V.  to  lap  like  a  dog. — Soss,  s.  a  call  of  dogs  to  their 

Soss,  s.  a  heavy,  clumsy  fall ;  the  sound  caused  by  the  act  of 

falling.     Perhaps  a  variation  of  souse. 

SPAN  201 

Soss,  s  puddle,  any  thing  foul  or  muddy.  "  The  beer's  as 
thick  as  soss.'^ 

SoTTER,  to  boil  slowly.     Sax.  seothan,  to  seeth. 

SouR-DocKEN,  sorrel.     Rumex  acetosa. 

Sour-milk,  butter  milk.     Sw.  sur  mioelk. 

Souse,  v.  to  fall  upon,  to  fall  with  violence.  This  common 
North  country  word  is,  in  Todd's  Johnson,  derived  from 
Fr.  sous,  or  dessous,  upon.  With  deference,  I  submit  that 
it  comes  from  sus,  the  old  French  word  for,  above  or  upon, 
for  which  they  now  use  siu;  though  still  retained  in 
some  phrases  ;  as  coitrir  sus  a  quel  qtCun,  to  fall  upon  one. 
The  modern  preposition  dessus,  upon  or  above,  is  only  a 
compound  of  de  and  the  old  sus. — Souse,  s.  a  great  thump, 
a  severe  fall,  a  bloM-. 

Sow,  an  inelegant  female,  a  duty  wench.  I  forbear  to  quote 
any  illustration. 

Sowings,  oatmeal  flummery.     Sc.  sowens. 

Spancel,  a  rope  to  tie  a  cow's  hinder  legs.     A  cow-tie. 

Spang,  a  measure  by  the  hand  extended.     Spa)i. 

Spanghew,  or  Spangwhew,  to  throw  with  violence.  The 
word  is  sometimes  used  to  express  a  barbarous  operation 
on  the  toad,  to  w  hich  rustics  have  a  great  antipathy.  In 
performing  it  they  rest  one-half  of  a  long  wooden  bar  on  a 
large  stepping  stone  or  over  a  cart,  placing  the  toad  at  Its 
extremity.  An  athletic  youth,  with  a  Ktrong  club,  then 
strikes  the  unsupported  end  with  all  his  force.  The  poor 
animal,  in  consequence,  is  driven  into  the  air  to  an  im- 
mense height ;  and,  falling  to  the  gi'ound  with  accumu- 
lated velocity,  is  bruised  to  a  jelly.  Toads,  as  observed 
by  Dr.  Willan,  may  perhaps  do  some  slight  injury  in  fields 
or  gardens,  but  the  above  cruel  practice  is  directed  not  so 
much  against  tlie  animal  as  against  its  supposed  inmate ; 

202  SPAI 

for  the  clowns  imagine,  that  by  the  process  they  shall  give 

a  couji  de  grace  to  a  witch. 
Spait,  or  Spyet,  a  great  fall  of  rain,  a  torrent.     Gael,  sjie'ul, 

a  great  river  flood. 
Spales,   Spails,  Spyels,  chippings  of  wood.     Perhaps  Fr. 

spolla,  shavings.     Spall  is  a  very  old  word  in  our  language 

for  a  chip. 
Spane,  Spean,  to  wean  a  child,  to  deprive  a  creature  of  its 

mother's  milk.     Germ,  spenen.     An  old  word. 
Spang,  to  leap  with  elastic  force,  to  spring.     Germ,  spannoi, 

to  extend. 
Spang  and  Purley  Qub,  a  mode  resorted  to  by  boys,  of 

measuring  distances,  particularly  at  marbles. 
Spanker,  one  who  walks  with  quickness  and  elasticity,  a  tall 

and  active  joung  person. 
Spar,  to  dispute  angrily.     Germ,  sperren,  to  resist. 
Spar,  Spare,  to  shut,  to  close.     A  common  word  in  North. 

Sax.  sparran. 

Whan  the  stede  is  stolen,  sjmrre  the  stable  dur. 


Sparling,  the  smelt  of  the  Thames,  but  not  so  of  the  Tyne  ; 

occasionally  caught  in  the  latter  river.      Pennant  derives 

it  from  Fr,  eperlan ;  but  which  is  not  satisfactory  to  Dr. 

Spave,  Speave,  to  castrate,  to  spay.     Lat.  spadare. 
Speel,  Speil,  to  climb.     Sc.  s})elf. 
Speer,  or  Speir,  to  ask,  to  enquue.     Sax.  Spyrian,  investi- 

gare.     "  Speer  it  out  if  you  can." 
Speeder,  to  spell.     A  mere  corruption. 
Spelk,  Spell,  a  small  splinter.     Sax.  spelc. 
Spell  and  Ore,  a  game.     Dur.     Teut.  spcl,  a  play  or  sport. 

SPRE  203 

and  Germ,  knorr,  a  knot  of  wood  or  ore.  The  recreation 
is  also  called  bucksticJc  spell  and  ore  ;  the  buck  stick  (with 
which  the  ore  is  struck)  being  broad  at  an  end  like  the  but 
of  a  gun,  and  probably  derived  from  Germ,  buchse,  a  firelock, 

Spence,  an  inner  apartment,  a  country  parlour.  Meaning  a 
larder,  or  store-room,  this  is  a  very  old  word,  from  Fr. 

Spice,  gingerbread.  Perhaps  from  the  spice  used  in  season- 

Spice-cake,  a  cake  full  of  currants ;  generally  baked  on  a 
girdle.     See  Singin,  or  Singing-hinny. 

Spiddick  and  Fawcet,  a  wooden  instrument  used  as  a  sub- 
stitute for  a  cock  to  let  out  liquors.     Spigot  andfaivcet. 

Spile,  a  peg  in  a  cask  of  liquor. — Spile-hole,  the  receptacle 
for  the  same. 

Spilling  the  Salt,  an  ominous  accident  said  to  presage  some 
future  calamity,  particularly,  I  believe,  a  domestic  feud,  if  it 
fall  towards  a  person;  but  which  may  be  averted  by 
throwing  a  little  of  the  fallen  article  over  the  shoulder, 
into  the  fire.  Major  Moor  asks,  if  the  Latin  or  Greek 
classical  authors  make  any  mention  of  it  ?  Unquestion- 
ably. From  Festus,  we  learn  that  to  spill  the  salt  at  table 
was  esteemed  ominous ;  and  for  the  great  care  with 
which,  on  that  account,  a  family  salt-cellar  was  always 
kept,  we  have  the  authority  of  Horace. 

Spinny-wve,  or  Spinnv-whi,  a  game  among  young  persons  in 
Newcastle.     V.  Brand's  Pop.  Antiq.  vol.  ii  p.  305. 

Splirt,  Splurt,  to  spit  out. 

Spueckled,  speckled.     Su.-Got.  sj}recklot. 

Spree,  sport,  merriment,  a  frolic.     Fr.  esprit,  spirit,  vivacity. 

Sprent,  bespattered,  splashed  with  dirt.  Sax.  sprcngan, 
spargere.     Chaucer  uses  .ijn-eint. 

204  SPUN 

Spunk,  a  spark,  a  small  fire. 

Spunk,  mettle,  spirit,  vivacity  ;  wseA  figuratively  for,  life.  In 
the  North,  this  is  considered  a  good  and  very  expressive 
word,  though  abused  in  Todd's  John. 

Spunky,  sparkling,  fresh,  spirited. 

Spurling,  the  deep  track  of  a  coach  or  cart  wheel.  Germ. 
spiw,  a  rut ;  plural  spuren — wagenspur,  a  cai't  rut. 

Stacker,  to  stagger.     Sw.  stagra.     Chaucer  uses  stalccr. 

Staddle,  the  bottom  of  a  corn  or  hay  stack,  a  mark  left  in 
the  grass  by  the  long  continuance  of  the  hay  in  bad  wea- 
ther. Sax.  stadel,  a  foundation.  Welsh,  ysladledd,  con- 
tinuous state. 

St  A  HAN,  St  A  AN,  a  stone.     Sax.  stan. 

Staid,  steady,  sedate,  advanced  in  years. 

Staidlin,  a  part  of  a  corn  stack  left  standing. 

Staith,  Steeth,  a  place  to  lay  up  and  to  load  coals  at,  a  sort 
of  wharf.     Sax.  statli,  ripa,  littus,  static  navium. 

Stall,  Staul,  to  surfeit.     See  Staud. 

Stalwart,  stout,  strong,  hale. 

A  stalwart  tinkler  wight  was  he. 

And  wee'l  cou'd  mend  a  pot  or  pan, 

An*  deftly  JVidl  cou'd  ihrnw  a  Jlee, 
An  neatly  weave  the  willow  wan'. 

Roxhy,  Reedwater  Mindrd. 

Stammer,  to  stagger.     Isl.  stamra,  collabi. 

Stanciiil,  or  Stannel-haw  k,  the  Kestrjl    or  Windhover ; 

inhabiting  rocks  and  old  buildings.     Falco  Tinnunculus. 

Lin.     Shakspeare,  in  the  Twelfth  Night,  calls  it  stani/el. 
Stand-still,  a  stoppage,  a  cessation.     Etymology  plain. 
Stang,  v.  to  shoot  with  pain;  as  in  the  tooth-ache. — Stang, 

s.  an  acute  pain,  the  sting  of  a  bee.     Isl.  sLanga,  pungere. 

STAN  20") 

Stang,  s,  a  long  bar,  a  vvooilen  pole — any  piece  of  timber 
adapted  for  the  shaft  of -a  cart  or  carriage ;  or  lor  railing  ; 
or  for  any  other  purpose  requiring  strength  ;  such  as  the 
circular  piece  of  wood  used  by  butchers,  on  which  they 
hang  the  carcass  of  a  bullock.  Sax.  .ifoi",  vectis.  iJut. 
stang,  a  pole. — Riding  the  stang,  a  punishment  among 
the  vulgar ;  inflicted  upon  fornicators,  adulterers,  severe 
husbands,  and  such  persons  as  Ibllow  their  occupations 
during  particular  festivals  or  holidays,  or  at  prohibited 
times,  when  there  is  a  stand  or  combination  among  work- 
men. Offenders  of  this  description  are  mounted  astraddle 
on  a  long  pole,  or  s(ang,  supported  upon  the  shoulders 
of  their  companions.  On  this  painful  and  fickle  seat,  they 
are  borne  about  the  neighbom-hood,  attended  by  a  swarm 
of  children,  huzzaing  and  throwing  all  manner  of  filth. 
When  they  cannot  lay  hold  of  the  culprit  himself,  a  boy 
mounts  the  stang ;  but  he  is  unmolested,  though  attended 
with  the  same  tumultuous  cries,  if  not  with  increased 
shouts  of  acclamation.  The  proxy  proclaims,  that  it  is 
not  on  his  own  account  that  he  is  thus  treated,  but  on 
that  of  another  person  whose  crime  he  names.  I  have 
been  witness  to  processions  of  this  kind  myself.  School 
boys  are  stanged  by  the  other  scholars,  for  breaking,  what 
they  call,  the  rules  or  orders  of  the  school.  The  cere- 
mony is  also  resorted  to,  when  a  woman  has  gained  an 
improper  ascendancy  over  her  husband,  so  as  to  make  him 
bear  every  species  of  indignity.  In  this  case,  it  is  called 
"  Riding  the  stang  for  a  neighbour's  wife."  A  man  is 
placed  in  the  same  uneasy  situation  as  before  described, 
so  that  he  may  be  supposed  to  represent,  or  to  sympa- 
thize with  his  henpecked  friend,  whose  misery  he  some- 
times laments  in  doggrel  rhime,  applicable  to  the  occasion. 

206  '  STAN 

He  is  carried  through  the  whole  hamlet,  with  a  view  of 
exposing  or  shaming  the  viraginous  lady,  and  of  thus  pre- 
venting further  outrages  on  the  person  of  her  pitiable 
partner.  This  mark  of  disgrace  may  be  traced  to  very  re- 
mote times.  The  Goths  were  wont  to  erect,  what  they 
called  Nicl.sfacng,  or  the  pole  of  infamy,  with  the  most  dire 
imprecations  against  the  person  who  was  thought  to  de- 
serve the  punishment.  He,  who  was  subjected  to  this 
dishonour,  was  called  Nidmg,  or  the  infamous ;  being 
disqualified  from  ever  giving  evidence  in  any  juridical  mat- 
ter. Eric,  King  of  Norway,  was  compelled  to  fly  from 
his  dominions,  so  great  was  the  hatred  against  him,  for 
having  been  the  means  of  inflicting  this  tremendous  stigma 
on  Egill  Skallagrim,  a  celebrated  Islandic  bard. 

Stangey,  a  common  North  country  name  for  a  tailor.  Ob- 
viously from  the  power  of  the  needle. 

Stank,  to  sigh,  to  moan,  to  gasp  for  breath.  Isl.  and  Su.- 
Got.  stanka. 

8tap,  the  stave  of  a  tub.     Su.-Got.  staaf. 

Start,  the  tail,  or  handle  of  any  thing.     Sax.  steort. 

Statesman,  a  person  possessing  an  estate — whether  versed 
in  the  arts  of  government  or  not.  See  Laird,  with  which 
it  is  synonymous. 

Staud,  cloyed,  satiu-ated,  fatigued. 

Stavelling,  or  Stavering,  wandering  about  in  an  unsteady 
or  uncertain  manner ;  as  in  the  dark — stumbling. 

Stead,  Sted,  Stid,  a  place,  a  farm  house  and  offices.  Sax. 
sted.     Su.-Got.  stad,  locus,  situs.     See  Onstead. 

Steai.y-clothes,  or  Watch-webs,  a  game.  The  players 
divide  into  two  parties,  and  draw  a  line  as  the  boundary 
of  their  respective  territories.  At  an  equal  distance  from 
this  line,  each  player  deposits  his  hat  or  some  other  article 

STID  207 

of  his  dress.  Tlie  object  of  the  game  is  to  seize  and  convey 
these  singly  to  jour  own  store  from  that  of  the  enemy ; 
but,  if  you  are  unfortunately  caught  in  the  attempt,  you 
not  only  restore  the  plunder,  but  become  a  prisoner  your- 
self. This  evidently  takes  its  origin  from  the  inroads  of 
the  English  and  Scotch  :  indeed,  it  is  plainly  proved  by 
the  language  used  on  the  occasion,  which  consists,  in  a 
great  measure,  of  the  terms  of  reproach  still  connnon  among 
the  borderers. 

Stee,  or  Stev,  a  hulder.  Sax.  stceger,  gradus.  Su.-Got. 
stege,  scalas.  Chaucer  uses  steye,  to  ascend,  and  stcyers, 
for  stairs. 

Steek,  or  Steik,  to  shut,  to  close.  Teut.  sleeken.  "  Steek 
the  heck"^ — shut  the  door. 

Steepin,  very  wet.     "  A  stcephi  fall  of  rain." 

Steer,  a  three  years  old  ox.     Sax.  dyre. 

Steg,  a  gander.  Isl.  steggr,  mas  pliu-ium  ferai'um.  Applied 
ironically  to  a  person ;  as  a  stupid  xteg. 

Stell,  a  large  open  ch'ain  in  a  marsh. 

Steng.  The  pole  of  the  old  Northumbrian  drees  was  called  a 
steng.  The  post  on  which  Winter  was  gibbeted,  on  Whis- 
kershields  common — Winter's  Steng;  and  before  that  the 
place  was  called  Steng  Cross,  from  a  cross  with  a  tall  shaft. 
Steng  is  a  pure  Saxon  word. 

Stew.     In  a  sad  steiv,  in  a  state  of  great  perplexity. 

Stick,  or  Strike,  a  stand  or  combination  among  workmen  ; 
generally  in  regard  to  wages. 

Stickle,  a  hurry,  a  bustle. 

Sticky-stack,  a  game  among  young  people  in  running  up  the 
face,  or  cut  part,  of  a  hay-stack. 

Stiddy,  Stithy,  an  anvil — used  sometimes,  but  I  think  im- 
properly, for  the  smith's  shop.     Isl.  stcdi,  incus.     Stithe, 

208  STIL 

is  old  English.  Shakspeare  employs  the  word  stithy,  in 
both  senses  ;  and  he  also  uses  the  verb  to  stithy,  to  employ 
an  anvil.  Ray  has,  among  his  Northern  words,  stith,  strong, 
hard,  which  is  pure  Saxon ;  but  it  is  not  now  in  use,  that 
I  am  aware  of,  except  in  Scotland. 

Stilt,  the  handle  of  a  plough. 

Stime,  Styme,  the  most  indistinct,  or  the  faintest  form  of  any 
object — a  glimpse,  a  whit.  "  I  cannot  see  a  stime."  Welsh, 
ystum,  figure,  shape.     Grose  has  sthney,  dim-sighted. 

Stint,  v.  to  stop,  to  cease,  to  desist. 

The  pretty  wench  left  crying,  and  said,  Ay  ; — 
And  pretty  fool,  it  stinted  and  said.  Ay. 

Shak.  Rom.  and  Jul. 

Stint,  s.  grass  for  a  season,  a  right  of  pasturage.     From  stint, 

to  limit  or  restrain. 
Stirk,  Sturk,  a  young  heifer,  or  bullock.     Sax.  slyrc,  juven- 

Stob,  a  stump,  a  stake,  a  post.     Teut.  stobbe,  truncus.     Stob, 

is  also  used  metaphorically,  for  an  ignorant  stupid  fellow. 
Stob-feathers,  the  short  unfledged  feathers  that  remain  on  a 

fowl  after  it  has  been  plucked. 
Stook,  Stouk,  a  shock  of  corn,  consisting  of  twelve  sheaves. 

Ten  of  them  are  set  up  to  dry,  and  the  other  two,  which 

are  called  hoods,  are  placed  on  the  top.     Teut.  stock,  meta, 

a  heap.     Jam. 
Stoop,  Stowp,  a  post  fastened  in  the  earth.     Su.-Got.  stolpe, 

Stoor,  dust  in  motion. — Stoorv,  dusty.     Sax.  sty  ran,  tur- 

bare  movere.    Dut.  stooren,  to  disturb.     Stoor  also  means 

a  bustle ;  as  all  in  a  stoor,  all  in  a  hiuTy. 
Stoorey,  a  mixtiu-e  of  wai'in  beer  and  oatmeal  with  sugar. 

STRI  209 

Store,  estimation,  regard,  esteem. 

Storken,  to  cool,  to  stiffen.     Germ.  sLarken,  to  strengthen. 
Storm-staid,  delayed  on  a  journey  by  reason  of  a  storm. 
Stot,  to  rebound  from  the  ground,  to  strike  any  elastic  body 

so  as  to  cause  it  to  rebound.     Dut.  atidtcn,  to  bounce,  to 

rebound. — Stotting-ball,  a  rebounding  ball. 
Stot,  a  young  ox.     Su.-Got.  stut,  juvencus.     Dan.  stud,  an 

Stound,  v.  to  ache,  to  smart,  to  be  in  pain.     Isl.  styn,  inge- 

mescere. — Stound,  s.  the  sensation  or  first  impression  of 

sudden  pain,  arising  from  a  knock  or  blow. 
Stowek,  or  Dyke-stower,  a  hedge  stake.     Su.-Got.  stoer, 

Stramp,  to  tread  upon,  to  trample.    Germ,  stvampfen.    "  He 

stramjjed  upon  my  foot." 
Strandy,  restive,  passionate. 
Strang,  strong.     Pure  Saxon. 
Strapping,  tall. — Strapper,  a  large  man  or  woman. 
Stravaiging,  strolling  about;  generally  in  a  bad  sense.     Ital. 

Streamers,  the  Northern  lights.     See  Merry-dancers. 
Stree,  Strey,  straw.     Sc.  strae.     V.  Wilb.  streea. 

Ne  Ignr  the  fire  was  couched  first  with  stre. 
And  then  vv^itli  dry  stickens  clovin  athre. 

Chancer,  Knights  Tale. 

Stbeek,'  to  stretch  or  expand,  to  lay  out  a  corpse.  Sax. 
streccan,  extendere. — Streeking-board,  a  boai'd  on  which 
the  limbs  of  the  deceased  are  stretched  out  and  composed. 

Stretcher,  an  untruth  ;  a  softer  term  for  a  falsehood. 

Strickle,  an  instrument  used  in  whetting  scythes. 

Striddle,  to  straddle. — Striddle-legs,  astride. 


210  STRI 

Strip,  to  draw  the  after  milking  of  a  cow. — Strippings,  the 
last  part  of  the  milking.  The  same  as  strokings  or  after- 

Stroke,  used  in  the  sense  of  considerable.  "  A  good  stroke 
of  business."  Meaning  sway  or  influence,  it  is  an  old 

Strunt,  a  sullen  fit. — Strunty,  offended.     V.  Jam. 

Strunt,  the  tail  or  rump. — Struntv,  any  thing  short  or  con- 
tracted.    Fr.  eslrehit,  shrunk  up. 

Stub,  to  grub  up. — Stubbed,  grubbed  up ;  metaphorically, 

Studdy,  a  smith's  anvil.     See  Stiddy. 

Fling  off  their  black  duddies, 
Leave  hammers  and  studdies. 

Song,  Bonny  Geatddcrs. 

Stummer,  Stammer,  to  stumble.     Isl.  stumra. 

Stump,  a  heavy,  thick-headed  fellow. — Stumps,  legs.     "  Stir 

your  stumjis." 
Stump  and  Rump,  entirely. 
Stunsail,  a  steering  or  studding  sail. 
Sturdy,  a  disease  in  the  head  of  cattle.     Old  Fr.  cstourdi, 

Stut,  to  stutter.     An  old  word,  still  in  gene^  use. 

She  spake  somewhat  thicke, 

Her  fellowe  did  stummer  and  stut, 

But  she  was  a  foule  slut ! — Skdton. 

Sty,  a  troublesome  and  painful  swelling  on  the  eye-lid. — 
Great  relief,  if  not  a  perfect  cm'e,  is  supposed  to  be  effected 
by  the  application  of  a  wedding  ring,  nine  times  repeated. 
The  idea  is  ancient,  however  questionable  the  benefit. 

SWAM  21 1 

Stvth,  foul  air ;  a  black  suffocating  damp  in  a  colliery. 

To  cure  this  ill 

A  philosophic  art  is  us'd  to  drain 

The  foul  imprison'd  air,  and  in  its  place 

Purer  convey. — Jagd's  Edgehill. 

SuBTEnRANEOus  PASSAGES.  Near  every  ancient  castle,  cathe- 
dral, abbey,  or  hall,  the  common  people  have  tales  of  under- 
ground (vaulted)  roads,  sometimes  to  great  distances  ;  such 
as  from  Tynemouth  to  Carlisle,  from  Newcastle  to  Tyne- 
mouth,  from  Hexham  to  Alnwick  Castle,  from  Durham 
Abbej'  to  various  places. 

SuCKEN,  an  exclusive  privilege  of  grinding,  or  other  juris- 
diction attached  to  a  mill ;  the  dues  paid  to  the  miller. — 
Sax.  5oc«e.  Sii.-Got.  .vo/iH.  This  ancient  word  is  still  used 
in  leases  from  the  Bishop  of  Durham.  See  thirlage,  a  ser- 
vitude or  tenure  in  Scotland,  something  similar,  in  Tom- 
lins'  Law  Diet. 

SuMMAT,  SuMMET,  somcwhat,  something. 

SuiMMER-GoosE,  the  vulgar  name  for  Gossamer  ;  which  see. 

Sump,  Sumph,  a  bog,  a  swamp,  a  miry  pool.  Dan.  sump. — 
SuMPY,  mu\y,  dirty.  Dan.  sjivipig. — Sumph,  an  epithet  for 
a  dirty  person. 

Sun-dance.  It  was  formerly  a  custom  to  rise  early  on  Easter 
Sunday,  and  to  go  into  the  fields  to  see  the  sun  dance, 
which,  according  to  ancient  tradition,  it  always  does  on 
this  day.  The  practice,  I  have  some  reason  to  believe,  is 
not  yet  entirely  laid  aside. 

SuRE-A3-A-GUN,  absolutely  certain — a  common  colloquial  com- 

SwAD,  a  peasecod,  the  husk  of  any  kind  of  pulse.  /'.  Skin- 

SwAiiisn,  SwEAMisn,  shy,  bashful,  s(|ucann'sh. 

212  SWAN 

SwAXKV,  a  strappiiifr  young  country-man. 

Swap,  to  exchange,  to  barter.     IsKs/rz/j/ft,  nuitare.     J'.  Jam. 

SwAPE,  a  long  oar  used  in  working  a  coal  keel  on  the  Tyne ; 

that  at  the  stern  acting  as  a  rudder.     Swappe,  to  strike 

or  throw  down  with  violence,  similar  to  the  action  of  using 

the  sivape,  occurs  in  Chaucer.     Sax.  swapan,  to   sweep. 

Isl.  siveipn,  percutere. 
Swarm,  to  climb  a  tree  by  the  muscular  action  of  the  arms, 

thighs,  and  legs. 
SwARN,  to  warrant.     "  Swam  ye,  he'll  come." 
SwARTH,  Swath,  the  ghost  or  apparition  of  a  person,  about  to 

die.     Derived  by  Ray  from  Sax.  siueart,  black,  dark,  pale, 

wan.     See  Waff. 
Swatch,  v.  to  swathe,  to  swaddle.     Sax,  swedan,  to  bind. 
Swatch,  s.  a  pattern,  a  sample.    V.  Ray,  swache. 
SwATTLE,  to  consume,  to  waste ;   generally  fluids. 
Su'Eal,  v.  to  melt,  to  waste  or  blaze,  to  burn  away  rapidly;  as 

a  candle  when  exposed  to  the  wind.    Sax.  swelan,  to  burn. 

An  old  English  word. — Sweal,  s.  a  blaze,  an  enlarged 

SwEARLE,  or  SwEKVEL-EYE,  EH  eye  with  a  particular  cast. 

SWEDDLE,  to  swell. SwEDDLED,  puffed  OUt. 

SvvEEL,  a  sudden  swell  or  burst  of  laughter. 

Sweeties,  sweetmeats  or  confections  for  children. 

SwELT,  or  Swelter,  to  broil,  to  swoon,  to  faint. — Swelted, 
or  Sweltered,  overcome  with  heat  and  perspiration. 
Sax.  swcltan,  to  die. 

SwERLB,  to  roll  from  side  to  side  in  walking.  It  is  also  ap- 
plied to  express  the  gliding  of  a  stream  of  water.  A  small 
runner  in  Sandgate,  Newcastle,  was  anciently  called  the 
Swede  ;  now  corrupted  into  the  Squirrel. 

SwEV,  to  poise,  to  swing.  Isl.  siveigia,  inclinare.  See  Hikey 
and  Shuggey-shew. 

SYLE  213 

Swill,  a  round  basket  of  wicker  work  ;  generally  carried  on 
the  head.  Hence  its  name  Kcyside  iimhrdla,  when  re- 
versed in  wet  weather. 

SwiLLiNGS,  washings  of  vessels — hog-wash.  Sax.  swilgctn,  to 
drink  largely,  to  swUl. 

Swinge,  to  chastise,  to  beat  soundly.  Sax.  swingan,  flagel- 
lare,  castigare. 

Swingle-tree,  a  moveable  piece  of  wood  to  which  the  traces 
of  husbandry  horses  are  fastened.  Teut.  sivinghe/en,  vi- 

SwiNKED,  oppresed,  vexed,  fatigued.  Sax.  swincan,  labrare, 

Swipe,  to  drink  off  to  the  very  bottom. 

SwiPPER,  nimble,  quick.     Sax.  swipan,  cito  agere. 

SvviRT,  a  syringe.     From  squirt.     See  Scooter. 

SwiRTLE,  to  proceed  with  a  moving  motion  like  an  eel.  Su. 
Got.  swarf wa,  circumagere. 

Switch,  to  walk  with  a  light  quick  step,  to  go  with  a  sort  of 
jerk.     Su.-Got.  swiga,  loco  cedere. 

Sword-dance,  an  ancient  Christmas  custom  ;  still  continued 
in  many  parts  of  the  North.  It  is  fully  described  in 
Brand's  Pop.  Antiq.  vol.  i.  p.  396  &  seq.  Connected 
with  this  subject,  see  Mr.  Donee's  interesting  dissertation 
on  the  ancient  English  Morris  Dance,  in  the  2d  vol.  of 
his  Illustrations  of  Shakspeare. 

SwuppLE,  SooPLE,  or  SouPEL,  the  upper  joint  of  a  flail.  Fr. 
souple  ;  or  Isl.  siueipa,  to  strike. 

Syles,  the  principal  rafters  of  a  house. 

214  TAAD 


Taad,  Tved,  a  toad.  Sax.  tade. — Tved-hed,  the  seed, 
or  spawn  of  toads  ;  generally  seen  in  a  mass  lilce  a  bunch  of 
grapes.   V.  Bewick's  ^Esop,  p.  290. 

Tack,  or  Tyak,  to  take. — Tyak-efter,  to  imitate  or  resemble. 
"  The  bairns  tyak  efter  their  dad." — Tyak-up,  to  reform. 
"  He'll  tyak  up"  said  of  an  extravagant,  thoughtless  per- 
son likely  to  reform. 

Taffy,  a  sort  of  candy  made  of  treacle ;  often  by  a  company 
of  young  people  in  an  evening  by  way  of  amusement — 
called  joining  for  taffy.     V.  Wilb. 

Tailor's  Mense,  a  small  portion  left  by  way  of  good  manners. 
In  some  parts  of  the  North  it  is  the  custom  for  the  village 
tailor  to  work  at  his  customer's  house,  and  to  partake  of 
the  hospitality  of  the  family  board.  On  these  occasions 
the  best  fare  is  invariably  provided ;  at  least  such  was  the 
case  when  I  was  a  boy ;  and  the  tailor  to  shew  that  he 
has  had  enongh,  generally  leaves  a  little  on  his  plate,  which 
is  called  tailor\s  mense.  This  term  is  also  given  to  cut- 
tings sent  home  by  such  of  this  unfortunate  fraternity, 
against  whom  the  old  imputation  of  loving  too  much  cab- 
bage does  not  apply. 

Taistrel,  Testkil,  a  mischievous,  ill  behaved  boy — when  ap- 
plied to  an  adult,  an  expression  of  great  contempt,  equi- 
valent to  scoundrel. 

Take-off,  to  banter,  to  jeer. 

Tan,  to  beat.     "  I'll  tan  yor  hide." 

Tane,  T'ax,  the  one.     "  G'C  me  fan  or  tofher." 

Tank,  a  piece  of  deep  water,  natural  as' well  as  artificial. 

Tantrums,  high  airs,  a  display  of  ill  humour.  "  She's  in  her 

TEEM  215 

Tapfv-lappy,  as  hard  as  you  can ;  applied  to  running. 

Tarn,  a  pool  ou  a  mountain.     Isl.  I'mdi,  stagnuui. 

Tatee,  a  potatoe.  V.  Sulf.  Words,  taters  ;  and  Nares'  Gloss. 
potatoes. — Tatee-bogle,  a  scarecrow. — Tatee-beatment, 
a  measure.     Kewc. 

Tatee  and  Point,  a  piece  of  fat  meat  said  to  be  suspended 
over  the  family  board — nobody  knows  why,  and  equiva- 
lent to,  nobody  knows  what. 

Tathy-grass,  short  grass  that  has  no  seed,  refuse  grass,  old 
and  new  mixed,  the  produce  under  trees  or  in  old  pastures 
not  eaten  by  cattle.     Perhaps,  tufty  grass. 

Tatter-wallops,  ragged  clothes  fluttering  in  the  wind. 

Taving,  irregular  motion ;  picking  the  bed-clothes  in  febrile 
delirium.     Will  an. 

Tawm,  Tam,  a  fishing  line.     "  A  lang  twine  tarn." 

Taws,  a  pair  of  taws,  a  leather  strap  used  by  schoolmasters 
for  chastising  children.     Isl.  taug,  lorum. 

Taylior,  Teaylear,  a  tailor.  Old  Eng.  talyoivre.  See  Tai- 
lor's MENSE. 

Teangs,  Tyengs,  a  pair  of  tongs.  Sax.  tangan,  forcipes. 
"  Tyeng  leg'd  Dickr 

Tearan,  tearing.  A  tearan  felloiv  is  a  rough,  hot  headed 
person,  who  drives  every  thing  before  him,  regardless  of 
danger  or  of  consequences. 

Tedding,  applied  to  the  dressing  of  hair  and  flax,  as  well  as 
to  the  spreading  of  hay. 

Tee,  or  Tie,  a  hau'-rope  with  which  to  shackle  cows  in  milk- 
ing.    Cow-tie, 

Teem,  to  pour  out  of  one  vessel  into  another.  Isl.  taenia,  to 
empty.     "  Teem  out  the  tea  hinnyr 

Teeming-woman,  one  who  is  more  prolific  than  every  loving 
lord  considers  indispensably  necessary  to  his  happiness. 
Sax.  team-full,  prole  planus,  foecundus. 

216  TEEN 

Teen,  s.  sorrow,  injury.  An  old  word,  used  by  Spenser  and 
Shakspeare. — Teen.  a.  angry.     V.  Lye,  teon. 

Teethy,  cross,  fretful,  peevish ;  generally  spoken  of  children. 
V.  Todd's  John,  tec/ii/. 

Tell,  to  count,  to  reckon.  Sax.  telan.  Moor  observes,  that 
the  Tellers  of  the  Exchequer  retain  the  name ;  though 
not,  perhaps,  the  fact  or  practice.  "  He  cannot  tell  to 

Tell'd,  told.     A  common  corruption.     "  Aw  ^e>//'(f  him  on't." 

Temse,  v.  and  s.     See  Timse. 

Th,  frequently  changed  into  D ;  as  father,  fade?- ;  mother, 
vwder ;   Rothbur}',  Rodbiiry. 

Thack,  Theak,  thatch ;  both  as  veii)  and  substantive.  Sax. 
thaccan,  to  cover ;  thac,  theec,  thatch.  Chaucer  uses 

Thatadonnet,  a  good  for  nought,  the  devil.  Is  it,  that 
"  adonnc"  (Fr.)  abandoned  one  ? 

Thauf,  Thauf-cake,  a  cake  without  yeast  or  any  other  fer- 
menting substance.  Probably  as  conjectured  by  an  inge- 
nious friend,  from  Sax.  thearfan,  opus  habere,  necesse  ha- 
bere— necessity  cake,  or  cake  made  in  urgent  haste,  as 
what  used  to  be  called  soldier's  bread  at  the  time  when  sol- 
diers were  quartered,  during  marches,  on  private  families. 
But  see  Todd's  John,  therf-bread. 

Thick,  intimate.  "  They  are  very  thick  just  now,"  i.  e.  they 
are  very  familiar.  "  We  are  not  thic/c  at  all  at  present" — 
equivalent  to  not  being  on  friendly  terms. 

Thief  and  Reever-bell,  the  name  given  to  the  tolling  of  the 
great  bell  of  Saint  Nicholas,  Newcastle,  which  is  rung  at 
8  o'clock  of  the  evening  preceding  every  fair — as  a  sort  of 
invitation  to  all  rogues  and  thieves  so  enter  that  good  town. 
Kcever,  means  robber ;  from  Sax.  reafcre. 

THIR  217 

Thingembobs,  nameless  trifles.  Thingembob,  is  also  a  vulgar 
substitution  of  a  person's  name  when  it  is  not  immediately 

TiHNK-SHAME,  to  feel  abashed,  to  have  a  sense  of  shame. 

Thirl,  to  pierce,  to  perforate.  Sax.  thirlian.  A  word  used  by 

This-en,  and  That-en,  in  this  manner  and  in  that. 

Thivel,  a  smooth  stick,  used  for  various  purposes  of  domes- 
tic economy.  Sax.  thvfel,  a  stem  or  stalk.  "  He's  a  qtieer 
stick  to  make  a  thivel  of" — said  of  an  unsteady,  wayward 

Thole,  to  wait  awhile.     Su.-Got.  tola,  expectare. 

Thorough-go-mmble,  a  diarrhoea;  the  same  as  Teezev- 
Weezy.     This  loose  sort  of  jargon  abounds  in  the  North. 

Thou's  like,  you  must.     "  ThoiCs  like  to  come." 

Thraxg,  v.  to  press,  to  thrust,  to  squeeze.  Sax.  thringan. — 
Chaucer  uses  thring,  a  pronunciation  still  retained  in  some 
parts  of  Yorkshire. 

Thrang,  s.  a  crowd,  a  throng.     Pure  Saxon. 

Thrang,  a.  much  engaged,  busily  employed. 

Thrave,  Threave,  a  certain  number  of  sheaves  of  corn  ;  ge- 
nerally, I  believe,  twenty  four — a  quantity  of  straw.  Sax. 

Threap,  to  persist  vehemently,  to  aver  pertinaciously  in  reply 
to  denial.     Sax  threapian,  redarguere. 

Itt's  not  for  a  man  with  a  woman  to  thrcajpe. 
Unless  he  first  give  o'er  the  plea. 

Ancient  Version  of,  Take  thy  old  Cloak 

ahoiit  tlicc. 

Thrif  or  Thrift-box,  an  earthen  pot  or  box  in  which  money 
is  kept  by  young  persons, 

E  e 

218  THRO 

Throuden,  fat,  well  grown,  in  good  case. 

Thropple,  the  windpipe,  the  throat.    "  A  bull's  Ihrofplcr 

Throwing-the-Stocking,  an  odd  sort  of  love  divination,  on 
the  first  evening  of  a  wedding.  After  the  bride  has  retired, 
and  while  she  is  undressing,  she  delivers  one  of  her  stock- 
ings to  a  female  attendant,  who  throws  it  at  random  among 
the  company  assembled  on  this  festive  occasion.  The  per- 
son on  whom  it  happens  to  alight  will,  it  is  supposed,  be  the 
next  to  enter  into  the  happy  state.  Another,  and  more 
curious,  though  perhaps  now  obsolete  mode,  was  for  the 
guests  invited  to  repair  to  the  bridal  chamber,  where  it  was 
customary  for  the  happy  pair  to  sit  up  in  bed,  in  full  dress, 
exclusive  of  their  shoes  and  stockings.  One  of  the  bride's 
maids  then  took  the  bridegroom's  stocking  ;  and,  standing 
at  the  bottom  of  the  bed  with  her  back  towards  it,  threw 
the  stocking  with  the  left  hand  over  the  right  shoulder, 
aiming  at  the  face  of  the  bridegroom.  Tins  was  done  by  all 
the  females  in  rotation.  When  any  of  them  were  so  fortu- 
nate as  to  hit  the  object,  it  was  a  sign  that  they  were  soon 
to  be  married.  The  bride's  stocking  was  thrown  by  tlie 
young  men  at  the  bride  in  like  manner;  from  which  a  simi- 
lar prognostic  was  taken. 

Thruff-stone,  a  tomb  stone.     Sax.  thruh.     V.  Lye. 

Thrusty,  thii-sty.     A  word  used  by  Chaucer. 

Thud,  the  noise  of  a  fall,  a  stroke  causing  a  blunt  and  hollow 
sound.     Sax.  thoden,  turbo. 

Thumping,  great,  huge ;  as  a  thumping  bairn — also  notorious  ; 
as  a  thumjxing  lie. 

Thunner,  thunder.     Wilb.  has  thunna,  s.  and  v. 

Thur,  these.     Isl.  theyr,  illi ;  thaer,  illas. 

Thwaite,  a  level  pasture  field.     V.  Todd's  John. 

TiCE,  to  cnlicc.     Old  English,  tijce. 

TINK  319 

TiD,  Mid,  Mizzerav,  Carling,  Palm,  Paste-egg-day,  the 
last  six  Sundays  in  Lent.     The  first  has  no  name. 

Tie-pot,  or  Tve-top,  a  garland. 

TiFFV-TAFFV,  a  difficult  piece  of  work. 

TiFLE,  Tyfell,  to  entangle,  to  mix  and  knot  threads  together, 
to  ruffle.     V.  Jam.  tuffle. 

Tift,  a  fit  of  anger,  or  rather  the  act  of  quarrelling. — Tifty,  ill 
natured,  petulant. 

Tig,  a  slight  touch  ;  as  a  mode  of  salutation — a  play  among 
children,  on  separating  for  the  night,  in  which  every  one 
endeavours  to  get  the  last  touch  ;  called  also,  last  bat. 

Tike  or  Tyke,  a  person  of  bad  character,  a  blunt  or  vulgar 
fellow.     Also  a  name  for  a  dog. 
If  you  can  like, 
A  Yorkshire  tike Carey,  Wonder,  ^c. 

Till,  to.     Mr.  Todd  has  shewn  it  to  be  old. 

Tiller,  to  send  out  shoots,  as  wheat. — Dur.     Germ,  theilen, 

to  separate  into  parts. 
TiMERSOME,  TiMMERsoME,  feai'ful.     Timorous. 
Timwer,  timber,     Sw.  timmer.     "  A  ship  load  of  timmer." 
TiMSE,  V.  to  sift. — TiMSE,  s.  a  sieve.     Dut.  teems,     Fr.  tamis. 
Tine,  to  shut,  to  inclose.     Sax.  tynan,  claudere. 
TiNG-TOiVG,  the  little  bell  of  a  church.     Fr.  tintouin,  a  tingling ; 

or  Teut.  tinghe-tanghen,  tintinare. 
Tinkler,  a  tinker.     The  celebrateil  Wull  Allen  was  for  many 

years  the  king  of  the  tinklers  in  the  North.     He  had  a  son, 

not  less   celebrated — Jamie  Allen,   the  Northumberland 


Nae  mair  he'll  scan  wi'  anxious  eye 

The  sandy  shores  of  winding  Reed, 

Nae  mair  he'll  tempt  the  finny  fry, 

The  King  o'  Tinklers,  Allen's  dead  ! 

Roxhij,  Rccdwatcr  Minstrel. 

220  TIPP 

Tippy,  smart,  fine.     "  Tippy  Boh."" 

TiRL,  to  make  a  slight  scratching  noise ;    to  turn  over  the 

leaves  of  a  book  quickly. 
TiTE,  soon,  easily,  well. — Titter,  sooner,  rather.     See  As- 


TiTLiKG,  a  small  bird  attendant  on  the  cuckoo. 

Tiv,  to. — Tiv-a-Tee,  just  the  thing. 

Toad-bit,  a  disease  among  cattle,  absurdly  imputed  to  the 
poison  of  toads ;  and  against  which  hisf ration  by  need-fire 
is  employed.  Dr.  Willan  mentions  a  recent  instance  of 
the  practice,  as  occurring  near  Sedbergh. 

ToAD-UNDER-A-HARROw,  the  Comparative  situation  of  a  poor 
fellow,  whose  wife,  not  satisfied  with  the  mere  hen-peck- 
ing of  her  helpmate,  takes  care  that  all  the  world  shall  wit- 
ness the  indignities  she  puts  upon  him.  The  expression 
is  also  applied  to  any  other  similar,  if  such  there  be,  state 
of  misery. 

ToDLE  or  Toddle,  to  walk,  to  saunter  about,  "  Toiling 
hame"     Germ.  ti-oUeln,  to  trundle  along. 

Tommy,  a  little  loaf.     "  A  soldier  s  tommy." 

Too,  shut,  close.  "  Put  the  door  too?"—"  It  is  too."  Dut. 
toe.     Is  de  deur  toe  ? 

TooFALL,  TwoFALL,  or  Teefall,  a  small  building  adjoining 
to,  and  with  the  roof  resting  on  the  wall  of  a  larger  one. — 
This  name  is  also  given  to  a  small  shed  at  the  end  of  a 
farm  house,  in  which  are  usually  placed  implements  of  agri- 
culture. In  the  latter  sense,  however,  it  is  often  pro- 
nounced Touffa.     Teut.  toe-vallen,  adjungere  se. 

TooM,  or  TuAM.  Dan.  tomme,  to  empty.  "  A  loom  purse." — 
"  A  tuam  cart." 

ToozLE,  to  pull  about ;  especially  applied  to  any  rough  dal- 
liance with  a  female. 

TRAS  221 

Top,  good,  excellent. — Topper,  any  thing  superior — a  clever, 
or  extraordinary  person ;  but  generally  in  an  ironical 

TopsMAN,  the  head  man  or  manager,  the  chief  hind  or  bailiftl 

ToRious,  notorious.     "  A  ^iorious  liar  that." 

ToRsiiT,  TuRMiT,  a  turnip. 

Tosh,  a  projecting  or  unseemly  tooth — a  tusk. 

TossiCATED,  perplexed  ;  as  if  intoxicated. 

Tote,  the  whole.  "  The  ivhole  tolc."  A  common  pleonasm. 
Lat.  totus. 

ToTEY,  bad  tempered.     "  A  totey  body." 

ToTHER,  TuTHER,  the  Other.     See  Tane. 

Tough,  Teugh,  tedious,  difficult.  "  A  tough  journey." — 
"  Teugh  ivarJi."  Apparently,  the  original  sense  of  the 

TowGHER,  a  portion  or  dowry,  dower.  Cumh.  Toher,  in 
other  places,  means  the  same.     V.  Jam.  tocher. 

TowLiNG,  a  mischievous  amusement  among  the  boys  in  New- 
castle, during  the  evenings  of  the  horse-fairs.  It  consists 
of  whipping  up  and  down  the  different  "  choice  tit  bits" 
shewn  on  those  occasions.  From  the  enquiries  I  have 
made,  I  find  it  has  been  practised  from  time  immemorial. 

Tram,  a  small  sledge. 

Tramp,  a  mechanic  travelling  from  place  to  place  in  search  of 

Trampers,  beggars,  who  traverse  extensive  tracts  of  country, 
soliciting  from  door  to  door. 

Translators,  cobblers  who  buy  old  boots  and  shoes  and  make 
them  up  anew  for  sale.  The  Castle  Garth,  in  Newcastle, 
is  the  Grand  Emporium  of  this  learned  and  gentle  craft. 

Transmogrified,  transformed,  metamorphosed. 

Trash,  "  to  trample  on  in  a  careless  manner,"  Todd's  John. 
It  is  rather,  to  tramp  about  with  fatigue. 

223  TRIG 

Tricky,  artful,  cunning.     Fvll  of  tricks. 

Trig,  v.  to  fill,  to  stuff. — Trig,  a.  full. 

Trig,  neat,  trim ;  or  rather  tricked  out,  or  what  is  called^we. 

Trim,  to  chastise,  to  beat  soundl}'.     "  I'll  trim  your  jacket." 

Trippit  and  Coit,  a  game  similar  to  spell  and  ore.  Newc. 
Called  Trippit  and  Rack  in  parts  of  North.  The  trippit 
is  a  small  piece  of  wood  obtusely  pointed.  See  Spell 
AND  Ore. 

Trist,  Tryst,  a  fair  for  black  cattle,  horses,  sheep,  &c.  Long 
Framlington  trist,  Felton  tryst.  North.  Sc.  tryst,  an 
appointment  to  meet.     V.  Jam. 

Trod,  a  foot  path  through  a  field.     Isl.  trod. 

Trollibags,  tripe.     V.  Suft".  Words,  trullibzibs. 

Trones,  a  steel  yard.     Isl.  trana,  grus. 

Trumph,  a  trump  at  cards.     Common  among  the  v'ulgar. 

TuBBER,  a  cooper.     A  maker  of  tubs. 

Ti  E,  to  labour  long  and  patientl)',  to  fatigue  by  repeated  or 
continued  exertion.  Fr.  titer,  se  tner,  originally  to  kill ; 
but  used  also  for,  to  fatigue  or  weary.  //  se  tue,  he  wea- 
ries himself;  or,  in  North  country  language,  he  tiies  him- 
self. "  Tuing  on" — toiling  away.  "  A  tuing  life" — a  la- 
borious life.  "  A  tiling  soul" — a  hard  working  person. 
"  Sare  tues" — great  difficulty  in  accomplishing  any  thing. 

TuEL,  a  species  of  bantering ;  or  rather  a  tendency  to  squab- 
ble accompanied  with  it — any  troublesome  intermeddling. 
"  Dinna  haud  me  sic  a  tuel." 

Tug,  to  rob,  to  destroy.     "  To  tug  a  nest." 

Ti'iFFiT,  or  Tewfet,  the  lapwing.     See  Peez-weep. 

TuM,  to  separate  or  card  wool. 

Tup,  s.  a  ram. — Tup,  v.  to  give  the  ram.  Shakspeare,  in 
Othello,  uses  the  verb  in  a  more  extended  sense ;  but  the 
passage  cannot  well  be  quoted. 

UNCA  223 

TussKL,  or  Tussle,  a  struggle,  a  contest. 

Twang,  a  quick  pull,  a  tweak — also  pain.     V.  Moor. 

TwATTLE,  to  pat,  to   make  much   of,  to  fondle.     See  Br- 

TWEA,  TWEE,  two.      SaX.  twO. TwEASOME,   TwosoME,  two  in 

TwEA-FACED,  deccitful.     Sax.  twe-feald,  duplex. 
Twill,  a  quill ;  either  for  a  pen,  or  on  which  to  wind  yarn. — 

V.  Ray. 
Twilt,  a  quilt  or  bed  cover.     V.  Todd's  John,  to  twill. 
Twine,  to  cry. — Twiny,  fretful,  uneasy. 
TwiNTER,  a  beast  of  two  winters  old.     Sax.  twy-winter,  duos 

annos  natus. 
TwiTCH-BELL,  the  earwig. 
Twitter,  to  tremble,  to  be  in  a  state  of  uneasiness.     Germ. 

zittern,  to  shiver  or  quake. 


Ug,  to  feel  abhorrence  at. — UcsoaiE,  disgusting,  exciting  r.b- 
hoiTence. — Xorth. 

U'fli — H'm,  or  Umhim,  an  indifferent  careless  manner  of  as- 
senting to  what  is  said ;  pronounced  with  the  mouth  shut, 
the  last  syllable  short :  very  common  in  Newcastle.  A 
literary  friend  suggests  a  derivation  from  umpli,  ascribed 
satirically  to  the  Society  of  Friends. 

Un,  one — referring  to  an  individual.     "  Hes  a  bad  un.'^ 

Unaccountable,  s.  a  strange  character ;  an  unpromising  per- 

Uncannv,  giddy,  careless,  imprudent.  It  is  also  applied  by 
the  superstitious  to  one  supposed  to  possess  supernatural 
influence.  Sc.  no  canny, — Uncannily,  unthinkingly, 

224        >  UNDE 

Undercumstand,  to  understand.     A  mere  vulgar  change. 

Undight,  undressed,  undecked.     V.  Todd's  John. 

Unfrem'd,  unkind.     See  Frem'd. 

Ungear,  to  unharness.     '*  Ungear  the  yohey 

Unhonest,  dishonourable,  dishonest.  Stated  in  Todd's  John, 
to  be  obsolete ;  but  it  is  not  so  in  the  North. 

Unket,  Unkid,  strange,  unusual.  Sax.  imcuth,  alienus. — Un- 
KETS,  Unkids,  news. 

Unlicked-cub,  an  ignorant,  unpolished  youth. 

U^'MACKLY,  ill-shapen,  of  a  clumsy  appearance. 

Unpossible,  for  impossible.  Not  in  Johnson  but  admitted  by 
Mr  Todd ;  and  well  authorized.  The  word  is  frequent 
with  the  vulgar  in  the  North. 

Unrid,  to  rid.  Here  the  particle  is  of  no  force. — Unrip,  a 
common  word  in  the  North — authorized  by  some  of  our 
best  writers — is  similarly  circumstanced. 

Unsneck,  to  lift  a  latch  ;  as  of  a  door. 

Unsoncy,  Unsonsy,  careless,  luckless,  unpleasant,  disagree- 
able.    See  SoNCY. 

Upbraid,  to  rise  on  the  stomach,  as  well  as  to  reproach. 

Upcast,  v.  to  upbraid. — Upcast,  s.  a  taunt,  reproach. 

Upcasting,  a  rising  of  the  clouds  above  the  horizon,  especi- 
ally as  threatening  rain. 

Uphad,  Uphaud,  to  warrant  against  defects.     Uphohl. 

Upinsii,  a  sort  of  cant  word  for  understanding. 

Upsides,  quits.  To  be  upsides  with  any  one,  is  to  threaten 
vengeance  for  an  injury  or  affront.     Upwith,  equal. 

Urchin,  a  hedge-hog.  Chaucer  uses  urchon.  V.  Nares' 



Vamper,  to  vapour  or  swagger,  to  make  an  ostentatious  ap- 
pearance.    Welsh,  gwemp,  splendid. 

Vardie,  opinion,  judgment.     Perhaps  a  corruption  of  verdict. 

Varment,  Verjient,  vermin — also  a  term  of  reproach,  par- 
ticularly to  a  child. 

Varra,  Varry,  Vurry,  very. 

Vennel,  a  sewer.  Probably  from  kennel,  an  open  water  course. 

Ventersome,  Venturesome,  rash,  adventurous. 

Verter,  a  common  corruption  of  virtue. 

Vievvlv,  pleasant  to  the  sight,  striking  to  the  eye,  handsome. 

Vine-pencil,  a  black  lead  pencil. 

Virgin's  Garland.  Many  country  churches  in  the  North 
are  adorned  with  these  garlands ;  in  token,  says  Bourne,  of 
esteem  and  love,  and  as  an  emblem  of  reward  in  the  hea- 
venly Church.  They  are  made  of  variegated  colom'ed 
paper,  representing  flowers,  fastened  to  small  sticks  cros- 
sing each  other  at  the  top,  and  fixed  at  the  bottom  by  a 
circular  hoop.  From  the  centre  is  suspended  the  form  of 
a  woman's  glove  cut  in  white  paper,  on  which  the  name 
and  age  of  the  deceased  ai"e  sometunes  written. 
To  her  sweet  mem'ry  flow'ry  Garlands  strung, 
On  her  now  empty  seat  aloft  were  hung. — Gay. 

VoKY,  VoKEY,  moist,  juicy.     WoMe  occui's  in  Peirs  Plough- 


Wabble,  to  move  easily,  to  reel,  to  wave  ;    as  growing  corn 
on  a  windy  day.     Sec  Waffle. 


me  WAD 

Wad,  black  lead. — Cumb.     Ptu'e  Saxon.     "  A  wad  jiencil." 

Wad,  woad  used  by  dyers.     Sax.  ivad.     "  As  blue  as  ivadJ'' 

Wad,  would.  "  He  wad,  at  wad  he" — he  would,  that  lie 

Waden,  Wauden,  young  and  active — vigorous  in  limb.  "  A 
■waden  lad." 

Wadler-wife,  the  keeper  of  a  register  office  for  servants.-^ 

Wae  me  !  or  Wae's  me  !  an  exclamation  of  sorrow,  equiva- 
lent to  woe  is  me.     Sax.  wa  is  me. 

Waff,  Waith,  Wraith,  an  apparition  in  the  exact  resem- 
blance of  a  person,  supposed  to  be  seen  just  before  or  soon 
after  death.  It  may  be  from  the  airy  form  of  the  object ; 
a  waft  or  transient  view  being  called  a  waff;  but  see  Jam. 
wraith.  I  have  conversed  with  persons  who  have  gravely 
and  unequivocally  asserted  that  they  have  seen  these  spec- 
tral appearances  of  their  deceased  friends  and  relations. 

Waffle,  to  wave,  to  fluctuate.     Sax.  ivafian,  vacillare. 

Wag,  to  beckon  with  the  hand.     "  Le€s  wag  on  him." 

Wag-at-the-Waw,  Wagger,  a  cheap  wooden  German  clock. 
Perhaps  from  the  pendulum  being  exposed ;  or,  provinci- 
ally,  seen  luagging  against  the  wall. 

Wage,  pay  for  service.  Both  Johnson  and  Nares  say,  used 
only  in  the  plural.  In  the  North,  however,  the  singular 
is  in  common  use.     "  JVhafs  your  wagef'' 

Waifinger,  an  estray.     Law  Lat.  waivium. 

Wairsh,  Wearsh,  thin,  watery,  weak,  insipid.  It  is  also  used 
to  express  a  griping  in  the  bowels,  V.  Todd's  John. 

Wait,  wot.     Sax.  wat,  from  wilan. 

Waiter,  Waater,  water.     Sax.  wceter. 

Waiter,  or  Water-brash,  a  disease  in  the  stomach.  Per- 
haps from  the  bursting  or  discharge  of  aqueous  himiour. 

WALL  227 

Waits,  musicians  who  play  by  night  in  the  streets  about  the 
time  of  Ciiristmas  and  the  new  year ;  originally  a  town- 
band  of  musicians.  One  of  the  old  towers,  in  Newcastle, 
was  formerly  called  the  waits'  tower,  and  was  the  place  of 
their  meeting.  Their  playing  to  Oliver  Cromwell,  while 
that  extraordinary  character  was  entertained  at  dinner,  on 
his  route  to  or  from  Scotland,  is  traditionally  remembered. 
The  term  is  apparently  from  Mce.-Got.  luahts,  vigilia,  ex- 
cubiae ;  these  waits  being  anciently  viewed  as  a  sort  of 

Wake,  v.  to  watch  by  a  corpse,  to  sit  up  with  a  person  all 
night.     See  Lake-wake. 

Wake,  s.  a  country  feast,  a  rural  fair.  V.  Hutchinson's  His- 
tory of  North,  vol.  ii.  p.  26 ;  and  Brand's  Pop.  Antiq.  vol. 
i.  p.  432. 

Tarts  and  custards,  ci'eams  and  cakes, 
Are  the  junketts  still  at  Wakes — Her  rick. 

Wake,  a.  weak.     Sax.  tvcpc.    "  A  tvahely  body." 

Wale,  Weahl,  ik  to  select,  to  choose,  to  sort.  Su.-Got. 
ivaelia,  eligere.  Germ,  wahlen,  to  pick  out. — Wale,  s. 

Walk-mill,  a  fulling-mill.  Germ,  tvalkmiiMe.  Before  tfte 
introduction  of  machinery  it  was  customary  to  use  the 
feet  in  fulling  cloth. 

Wall,  Walle,  to  boil.  Su.-Gor.  tuacUa,  testuare,  fervere. — 
Walm,  a  slight  boiling. 

Wall-eyed.  In  those  parts  of  the  North,  with  which  I  am 
best  acquainted,  persons  are  said  to  be  wuil-eycd,  when  the 
white  of  the  e3e  is  very  large,  and  to  one  side.  On  the 
borders,  "  sic  folks''''  are  considered  unlucky.  The  term 
is  also  applied  to  horses  with  similar  eyes.     The  author 

228  WALL 

of  the  Crav.  Gloss,  explains  wnll-een,  to  mean  white  or 
green  eyes ;  and  does  not  consider  the  etymology  very 
satisfactory,  either  in  Nares  or  Todd.  Their  ideas  cer- 
tainly are  at  variance  with  the  Northern  signification  of 
the  word.  Grose  defines  it,  "  an  eye  with  little  or  no 
sight,  all  white  like  a  plaistered  wall." 

Wallop,  to  move  quickly  and  with  much  agitation  of  the  body 
or  clothes.  Tent,  waf-oppe. — Walloping,  a  slatternly 

Wallow,  insipid.     See  Welsh. 

Wallup,  v.  to  beat.  "  Aui'liuallup  i/nhy — Wallup,  s.  a  blow. 

W^AME,  Weam,  Weirie,  the  stomach,  the  belly.  Mce.-Got. 
ivamha,  uterus.     Sax.  wamh,  venter. 

Wan,  a  corruption  of  wand.     "  A  yard-wan." — "  A  ini/l-zvan.'" 

Wandy,  long  and  flexible  ;  like  a  tvand. 

Wang-tooth,  dens  molaris.  Pure  Sax.  Before  the  use  of 
seals  in  England,  according  to  Verstegan,  persons  passing 
deeds  bit  the  wax  with  the  ii<ang-tooth. 

Wankle,  Wankelly,  uncertain  ;  as  ivankle  or  luankelh/  wea- 
ther. Sax.  wanel,  instabilis,  vacillans.  Germ,  ivankcn,  to 
change.     It  also  means,  weak,  loose. 

War,  worse.  Sax.  wcerra.  A  Spenserian  word.  "  War 
and  war" — worse  and  worse. 

Warble,  a  sort  of  worm  in  cattle.     1\  Jam. 

War-day,  every  day  in  the  week  except  Sunday.  Wor/ci7ig- 
day.     "  Sunday  and  war-day" 

War,  beware.     "  War  below."     Sax.  warian,  cavere. 

Ware,  v.  to  expend  or  lay  out  money ;  originally,  perhaps,  on 

Ware,  5.  sea-weed.     Sax.  war,  alga  marina. 

Ware,  s.  delf.     "  White  ware." — "  Brown  ware." 

Wark,  v.  to  ache.  "  Maw  heed  luarks." — Wark,  s.  a  pain  or 
ache.     "  The  belly  warh."     Sax.  ivarc,  dolor. 

WAX  229 

Wark,  v.  to  work.  "  He  can  neither  «y//7.  nor  want." — 
Wark-folks,  labourers. 

Warm,  to  beat.     "  Aw^/  warm  yor  liidc^ 

Warn,  Warnd,  to  warrant.     "  Aws  warnd  him." 

Warp,  to  open.  A  hen  is  said  to  warp  when  she lajs.  Sax. 
awarpan,  ejicere. 

Warse,  worse.  "  Warse  and  tvarse."  Moe.-Got.  toairs. 
Chaucer  uses  werse. — Warst,  the  worst. 

Warsen,  to  grow  worse.     "  He  warsen^d  sadly." 

Waisting,  a  consumption,  a  decline. 

Wa't,  indeed.     "  Wdt  is't" — indeed  it  is. 

Watching  on  St.  Mark's  Eve.  Young  rustics  will  sometimes 
watch,  or  at  least  pretend  to  watch,  through  the  night  in 
the  church  porch,  with  a  view  of  seeing  the  ghosts  of  all 
those  who  are  to  die  the  next  year,  pass  by  them  ;  which 
they  are  said  to  do  in  their  usual  dress.  The  persons 
making,  or  supjiosed  to  have  made,  this  vigil,  ai'e  a  terror 
to  the  neighbourhood.  On  the  least  offence  they  are  apt, 
by  significant  looks  or  hints,  to  insinuate  to  the  credulous 
the  speedy  death  of  some  valued  friend  or  relative. — 
Some  of  the  young  girls  too  follow  the  ancient  method  of 
sowing  hemp-seed;  while  others  prepare  the  dintib  cake 
with  ingredients  traditionally  suggested  in  witching  dog- 

Wath,  Warth,  a  water-ford.     Sax.  ivadaii,  vadere. 

Wattles,  teat  like  excrescences  that  hang  from  the  cheeks  of 
some  swine,  as  well  as  the  meanings  assigned  in  Todd's 

Waw,  Wo,  a  wall. — iVo/-///. — Wo(iH,  Lane,  an^l  York.  Sax. 

Wax,  to  grow.  In  general  use. — Waxen,  growing.  Dut. 
wassing.  "Hoot  vinn!  He's  just  a  half-wax  d  lad .'  It's 
sartin  hc\s  geften  the  waxen  chnrncls." 

230  WAX 

Wax-end,  the  waxed  thread  used  by  cordwainers, 

Wea,  Weha,  oppressed  with  woe,  sorrowful.  Sax.  wa,  afflic- 
tus.  "  I  am  weha  for  you" — 1  pity  you.  "  I  am  weha  for 
your  loss" — I  am  distressed  at  your  loss. 

Weaky,  juicy,  moist,  watery.      V.  Jam.  tvak. 

Weary,  vexatious,  troublesome.  "  A  tueary  fellow." — "  A 
weary  bairn." — "  Oh  J  she's  a  iveary  body."  Sax.  iveerig, 

Weather-gall,  a  phenomenon  something  like  a  second  rain- 
bow— said  to  indicate  bad  weather.  Germ,  luasssergalle. 
V.  Nares'  Gloss.    Water-gall. 

Weather-gleam,  clear  sky  near  the  horizon — spoken  of  ob- 
jects seen  on  the  ridge  of  a  lofty  hill,  so  as  to  appear  as  if 
in  the  sky.  In  this  situation,  as  Dr.  Willan  observes,  a 
man  looks  gigantic ;  he  seems  to  tread  on  air,  and  to  be 
clad  with  radiance,  like  one  of  Ossian's  departed  heroes. 
Sax.  waeder,  coelum,  and  gleam,  splendor. 

Webster,  or  Wabster,  a  weaver.  Sax.  luebhestre,  textrix,  a 
female  weaver.  The  use  of  this  term,  as  remarked  by  Dr. 
Jam.  indicates  that,  among  our  forefathers,  the  work  of 
weaving  was  appropriated  to  women.  This,  it  is  well 
known,  was  the  case  among  the  Greeks  and  other  ancient 
nations,  who  considered  it  an  employment  unworthy  of 
the  dignity  of  man. 

Wee,  little,  small.  "  A  ivcc  bit."—"  A  little  wee  thing."  V. 

A  little  xvcc  face  with  a  little  yellow  beard. 

Stialc.  Merry  Wives  of  Wiiidwr. 

Weens,  children.     Little  ones.     "  How  are  the  weens?" 
Weel,    well. — Weel-te-dee,  well    to    do — living    comfort- 

WERR  231 

Weei^sum-oa  !  interjec.  a  blessing  on  j'ou. 

Weel's-mon-thee  !   God  bless  you. 

Weet,  v.  to  rain,  to  wet. — Weet,  s.  slight  rain.  Sax.  ivceta, 
humiditas.     Chaucer  uses  wete,  v.  and  a. 

Weeze,  a  circular  roll  of  straw,  wool,  or  other  soft  substance, 
for  protecting  the  head  under  the  pressure  of  a  load  or 
burthen.  Probably  from  Teut.  wane,  csespes;  or  it  may 
be  from  case.     Brand  thinks  it  a  corruption  of  ivisj), 

Welk,  to  dry,  to  wither.     V.  Todd's  John. 

Well,  to  weld.     Sw.  tvella.     Sax.  wellen,  to  be  very  hot.  . 

Welly,  ver^'  near — a  contraction  of  well  nigh. 

Welsh,  insipid.  Teut.  gaelsch.  Welsh  and  wallow  are  sy- 
nonyma.  Broth  and  water,  and  pottage  without  salt,  are 
luallow  or  welsh.  A  person  whose  face  has  a  raw,  pale, 
and  unhealthy  look — whom  a  keen  frosty  morning  pinches, 
and  to  whom  it  gives  an  appearance  of  misery  and  poverty 
— has  a  welsh  and  walloiv  face.  A  welsh  day,  is  the  same 
as  a  sleety  day,  when  it  is  neither  thaw  nor  frost :  but  a 
wallow  day  is  when  a  cold,  strong  and  hollow  wind  pre- 
vails. Wallow,  applied  to  the  state  of  the  weather,  is  per- 
haps only  applicable  in  a  rugged  and  mountainous  country. 

Welter,  to  reel  or  stagger.     Teut.  wcltcren,  volutare. 

Wend,  to  go.  Sax.  ivendan.  Not  obsolete,  as  stated  by  Di*. 

Went,  for  gone.  Frequent  in  the  North,  as  well  as  among 
the  Cockneys.      V.  Pegge's  Anecd.  Eng.  Lang.  p.  233. 

Went,  Wented,  applied  to  milk  when  it  has  been  kept  till  it 
be  approaching  to  soiu-ness. 

Werrit,  to  teaze.  If  a  person,  extremely  ill,  were  impor- 
tuned to  any  measure  to  which  lie  felt  reluctant  or  con- 
trary to  his  inclination,  he  would  request  not  to  be  wer- 
lited  so  much  about  it. 

232  '  WESH 

Wesh,  v.  to  wash. — Wesh,  s.  stale  urine,  sometimes  used  in 
washing.     Teut.  ivasch,  lotura. 

Wet-hand,  a  drunken  person ;  very  properly  termed  by 
Bewick  (Fables  of  Jisop,  p.  138),  "  an  old  filtering  stone." 

Whack,  v.  to  strike,  to  beat.     A  variation  of  thwack. 

Whack;,  s.  appetite.     "  What  a  whack  he's  got." 

Whacker,  v.  to  tremble,  to  quake. — Whackering,  trembling. 

Whacker,  s.  a  lie. — Whapper,  the  same.  Both  in  a  meta- 
phorical sense. 

Whang,  v.  to  flog,  or  chastise  with  a  thong. — Whang, 
Whyeng,  s  a  leather-thong. 

Whang,  a  thick  or  large  piece  of  any  thing  eatable ;  especially 
bread  or  cheese. 

Whanging^fellow,  a  stout  lusty  person. 

Whap,  v.  to  beat  soundly. — Whap,  s.  a  knock-down  blow. 

Whapper,  any  thing  uncommonly  large.  In  many  instances, 
as  remarked  by  Dr.  Willan,  our  forefathers  seem  to  have 
estimated  weights  and  magnitudes  by  the  force  of  their 
blows.  Thus,  they  employed  in  gradation  the  terms  slap- 
per,  smacker,  banger,  thumper,  thwacker,  swinger,  and 
rattler.  The  word  bumper,  concerning  which  so  much  has 
been  said  and  surmised,  the  Doctor  thinks  is  not  of  a  more 
exalted  origin  than  what  is  here  stated. 

Whatsomivver,  however,  whatever.  ' 

Whatten,  what  kind  of,  what.     "  Whatten  o'clock  is^t  ?" 

Whaup,  a  curlew.     Scohpax  arquata. — Linnaeus. 

Wh.\zle,  Wheezle,  v.  to  draw  the  breath  with  difficulty. 
Su.-Got.  hwaesa. — Whazle,  s.  an  indication  of  asthma. 

Whe,  who.     "  Whe's  there."     "  Whe  was  we  yah." 

Wheam,  smooth,  sheltered,  impervious  to  the  wind.  Perhaps, 
as  suggested  to  uie  by  a  skilful  etymologist,  a  coriTuption 
of  Holm. 

WHIL  233 

Whean,  to  coax,  to  flatter.     "  What  a  wheanhig  way  she  hez." 

Whklk,  a  thump  or  blow,  the  noise  made  by  the  falling  of  any 
thing  heavy. 

Whemmkl,  or  WiiAMMEL,  to  turn  upside  down,  to  tumble  over. 
Tent,  wemelcn,  frequenter  et  leviter  movere. 

WriET,  WniT,  WniTK,  to  cut  with  a  knife.  "  Whiting  sticlcs." 
Whittle-te-whet,  to  sharpen,  to  set  an  edge  on. 

Whetstone,  a  prize  for  lying.  V.  Brand's  Pop.  Antiq.  vol.  i. 
p.  4'29,  &  seq.  and  Nares'  Gloss.  In  the  former  work 
is  mentioned  a  custom,  now  I  think  obsolete,  among  the 
colliers  at  Newcastle,  of  giving  a  jtin  to  a  person  in  com- 
pany by  way  of  hinting  to  him  that  he  is  Jibbing.  If  ano- 
ther pitman  outlie  him,  he  in  turn  delivers  the  pin  to  him. 
No  duels  ever  ensued  on  the  occasion. 

Whewt,  to  whistle. — Whew,  or  Wm  k,  a  whistle. 

Whick, quick,  alive.  "  Whick  and  a  live"  a  common  expres- 
sion in  Newcastle,  among  certain  ladies,  who  neither  sell 
the  liest,  nor  speak  the'' plainest  English. 

Vv'niCKS,  plants  or  slips  of  the  white  thorn.  "  A  ivhicJc-\\eAge" 
— .a  quickset-hedge. 

Whickens,  couch  grass,  a  general  name  for  creeping  weeds. — 
WhickeninG,  plucking  them  up. 

Whidder,  Whither,  to  shake,  to  quake,  to  shiver ;  hence  a 
whither  oi  cold,  a  shivering  cold.  "  All  in  a  whither" — all 
in  a  tremble. 

Whiew,  to  fly  hastily,  to  make  great  speed. 

Whiff,  a  transient  view.     In  a  ivhiff,  in  a  short  time. 

AVhig,  sour  whey.  Sax.  hivceg,  serum. — Whiggenn'd-whev, 
a  pleasant  liquor  made  1)}'  infusing  various  aromatic  herbs 
in  whey,  and  suffering  it  to  undergo  a  fermentation. 

While,  until.  "  Stay  7i'hi/e  t  come  back."  Nares  quotes 
several  examples  for  this  misuse  of  the  word. 

G  G 

234  WHIL 

Whilk,  which.  Sax.  Inuilc.  Dan.  InnUce.  Chancer  uses 

Whilt,  an  indolent  person.     "  An  idle  whilt." 

Whingeing,  whining,  sobbing  or  crj'iug  peevishly.  Sn.-Got. 
wenga,  plorare. 

Whinnerneb,  a  meagre,  thin  faced  person,  with  a  sharp  nose. 
Grose,  following  Ray,  says,  perhaps  from  some  bird  that 
feeds,  or  is  bred  among  whiiia  ;  but  I  think  it  is  more  likely 
from  Welsh,  wtjneb,  a  face,  a  visage. 

Whins,  gorse  or  furze.    An  old  word. 

Whipper  and  Hougher,  an  officer  of  the  Corporation,  New- 
castle.    See  Hougher. 

Whipper-snapper,  a  diminutive,  insignificant  person. 

Whisht  !  hush  !  |ip  silent.  "  Whisht !  dinna  mack  sic  a 
noise."  This  vulgaiism,  if  such  it  be,  is  not  without  an- 
cient authority,  being  used  by  Latimer  and  others. 

Whisket,  or  WisKiT,  a  sort  of  basket.      V.  Nares'  Gloss. 

Whissontide,  Whitsuntide. — Whisson-Sund ay,  Whitsunday. 

Whistle,  "  the  mouth ;  the  organ  of  whistling,"  says  John- 
son ;  quoting  Walton's  Angler. 

Let's  drink  the  other  cup  to  wet  our  xvh'istles,  and  so 
sing  away  all  sad  thoughts. 

Here  whistle  sm-ely  means  the  throat.  In  the  North,  to 
wet  one''s  ivhisile  is  a  common  phrase  for,  to  take  a  good 
drink ;  and,  without  charging  the  amiable  old  Izaac  with 
tippling,  that,  in  all  probability,  was  his  meaning.  Indeed, 
its  use  in  this  sense  is  very  ancient. 

I  victe  my  whystcll  as  good  drinkers  do. — Palsgrave. 

White,  to  requite.     "  God  while  you  1"     V.  Ray. 
Whiteheft,  flattery.    "  Whitchcft  o"  Limmm" 

WHIT  235 

White-herring,  a  pickled,  and  7iot  a  fresh  herring — with  all 
due  deference  to  Archdeacon  Nares.  See  his  Glossai-y, 
where  it  is  stated,  in  regard  to  Stevens's  explanation  (simi- 
lar to  my  own)  and  his  reference  to  the  Korthumhcrland 
Household  Book,  that  "  there  tltree  are  ordered  for  a  young 
lord  or  lady's  breakfast,  and/oi(?-  for  my  lord's,  which  no 
lord  or  lady  could  jwssibly  cat."  This  may  be  quite  true  ; 
but  what  does  it  prove  ?  From  Bishop  Percy's  preface  to 
the  North.  Household  Book,  it  appears  that  the  Earl  was  a 
nobleman  of  great  magnificence  and  taste ;  and  consider- 
ing the  splendid  establishment  detailed  in  that  curious  me- 
morial of  the  olden  time,  more  white  herrings  might  be  pro- 
vided "  for  a  young  lord  or  lady's  breakfast,"  as  well  as 
"  for  my  lord's,"  than  they  actually  did,  or  cotdd  possibly 

White-nee'd-craw,  a  rook  ;  the  carrion  crow  being  called  the 
black  neUd  craw. 

Whitling,  a  species  of  trout,  the  history  of  which  is  very  lit- 
tle known.  They  are  frequently  taken  in  the  river  T3'ne  ; 
but  like  the  brandling  and  the  salmon-smell,  always  with- 
out spawn.  In  some  parts  they  are  called  whitings,  and 
are  generally  supposed  at  last  to  become  salmon.  Sw. 
hwitling,  a  whiting. 

Whittee-whatteeing,  speaking  low  and  privately — whisper- 
ing between  two  persons,  to  the  exclusion  of  a  third — also 
indecision,  or  procrastination,  on  frivolous  pretences. 

Whittle,  a  knife;  generally  a  clasj)-kinfe.  Sax.  u'hytel. 
"  An  harden  sark,  a  guse  grassing,  and  a  ivhittle gait" 
were  all  the  salary  of  a  clergyman,  not  many  years  ago,  in 
Cumberland ;  in  other  words,  his  entke  stipend  consisted 
of  a  shirt  of  coarse  linen,  the  right  of  commoning  geese, 
and  the  privilege  of  using  a  knife  and  fork  at  the  table  of 
his  parishioners. 

236  WHIZ 

Whiz,  to  hiss  like  hot  iron  in  water.     See  Fizz. 

Whizzer,  a  falsehood.     More  wind  than  truth. 

Whussel,  a    corruption    of   whistle. — Whusskl-wood,    the 

alder  and  plane-tree  ;  used  by  boys  in  making  whistles. 
Whctherin,  Whuthering,  a  throbbing  or  palpitation  at  the 
heart.     "  De'il  swell  tha  !  ThoiC &  maed  me  heaurt  aa  tohu- 
ther  agen .'" 

Why,  or  Quey,  the  same  as  Heifer  ;    which  see.     Dan.  quie. 
— Why,  or  Quey-calf,  a  cow-calf. 

Whyllymer,  a  species  of  cheese  remarkable  for  its  poverty. 
In  a  note  to  Anderson's  Ballads,  its  surface  is  said  to  be 
so  hard,  that  it  frequently  bids  defiance  to  the  keenest 
edge  of  a  Cumbrian  gully,  and  its  interior  substance  so  very 
tough,  that  it  affords  rather  occupation  to  the  teeth  of  a 
rustic  than  nourishment  to  his  body,  making  his  hour  of 
repast  the  severest  part  of  his  day's  labour. 

Widdersful,  laboriously  endeavouring,  actively  striving. 

WiDDEY,  a  tough  band  made  of  oziers,  partially  dried  in  the 
fire ;  used  for  many  agricultm'al  purposes.  The  iron  ring, 
uniting  the  band  of  a  cow  and  the  post  to  which  she  is 
tied,  is,  in  some  places,  still  called  a  widdey,  from  its  having 
been  made  of  oziers  before  the  common  use  of  iron.  "  As 
tough  as  a  widdey."  The  word  seems  evidently  related  to 
willow.     Old  Eng.  withey.     Sax,  withig. 

WiDDLE,  to  fret.      V.  Jam.  ividdill. 

Wide-coat,  an  upper  or  great  coat. 

Wife,  a  woman,  whether  married  or  not,  "  An  apple  wife." 
— "  A  fish  wifer — "  A  tripe  wife."  Sax,  wif  mulier,  foe- 

Wig,  a  cake  or  bun.  "  A  plain  wig." — "  A  spice  ivig."  Teut. 
wegghe,  panis  triticeus. 

Wiggle-waggle,  a  tremulous  undulating  motiotu  See 

WIND  237 

WinHTY,  strong  and  active.     V.  Totld's  John,  mig/ii. 

WiKE,  Wkker,  a  mark  used  in  setting  out  tithes  ;  generally 
a  small  branch  of  a  tree. 

WiKs,  Wicks,  corners ;  as  the  wih  of  the  mouth.  Su.-Got. 
u'i/c,  angulus. 

Will,  for  shall;  and  Would,  for  should  ;  passim  "  The  North 
CouNTREYE."  The  Northumbrian  gentry  disrelish  any 
admonition  of  these  inveterate  errors  in  language.  Such 
mistakes,  however,  are  incorrigible,  both  in  them  and  in 
their  neighbours,  the  Scots.  Even  such  writers  as  Blair 
and  Robertson  are  not  always  exempt  from  this  disfigure- 

Willey-Wand,  a  stem  of  the  willow.  Sax.  wellg,  and  wand. 
"  A  mere  wille^-wand" — often  applied  to  a  tall,  thin 

Win,  to  dry  hay  by  exposing  it  to  the  air,  to  get  in  harvest 
generally.  Sax.  ivindivian,  ventilare.  Teut.  winnen,  col- 
ligere  fructus  terrae.     "  Well  won  hay." 

Yt  felle  abowght  the  Lamasse  t^'de, 

'VA''han  husbonds  •uynn  ther  have. 
The  dowghtve  Dowglasse  bowynd  livm  to  ryde, 
In  Ynglond  to  take  a  praye. 

Battle  of  Ottcrhournc. 
Win,  to  raise,  to  get ;  as  coals  from  a  mine,  or  stones  from  a 
quarry.     Sax.  winnan  ;    Su.-Got.  iviniui,  laborare,  labore 
Winder,  v.  to  winnow. — Winder,  s.  a  window.      V.  Crav. 

Windle,  or  Winnel-stree,  a  long  kind  of  bent  grass.     Sax. 

Windy,  noisy,  verbose,  marvellous  in  narration.     "  A  ivmdi/ 
hash." — "  Chow,  Low,  and  Windy  Jncli.'" 

238  WINK 

Winkers,  the  eyes.     "  Maw  ivinkers  to  dazzled 

WiNNA,  WiNNOT,  will  not.  "  He  lu'mna  did" — "  He  ivinnot 

Winsome,  Wunsome,  livel}-,  cheerful,  gay.     Sax.  tvinsuvi. 

Winter,  an  instrument  of  iron  hung  against  the  bars  of  a  fire 
place,  used  to  heat  smoothing  irons  upon. 

WiRDLE,  to  perform  any  thing  laboriously  and  slowly. 

Wise,  to  shew  or  direct. — North.  Sax.  wisian,  monstrare. 
"  Wise  him  in," — "  Wise  him  out." — "  Wise  the  door  open." 
It  also  means,  to  insinuate,  to  work  into  ;  as  to  wise  into 
company  or  into  favour;  that  is,  to  do  it  cunningly. 

W^isE,  to  let  go.     "  Wise  off  that  i-ope  there." 

Wise-like,  possessing  the  appearance  of  wisdom  or  propriety. 
Sax.  wis-lic,  sapiens,  prudens. 

Wise-man,  a  periphrasis  for  a  conjurer,  or  wizard.     Wretches 
of  this  description  ai'e  still,  I  fear,  occasionally  consulted. 

WisHY-wAsiiv,  poor  looking,  weak,  not  to  the  point. 

Wit,  Wite,  Wyte,  v.  to  know.  jMce.-Got.  and  Sax.  ititayi. 
Su.-Got.  weta,  scire.  "  Wyte  onH" — sure  of  it.  "  Fll 
ne'er  let  wit" — I'll  not  inform,  or  I'll  keep  it  secret. 

Wit,  s.  intelligence,  information.  Pure  Saxon.  "  He  got 
mt" — he  obtained  intelligence.  "  Don't  let  wit" — don't 
give  any  information. 

Wite,  blame,  imputation.  A  Chaucerian  word,  used  by 
Spenser.     Sax.  ivitan,  imputare.     Su.-Got.  tvite,  poena. 

Wttte-w  ITTE-WAY,  a  game  among  boys — which  I  do  not  re- 
member in  the  South. 

Wiv,  with. — North,  and  Dur.     Wi,' — Vor/c. 

WizzEXED,  WizzENT,  dry,  parched,  withered,  wrinkled,  shri- 
velled.    Sax.  u'isnian,  arescere. 

WoAD,  mad,  furious.  Sax.  wod,  inianus,  fuiiosus.  Wotle  oc- 
curs se\  eral  times  in  Chaucer. 

WORM  239 

WoMSlEL,  or  WuMBi.E,  an  auger.     From  wimble. 

Wo\,  WuN,  to  dwell,  to  haunt  or  frequent.  Not  obsolete,  as 
stated  by  Ash  ;  being  common  in  Cumb.  and  Lane.  Sax. 
wonian,  wunian.  Teut.  woonen,  habitare.  Cornish,  won- 
nen,  to  stay,  to  tarry. 

Woo,  wool.     A  common  pronunciation  in  many  places. 

WoR,  our. — WoRSELLs,  ourselvcs. 

Word.  To  take  one's  word  again,  to  retract,  to  change  one's 

WoUiM,  a  serpent  of  great  magnitude,  a  hideous  monster  in 
the  shape  of  a  worm  or  dragon.  Popular  tradition  has 
handed  down  to  us,  through  successive  generations,  with 
very  little  variation,  the  most  romantic  details  of  the  ra- 
vages committed  by  these  all  devouring  worms,  and  of  the 
valour  and  chivalry  displayed  by  their  destroyers.  With- 
out attempting  to  account  for  the  origin  of  such  tales,  or 
pretending  in  any  manner,  to  vouch  for  the  matters  of  fact 
contained  in  them,  it  cannot  be  disguised,  that  many  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  County  of  Durham  in  particular,  still 
implicitly  believe  In  these  ancient  superstitions.  The  JVvdh 
of  Lambton  is  a  family  legend,  the  authenticity  of  which 
they  will  not  allow  to  be  questioned.  Various  adventures 
and  supernatural  incidents  have  been  transmitted  from 
father  to  son,  illustrating  the  devastation  occasioned,  and 
the  miseries  inflicted  by  the  monster — and  marking  the 
self-devotion  of  the  Knight  of  the  Lambton  family,  through 
whose  intrepidity  the  worm  was  eventually  destroyed. — 
But  the  lapse  of  centuries  has  so  completely  enveloped  in 
obscm'ity  the  particular  details,  that  it  is  impossible  to  give 
a  narration  which  could  in  any  degree  be  considered  as 
complete.  The  story  related  in  the  recent,  splendid, 
and  elaborate  History  of  Durham  is  incorrect  in  many 

240  WORM 

particulars.  Those  parts  which  alhide  to  the  profane  fishing 
on  a  Sunday,  and  the  consequences  resulting  from  it,  are 
mere  modern  disfigurements  of  the  original  tradition,  ut- 
terly at  variance  with  the  state  of  the  times — amusements 
on  the  Sabbath,  in  those  days,  when  Catholicism  prevailed, 
not  being  regarded  as  an  act  of  profaneness.  A  conical 
hill  is  still  shewn  on  the  banks  of  the  Wear,  about  two 
miles  from  Lambton,  which  from  time  immemorial  has 
been  called  the  Worm  Hill,  and  round  which  the  serpent 
is  said  to  have  coiled  itself. 

WoRMiT,  worm-wood.  The  tvormit-Mll,  in  High  Friar  Chare, 
Newcastle ;  now  removed. 

WoKRV,  to  eat  voraciously,  to  choak,  to  suffocate.     V.  Ray. 

Wou,  the  worst  kind  of  sunpes.  "  ThaVs  sorri/  won — real  rot 
gut"  The  word  is  also  applied  to  weak  tea,  or  any  very 
worthless  liquor.     "  Farthing  wou." 

WaAf'K,  or  Wrackrider,  another  name  for  the  same  species 
of  trout  as  the  brandling,  which  see.  It  is  faintly  barred 
or  branded  down  the  sides. 

Wrang,  wrong.     Piu-e  Saxon. — Wrangsly,  falsely. 

Wrat,  Wratten,  a  wart.     Dut.  and  Sc.  wrat. 

WRECKLiN(i,  an  unhealthy  feeble  child — the  youngest  or  weak- 
est of  the  breed  among  animals — the  smallest  bird  in  the 
nest — any  ill-grown  creature.     See  Dowpy. 

Wridden,  or  Wreeden,  cross,  ill-natured  ;  applied  in  particu- 
lar to  children. 

Wrout,  to  bore,  to  dig  up  like  a  hog.  Sax.  wrolan,  subigere. 
Chaucer  has  wrote. 

WuD,  with, — Climb.     "  God  be  umdher" — God  rest  her  suul. 

Wye,  well,  yes. — Wve — Wye,  very  well ;  yes,  yes,  A  com- 
mon expression  of  assent.     Fr.  oui. 

Wylecoat,  an  under-vest ;  generylly  of  flannel. 

YAUP  241 

Wyllebient,  or  Wullement,  a  pale,  sickly  looking  person. 


Yad,  Yawd,  a  worn  out  cart  horse — an  old  mare.     Jade. 
Yaitings,  Yeatings,  single  sheaves  of  corn ;  especially  of 

Yaits,  Yets,  oats.  "  A  poke  o'  yets."  See  the  last  article. 
Yammer,  to  complain,  to  whine.  Germ,  jammern. — Yam- 
mering, making  a  continual  noise  ;  such  as  proceeds  from 
contentious  women,  or  from  fretful  and  peevish  children. 
The  word,  indeed,  stands  for  a  very  complex  idea,  into 
which  enters  a  combination  of  habitual  fretfulness,  discon- 
tent, brawling,  and  anger. 

Come,  dinna,  dinna  whinge  an'  whipe. 
Like  yawmerwff  Isbel  Macky. 

Song,  Boh  Crankij^s  Adieu. 

Yan,  Yen,  one. — Yan^ce,  Yence,  once. 

Yansell,  Yensell,  one's  self. 

Yap,  apt,  quick.  Sax.  gep,  astutus.  In  Peirs  Ploughman  I 
find  yep,  which  Dr.  Whitaker  considers  of  the  same  origin, 
and  explains  in  the  sense  of  alert  and  vigorous. 

Yap,  Yep,  an  opprobrious  epithet.  "  A  twea-faccd  yep." — 
"  Had  yor  tongne  yah  yep." 

Yark,  or  Yerk,  to  wrench  or  twist  forcibly. 

Yark,  to  beat  soundly.  Isl.  hreckia,  pulsare.  A  favourite 
word  among  the  vulgar.  "  AwU  yark  yak,  yah  dirty  bas- 
tard yah;  aw've  had  mairfash  wahyee  nor  a'  the  bairns  aw 
ever  had,  in  aw  me  life;  there's  ne  sic  thing  as  leeving 
for  yah .'" 

Yauping,  crying,  lamenting.  Teut.  galpen,  gannire  instar 
vulpis.     Kilian. 

H  h 

242  YE  AT 

Yeather,  a  flexible  twig  used  for  binding  hedges. 
Yebble,  able.     "  As  long  as  u^ar  ycbble." 
Yeblins,  Yeablesea,  Yebblesee,  perhaps.     See  Ablins, 
Yell,  ale.     Sax.  ecde. — Yell-house,  an  ale-house. — Yell- 
wife,  the  lady  of  "  mine  host,"    a  hostess  in  her  own 

Yellow-yowley,  Yold-ring,  the  yellow  bunting.     Emberiza 

citrinella. — Linnasus.  A  vulgar  prejudice  exists  in  Scotland 

against  this  bird.      V.  Jam.  yeldring. 
Yelp,  to  cry  out  in  a  loud  manner;  as  it  were  like  a  dog. — 

Yelping,  shouting. 
Yearth,  Yeorth,  a  common  pronunciation  of  earth. 
Yerning,  rennet.     Germ,  gerinnen,  to  coagulate.     A  plant 

used  in  North  Tindale  to  curdle  milk  for  cheese  is  called 

yerning  grass.     See  Keslip. 
Yet,  Yete,  Yat,  a  gate.     Both  Chaucer  and  Spenser  use 

yate. — Yet-stoop,  a  gate  post. 
Yetling,  a  small  pan  or  boiler.     So  called,  I  suppose,  from 

being  made  of  cast  metal.     V.  Jam.  yetland. 
Yeuk,  v.  to  itch.     Tiut.  jeuken. — Yeuk,  s.  a  cutaneous  disease 

— jocosely  denominated  the  plague  of  Scotland. 
YissERDAY,  yesterday. — Yisserneet,  yesternight. 
Yor,  your. — Yor-sell,  yourself. 
You,  YowE,  a  ewe.     Sex.  eoive,  ovis  fcemina. 
YouL,  Yowl,  to  cry,  to  howl.     Isl.  gola,  ululare. 
Youngster,  a  novitiate  in  any  thing. 

Youth,  in  the  sense  of  vigorous  age.  "  He's  a  fine  old  youth." 
Yure,  the  udder  of  a  cow.     Dut.  uijer. 
Yule,  Yull,  the  festival  of  Christmas — the  winter  solstice  of 

the   Northern   nations.      V.  Ihre,  jul. — Jam.  ytde — and 

Brand's  Pop.  Antiq,  vol.  i.  p.  364. 

YULE  243 

Yule-clog,  or  Yull-cloo,  a  large  Mock  or  log  of  wood  laid 
on  the  fire  on  Christmas  Eve ;  and,  if  possible,  kept 
burning  all  the  following  day,  or  longer,  A  portion  of  the 
old  clog  of  the  preceding  year  is  somethnes  saved  to  light 
up  the  new  block  at  the  next  Christmas,  and  to  preserve 
the  family  from  harm  in  the  mean  time.  Many,  otherwise 
sensible,  persons,  though  ashamed  to  admit  their  belief  in 
these  ridiculous  notions,  would  be  uncomfortable,  did  they 
entirely  neglect  them. 

Come  bring,  with  a  noise, 
My  merrie,  merrie  boys, 

The  Christmas  Log  to  the  firing  ; 
While  my  good  Dame  she 
Bids  ye  all  be  free, 

And  di-ink  to  your  heart's  desiring. 

Herrkk,  Ceremonies  for  Christmasse. 

Part  must  be  kept  wherewith  to  teend, 

The  Christmas  Log  next  yeare ; 
And  where  'tis  safely  kept,  the  Fiend 

Can  do  no  mischiefe  (there). 

Herrick,  Ceremonies  for  Candlemasse  Day. 

Yule-dough,  or  Yull-doo,  a  little  image  of  paste,  studded 
with  currants ;  baked  for  children  at  Christmas ;  intended 
originally,  perhaps,  for  a  figure  of  the  Child  Jesus,  with  the 
Virgin  Mary.  V.  Ihre,  Julbrod — and  Brand's  Pop,  Antiq. 
vol,  i.  p,  410. 


P.  il,  line  b  from  bottom,  for  adlean  read  adlian. 

P.  8,  line  2  from  bottom,  for  Allum  read  Alum. 

P.  34,  line  9,  for  two  read  too. 

P.  64,  bottom  line,  for  eelr  read  air. 

P.  67,  line  9  from  bottom,  for  footseps  read  footsteps. 

P.  71,  line  11,  for  Spencer  read  Spenser. 

P.  88,  line  2  from  bottom,  for  opprobious  read  opprobrious. 

P.  100,  line  10  from  bottom,  for  woman  read  women. 

P.  159,  line  12,  for  anowse  read  7iowse, 

P.  170,  line  9  from  bottom,  for  alliterate  read  alliterative. 

P.  175,  line  14,  for  iejzeread  ieaze. 

P.  176,  line  2  from  bottom,  for  toise  read  wos'se. 

P.  185,  line  13,  for  substitue  read  substittite. 

P.  220,  line  4  from  bottom,  after  tuam  insert  empty. 

Newcastle :  Printed  by 
T.  &  J.  Hodgson,  Union- Street. 






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